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Первые апостолы

Свящ. Александр Мень

Антиохия

43-46 годы

Варнава призывает Павла в Сирию

Еще раньше, когда Иосиф Варнава жил на Кипре, он, вероятно, бывал в Тарсе и даже мог знать семью Павла. Теперь, придя в этот город, левит легко нашел его и предложил отправиться с ним в Сирию. Тарсянин, должно быть, воспринял такое предложение как призыв свыше. Не имея успеха на родине, он давно томился по иному поприщу. Поэтому он без колебаний дал согласие, и вскоре Антиохийская церковь уже приветствовала своего нового члена.

От иерусалимлян о Савле там слышали много удивительного и противоречивого. Его прихода ждали с волнением, к которому примешивалось любопытство. Однако при первом знакомстве Тарсянин едва ли мог произвести внушительное впечатление, особенно рядом с Варнавой. Иосиф был высоким осанистым человеком со спокойно-величавой манерой держаться; язычники находили в его наружности сходство с Зевсом; малорослый же Савл, экспансивный и резкий, выглядел скорее невзрачно со своими сросшимися бровями и крупным горбатым носом. К тому же, хотя ему было немногим больше тридцати, он уже облысел, а в бороде мелькала седина. Только серые глаза таили какую-то притягательную силу 1 Павел единственный из апостолов, чью внешность запомнило предание. Наиболее раннее свидетельство содержится в фрагменте апокрифических Деяний ап. Павла, который принято называть Деяниями Павла и Теклы (Феклы). См. англ. перевод: J.M.R. James, ANT, p. 273. Этот апокриф был написан, вероятно, во II веке и опирается на историческое предание (см. ниже прим. 27). В летописи византийского историка Иоанна Малалы (конец VI века) находится очень солидное описание наружности Павла (X, 257). Поскольку выдающихся людей легенды обычно приукрашивают, этот реалистический портрет едва ли можно считать вымыслом.
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Савл был приведен в Антиохию как бы в роли помощника Варнавы, но прошло совсем немного времени, и он с молчаливого согласия всей церкви оказался в числе ее руководителей. Видимо, сыграли роль и его подготовка (он был единственным богословом среди братьев), и необыкновенная личность Тарсянина. Антиохийцы скоро поняли, что имеют дело с настоящим пророком милостью Божией. Само чудо его призвания, когда Воскресший властно повернул жизненный путь Савла, вызывало в памяти сказания об Амосе и Исайе.

По всему можно было заметить, что Савлом владела одна-единственная возвышенная мысль, захватившая его целиком. Каждый свой шаг он словно совершал в реальном присутствии Господа. Отрешенность от земного соединялась в Савле с поразительным здравым реализмом. Духовидец и мистик, парящий в сфере тайн и высоких умозрений, он, однако, был мало похож на хрупкого мечтателя, каким его изобразил на своем полотне Эль Греко. Апостол стал первым из тех подвижников Церкви, которые умели, живя в Боге, твердо стоять на земле. Он не уклонялся от решения важных практических проблем, обнаруживая недюжинный организаторский дар. Под обманчивой невзрачной внешностью крылась железная воля, что не раз проявлялось в критических обстоятельствах. Павел умел сохранять хладнокровие — стоял ли он перед толпой или судьями, находился ли в опасности. Так однажды, когда кораблю, на котором плыл апостол, угрожала гибель, из всех людей на борту только он один не потерял самообладания и тем всех спас.

Жизнь без семьи, без дома могла бы иссушить его душу, сделать мрачным и замкнутым. Но этого не случилось. Св. Павел был не лишен юмора и подчас неожиданной шуткой умел разрядить напряженную атмосферу; будучи вспыльчивым от природы, он научился сдерживать себя, проявляя при этом удивительное смирение и такт. Мы знаем немало людей, к которым апостол испытывал чувство глубокой привязанности и дружбы, и которые отвечали ему тем же. У этого нелегкого, как многие гении, человека, с годами появились преданные и самоотверженные ученики, «дети», как он порой называл их. Но насколько велика была их любовь, настолько сильна была и ненависть его противников. Люди, подобные Тарсянину, легко оказываются мишенью для нападок. Показательно, что ни Варнава, ни другие миссионеры, а именно Павел больше всего страдал и от иудеев, и от язычников. Даже со стороны единоверцев он, как мы увидим, нередко встречал непонимание и осуждение.

Одаренностью, знанием Библии, размахом замыслов апостол стоял на голову выше своего окружения, и из-за этого в каком-то смысле, наверно, чувствовал одиночество. Но одиночкой он никогда не был. Его неизменно видели в гуще людей: общение было стихией Павла.

Разумеется, он в чем-то уступал личным ученикам Спасителя, которые ходили с Ним по холмам и тропинкам Галилеи. То, что Павлу было известно о земной жизни Мессии, он узнал из Предания, сохраненного Иерусалимской церковью. Быть может, Павел и читал первые записи речей Иисусовых, но он редко ссылался на них 2 Деян. 20:35; 1 Кор. 7:10, ср.: Мф. 5:32; 1 Кор. 13:2, ср.: Мф. 17:20; Рим. 12:14, ср.: Мф. 5:44. О том, что апостолу были известны основные события евангельской истории, свидетельствуют: 1 Кор 2:2-8; 11:23 сл.; 15:3-5; Гал. 2:20; 3:1; 4:4. Часто, говоря об этих событиях и учении Христа, Павел заявлял, что «принял» это непосредственно «от Господа». Но для него Христос как бы отождествлялся с Первообщиной (ср.: слова Христа в видении у Дамаска: «Что ты Меня гонишь?», Деян. 9:4, где подразумевается гонение на общину). Большинство экзегетов считает, что пасхальный текст в 1 Кор. 15:3 сл. был заимствован апостолом из предания Первообщины.
. «Своим» Евангелием он называл тайну, открытую ему Самим Воскресшим. Поэтому не столько события жизни и учение Христа, сколько Его крест, победа над смертью и незримое пребывание в мире являлись стержнем Павловой проповеди.

Никогда он не забывал о том, как раньше «гнал Церковь Божию»: он часто возвращался к событию у Дамаска, в котором познал спасающую силу Иисусову. Но, повторяем, св. Павел едва ли согласился бы с мыслью, что перешел тогда в «другую веру». Бог и Отец Иисуса Христа был для него тем же Богом, который заключил Завет с праотцами Израиля и, следовательно, с его предками.

В этот период жизни Савл еще не называл себя апостолом, как привык делать позднее. Его и других старейшин церкви в Антиохии именовали пророками и учителями 3 Деян. 13:1. Наименование «учитель» было запрещено Христом (Мф. 23:8-10, где имеется в виду собственно не учитель, а рабби, т.е. великий, старший). Этот запрет долго не был известен у христиан, живших вне Палестины, но ко времени написания Мф уже прочно укоренился.
. Все они, кроме Павла, прибыли в Сирию из Иудеи. Деяния упоминают в их числе Симона Нигера (судя по прозвищу — вольноотпущенника), Лукия из землячества киренцев и старца Менахема, выросшего при дворе галилейского тетрарха Антипы. Одним из первых основателей общины был, вероятно, прозелит Николай, несколько лет назад избранный в совет Семи иерусалимских служителей.

Быть может, здесь же в Антиохии Павел впервые познакомился еще с одним крещенным прозелитом — Лукой. Этот скромный молодой грек, врач по профессии, всегда предпочитал держаться в тени, но именно он впоследствии станет спутником апостола, его биографом и выдающимся богословом ранней Церкви 4 Предание о антиохийском происхождении Луки сохранилось в Антимаркионовском прологе, документе IIвека. Из Деян. 16:10-11 можно заключить, что Лука присоединился к Павлу в Троаде. Правда в тексте Безы (V-VI вв.) местоимение «мы» появляется уже в Деян. 11:28. Однако большинство экзегетов считает это поздним исправлением текста.
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Как и у всех верующих того поколения, чувство близости Христа выражалось у Павла в надежде, что Иисус скоро вновь явится миру для Своей последней жатвы.

Ожидая Дня Господня, Савл и другие проповедники Евангелия хотели привлечь как можно больше душ на спасительный путь. Впоследствии Павел разработал даже нечто вроде «стратегического плана» завоевания мира для Христа.

Тарсянин словно был создан для такой задачи, хотя пройденная им школа, казалось, мало способствовала диалогу с язычниками. Уверенность, что Христос пришел ко всем народам, одолевала преграды традиций и воспитания. Новый антиохийский пророк сумел найти нужный подход к своей аудитории. Она не была для него книгой за семью печатями: недаром он вырос в языческом Тарсе.

Павел сознательно избегал таких чуждых грекам и сирийцам слов, как Царство Божие или Сын Человеческий; зато часто любил говорить о тайне спасения. Эти понятия находили живой отклик в эллинизированной Сирии, где процветали культы богов-избавителей. Но, разумеется, апостол вкладывал в эти слова совершенно иной, евангельский смысл.

Одно время среди историков Церкви и богословов было принято подчеркивать родство учения Павла с языческими религиями. Их ввели в заблуждение поверхностные аналогии и недооценка устоев, в которых сформировался св. Павел. Он не был настолько пропитан эллинством, как, например, его современник Филон, который в те самые годы пытался сочетать Ветхий Завет с греческой философией; Павел меньше всего может быть назван «христианским Филоном». Его идеи, стиль мышления и способ выражаться редко выходили за границы Библии и отеческого Предания. То, что ему открывалось, он выражал в формах, принятых иудейским богословием. Но и тут он проявлял безусловную оригинальность. Корни «Евангелия Павла» находились в его душе и мистическом опыте.

Неправы были те, кто пытался противопоставить Иисуса Христа и Его апостола. Тарсянин вовсе не смотрел на себя как на основателя нового учения. Средоточием его веры был Христос, Сын Божий. Павел проповедовал Его Евангелие, а себя считал только Его «рабом», служителем и благовестником.

То, что апостол не пересказывал дословно нравственных заветов Иисуса, отнюдь не отдаляло его от Благой Вести Христовой. Сам Господь говорил о Духе, Который будет в дальнейшем раскрывать Его Евангелие верным. Именно этот Дух и действовал через Павла, подвигая его заботиться о древе Церкви, возраставшей из зерна, посеянного Богочеловеком.

Одной из важнейших задач, стоявших перед Антиохийской общиной, было определение статуса крещеных язычников. Требовать ли от них усвоения всей совокупности библейских правил жизни? Обязывать ли принимать сложный конгломерат церковных уставов иудейства? Св. Павлу было известно, что некоторые учители иудаизма считают необязательным для прозелитов совершать обрезание и блюсти все уставы Торы 5 В отличие от настоящих прозелитов (евр. герим цадоким, прозелитов праведности) такие не принявшие обрезание обращенные назывались прозелитами врат (см.: J. Jeremias. Jerusalem in the time of Jesus. London, 1969, p. 320 ff.). Иосиф Флавий рассказывает, как некто Анания убеждал неофита, что тот «может поклоняться Господу, и не принимая обрезания... Такое поклонение, по его мнению, будет гораздо важнее принятия обрезания» (Древн., XX, 2, 5).
. Возвещая о Христе язычникам, апостол полностью одобрил этот взгляд. И руководствовался он отнюдь не тактическими соображениями, как это склонны утверждать некоторые его биографы. Хотя, в отличие от Востока для греко-римского мира обрезание являлось обрядом чуждым, его нельзя было считать непреодолимым препятствием. Ведь каждая древняя религия имела свои табу и бесчисленные ритуалы. Требование от обратившихся в иную веру принимать ее обычаи никого не удивляло. Это считалось в порядке вещей. В глазах язычников религия и священные церемонии составляли одно целое. Напомним, что народы, принявшие ислам, приняли вместе с ним и «печать Авраамову», обрезание.

Следует также заметить, то массы доверяли только тем религиям, которые имели древнее происхождение. Даже проповедник нового вынужден был ссылаться на авторитеты, освященные временем. Доктрина, не имевшая исконных корней, казалась подозрительным, чисто человеческим изобретением. Такую роль «исторического фундамента» играл для крещенных язычников Ветхий Завет; одним словом у них не было слишком веских причин отрицать заповеданные в Библии обряды.

Позиция св. Павла в отношении Закона определялась, с одной стороны, пророческой формулой «милосердие выше жертвы», а с другой — его взглядом на священную историю. Поскольку наступила новая мессианская эра, когда Бог «творит все новое», прежний Закон становится «ветхим» 6 См.: Вавилонский Талмуд, Нидда 61в, где сказано, что в мессианскую эру («в будущем веке») старые мицвот (установления, заповеди) будут отменены.
. Христос заключил с верными иной Завет, в свете которого все древние культовые установления меркнут, как звезды при восходе Солнца. Для тех, в ком воцарился Дух Спасителя, магические священнодействия политеизма — мусор, и даже сакральные символы Ветхого Завета, по большей части — пройденный этап.

Эта решимость — пойти наперекор тысячелетним устоям — могла родиться только у человека, который был навсегда пленен Иисусом Христом...

«Во Христе Иисусе, — скажет апостол несколько лет спустя, — не имеет никакой силы ни обрезание, ни необрезание, но вера, любовью действующая... новая тварь» 7 Гал. 5:6; 6:15.
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Итак, этот фарисей, обладавший смелостью пророка, рассуждавший, как книжник, мысливший, как завоеватель мира, принял активное участие в начинании Варнавы и эллинистов, приобщая к Церкви множество иноплеменников. За год-полтора Антиохийская община распространилась далеко за пределы Сингонской улицы и еврейского квартала. Рано или поздно это должно было привлечь внимание римских властей города. Разумеется, их мало заботило появление еще одного религиозного братства: такие общины в Риме запрещались, но в провинциях на них смотрели сквозь пальцы. Однако возникла проблема юридического свойства.

Со времен Юлия Цезаря по всей империи иудеям был дарован особый статус: самоуправление, независимые суды и так далее. Власти не знали, нужно ли распространять эти права на секту, хотя и руководимую евреями, но насчитывающую уже немало сирийцев и греков. А если нет, то ее следовало как-то обозначить. В результате стали употреблять латинский термин христиане, образованный от греческого слова Христос 8 Слово christianoi или, как его иногда произносили римляне, chrestiani, имеет латинский суффикс. См.: И.М. Тронский. Chrestiane и Chrestus. — В кн.: Античность и современность. М., 1972, с. 37.
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Примечательно, что сами верующие долгое время не прилагали к себе этого названия. Новый Завет вкладывает его в уста иноверцев 9 Слово христианин (христиане) встречается в Новом Завете всего три раза: когда Лука отмечает, что учеников Христовых стали называть в Антиохии христианами (Деян. 11:26), в словах царя Агриппы II (Деян. 26:28) и в 1 Петр. 4:14-16, где опять-таки говорится об отношениях между верными и внешним миром.
. Последователи Христа продолжали называть себя учениками, святыми или просто братьями. А о своем учении они говорили не как о «христианстве», а как о Благой Вести или Пути. Оно было для них не доктриной, а практическим жизненным путем, который ведет их ко Дню Господню.

Если в Иерусалиме назаряне еще не отделяли себя от иудейской общины и приходили молиться в Храм, то у антиохийцев положение изменилось. Возникло братство людей, фактически независимое от синагоги, пестрое по своему составу. Впрочем, члены его смотрели на «Израиль Божий», на церковь Иудеи, как на свою прародительницу. Святой город, где жили Двенадцать, естественно признавался оплотом веры. Подобно иудеям диаспоры, антиохийские христиане поддерживали с Иерусалимом постоянные контакты. Связующим звеном служили посланцы-апостолы и странствующие пророки.

В начале 40-х годов несколько таких пророков прибыло в столицу Сирии, и один из них, по имени Агав, возвестил наступление голода по всей империи. Церковь-мать и без того находилась в стесненных обстоятельствах, поэтому было решено заранее собирать пожертвования для «братьев, живущих в Иудее». Так была продолжена ветхозаветная практика организованной помощи бедным 10 Забота о неимущих предусматривалась еще Законом Моисеевым (ср., наприм., Втор. 10:17-19). В эпоху Второго Храма возник специальный институт сборщиков и раздатчиков халуки, вспоможения бедным. См.: А.А. Глаголев. Древнееврейская благотворительность. Киев, 1903, с. 57 сл.
.

Действительно, по берегам Средиземного моря вскоре прокатилась волна неурожаев. Император Клавдий едва мог обеспечить хлебом свою столицу 11 О голоде в правление Клавдия (ср. Деян. 11:27-28) сообщает Светоний (Клавдий 18, 2), Тацит (Анналы, XII, 43), Дион Кассий (История, IX, 11). Флавий пишет, что в Иудее голод наступил при прокураторах Куспии Фаде (44-46) и Тиберии Александре (46-48); см.: Древн., XX, 5, 2. Поэтому посещение Иерусалима посланниками Антиохийской церкви можно отнести примерно к 46 году.
. Но особенно тяжким положение было на окраинах. Бедствие вот-вот могло распространиться и на Палестину.

Однако, прежде чем там разразился голод, над Иерусалимской церковью пронеслась другая буря.

События в Иерусалиме

В то самое время, когда Агав пришел к антиохийцам, в Иудее сменилось правительство. Желая успокоить страну, возбужденную безумствами Калигулы, Клавдий вместо прокуратора послал туда своего приближенного Агриппу, внука Ирода Великого, и дал ему титул царя. Пятидесятилетний Агриппа, ловкий интриган, сумевший в свое время уцелеть в роли наперсника Калигулы, понял, что настал наконец-то его час. Молодость его прошла среди придворной римской знати, но сейчас ему нужно было срочно менять образ жизни. Ему хотелось выглядеть настоящим иудейским монархом. Всеми средствами он силился доказать Иерусалиму свое правоверие. С этой целью марионеточный царь надумал начать расправы над инакомыслящими. А их в стране было немало.

Из всех направлений назарянское было самым беззащитным. Поэтому царь в первую очередь обрушился именно на него. Это происходило в третий год его правления, весной 44 года. По доносу был арестован галилеянин Иаков, сын Зеведея, и вскоре же обезглавлен. В чем заключался донос, неизвестно. Но мы знаем, что Иаков, как и его брат, был человеком пылкого характера (откуда и их прозвище «Сыны громовы»). Возможно, доносчик воспользовался каким-нибудь неосторожным словом в адрес властей. Так исполнилось пророчество Христово: Иаков первым из Двенадцати «испил чашу», о которой много лет назад предсказывал ему Учитель 12 Ср.: Мк. 10:35-40; Евсевий (Церк. Ист., II, 9) сообщает о том, что Иаков был казнен по доносу и, умирая, простил доносчика, который решил умереть вместе с ним. По мнению О. Кульмана, способ казни может указывать на политическое обвинение: О. Кульман. Многообразные течения внутри первой христианской общины (о мученичестве Иакова, сына Зеведеева). Символ, № 9, 1983, с. 82.
.

Видя, что Синедрион, перед которым он всячески заискивал, одобрил эту меру, царь на ней не остановился. Был отдан приказ взять под стражу Симона бар-Иону, главу назарян. На сей раз было задумано провести показательный процесс, однако его отложили на послепасхальные дни.

Истинное правосудие Агриппу не интересовало, поэтому из казематов Антониевой крепости путь Петра мог вести только на плаху.

Вся церковь находилась в горестном ожидании. Верные молились, собравшись в доме Марии, родственницы Варнавы.

Но потом случилось невероятное. Таинственная рука вывела Симона из крепости, и лишь оказавшись один на ночной улице, он понял, что это не сон. По спящему городу он добрался до дома Марии. Лука описывает его появление столь живо, что в словах евангелиста ясно слышится отзвук рассказа очевидца. «И когда он постучал в ворота дома, подошла послушать к двери служанка по имени Рода и, узнав голос Петра, от радости не отворила ворот, но, вбежав в дом, объявила, что там стоит Петр. Они же ей сказали: ты не в своем уме, но она твердила, что это так. А они говорили: это Ангел его. Между тем Петр продолжал стучаться. И они, отворив дверь, увидели его и поразились. Он же, сделав знак рукой, чтобы молчали, поведал им, как Господь вывел его из тюрьмы, и сказал: сообщите об этом Иакову и братьям. И, выйдя, направился в другое место» 13 Деян. 12:13-17.
.

В этом рассказе обращают на себя внимание слова о «Иакове и братьях». Очевидно уже тогда Брат Господень занял ведущее место среди назарян. Теперь, когда Петр вынужден был покинуть Иерусалим, руководство общиной легло на плечи Иакова, который стал фактически ее главой. Скорее всего ап. Петр вместе с неразлучным Иоанном нашли убежище в своей родной Галилее. С этого времени они будут появляться в Иерусалиме лишь как почетные гости.

После загадочного исчезновения узника из крепости Агриппа, должно быть, постарался найти и арестовать Иакова. Но осуществить это намерение ему не удалось. В Кесарии царь вел переговоры с финикийцами. Там во время пышного праздника, устроенного в честь императора, Агриппа внезапно почувствовал себя плохо и был вынесен из театра. Через пять дней он умер в страшных мучениях. Не исключено, что он был отравлен одним из своих царедворцев, подкупленных послами Тира 14 Деян. 12:19-23. Сообщение Луки вполне совпадает с данными о смерти Агриппы у Флавия (Древн., XIX, 8, 2).
.

Опасность, нависшая над Иерусалимской церковью, на время была отведена. Но через два года в Иудее начался голод, которого все так страшились. Узнав об этом, антиохийцы направили туда Варнаву, чтобы он отвез братьям деньги, собранные уже заранее. В Деяниях сказано, что Иосифа сопровождал и Павел, но сам апостол не упоминает об этом. Возможно, он лишь проводил Варнаву до границы страны 15 Из Деян. 11:27-30 вытекает, что поездка с пожертвованиями была вторым посещением Павлом Иерусалима после призвания у Дамаска. Между тем в Гал. 2:1 второй поездкой апостол называет ту, что была связана со спором вокруг проблемы крещенных язычников («апостольский собор», Деян. 15). Многие исследователи отождествляют эти посещения, полагая, что св. Павел в Гал говорит о событиях, бывших до «собора». Однако апостол пишет в Гал, что прибыл вторично в Иерусалим через 14 лет после обращения. Исходной точкой для хронологии служит здесь надпись, найденная в Дельфах в 1905 году. Согласно этой надписи, проконсулом Ахайи был с 51 по 52 год Галлион. А из Деян. 18:11-12 ясно, что Павел прибыл в Коринф за полтора года до назначения Галлиона, т.е. около 49 года. Поскольку он приехал туда вскоре после «собора», то именно этим годом следует датировать иерусалимскую встречу, описанную в Деян. 15. Если вычесть 14 лет, указанные апостолом в Гал, то мы придем к 35 году как году его призвания. Но здесь возможна неточность в пределах одного года. Сомнительно, чтобы св. Стефан был убит еще при Пилате (см. прим. 15 к гл. 3). Пилат был отозван из Иудеи в конце 36 или в начале 37 года. Значит, этим временем следует датировать событие у Дамаска. Биографы Павла, которые сдвигают дату его обращения к 32 году (чтобы отождествить Деян. 11:27 и Гал. 2:1), не учитывают, что Дамаск перешел в руки царя Ареты (2 Кор. 11:32) только после смерти Тиберия (37 год). То, что ап. Павел не упоминает в Гал. своего посещения Иудеи в 45 году во дни голода, может объясняться тем, что эта поездка не имела связи с теми вопросами, которые он обсуждал в послании. С апостолами в этот раз он мог не встречаться, поскольку в 44 году Петр (и Иоанн?) покинули Иерусалим. См.: F. Filson. A New Testament History. L., 1978, p. 278 ff. .

Возвращаясь, Варнава взял с собой юношу Иоанна Марка, сына Марии, который приходился ему двоюродным братом.

Примечания
Отрывки к тексту:
Act 20
Co1 7
Co1 13
Co1 2
Co1 11
Co1 15
Gal 2
Gal 3
Gal 4
Rom 12
Act 16
Act 11
Act 13
Gal 5
Gal 6
Co2 11
1
After the uproar had ceased, Paul sent for the disciples, and when he had exhorted them and taken his leave of them, he left to go to Macedonia.
2
When he had gone through those districts and had given them much exhortation, he came to Greece.
3
And there he spent three months, and when a plot was formed against him by the Jews as he was about to set sail for Syria, he decided to return through Macedonia.
4
And he was accompanied by Sopater of Berea, the son of Pyrrhus, and by Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians, and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy, and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia.
5
But these had gone on ahead and were waiting for us at Troas.
6
We sailed from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas within five days; and there we stayed seven days.
7
On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread, Paul began talking to them, intending to leave the next day, and he prolonged his message until midnight.
8
There were many lamps in the upper room where we were gathered together.
9
And there was a young man named Eutychus sitting on the window sill, sinking into a deep sleep; and as Paul kept on talking, he was overcome by sleep and fell down from the third floor and was picked up dead.
10
But Paul went down and fell upon him, and after embracing him, he said, “Do not be troubled, for his life is in him.”
11
When he had gone back up and had broken the bread and eaten, he talked with them a long while until daybreak, and then left.
12
They took away the boy alive, and were greatly comforted.
13
But we, going ahead to the ship, set sail for Assos, intending from there to take Paul on board; for so he had arranged it, intending himself to go by land.
14
And when he met us at Assos, we took him on board and came to Mitylene.
15
Sailing from there, we arrived the following day opposite Chios; and the next day we crossed over to Samos; and the day following we came to Miletus.
16
For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus so that he would not have to spend time in Asia; for he was hurrying to be in Jerusalem, if possible, on the day of Pentecost.
17
From Miletus he sent to Ephesus and called to him the elders of the church.
18
And when they had come to him, he said to them, “You yourselves know, from the first day that I set foot in Asia, how I was with you the whole time,
19
serving the Lord with all humility and with tears and with trials which came upon me through the plots of the Jews;
20
how I did not shrink from declaring to you anything that was profitable, and teaching you publicly and from house to house,
21
solemnly testifying to both Jews and Greeks of repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.
22
And now, behold, bound by the Spirit, I am on my way to Jerusalem, not knowing what will happen to me there,
23
except that the Holy Spirit solemnly testifies to me in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions await me.
24
But I do not consider my life of any account as dear to myself, so that I may finish my course and the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify solemnly of the gospel of the grace of God.
25
“And now, behold, I know that all of you, among whom I went about preaching the kingdom, will no longer see my face.
26
Therefore, I testify to you this day that I am innocent of the blood of all men.
27
For I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole purpose of God.
28
Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.
29
I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock;
30
and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them.
31
Therefore be on the alert, remembering that night and day for a period of three years I did not cease to admonish each one with tears.
32
And now I commend you to God and to the word of His grace, which is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified.
33
I have coveted no one’s silver or gold or clothes.
34
You yourselves know that these hands ministered to my own needs and to the men who were with me.
35
In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’”
36
When he had said these things, he knelt down and prayed with them all.
37
And they began to weep aloud and embraced Paul, and repeatedly kissed him,
38
grieving especially over the word which he had spoken, that they would not see his face again. And they were accompanying him to the ship.
Скрыть
1
Now concerning the things about which you wrote, it is good for a man not to touch a woman.
2
But because of immoralities, each man is to have his own wife, and each woman is to have her own husband.
3
The husband must fulfill his duty to his wife, and likewise also the wife to her husband.
4
The wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does; and likewise also the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does.
5
Stop depriving one another, except by agreement for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer, and come together again so that Satan will not tempt you because of your lack of self-control.
6
But this I say by way of concession, not of command.
7
Yet I wish that all men were even as I myself am. However, each man has his own gift from God, one in this manner, and another in that.
8
But I say to the unmarried and to widows that it is good for them if they remain even as I.
9
But if they do not have self-control, let them marry; for it is better to marry than to burn with passion.
10
But to the married I give instructions, not I, but the Lord, that the wife should not leave her husband
11
(but if she does leave, she must remain unmarried, or else be reconciled to her husband), and that the husband should not divorce his wife.
12
But to the rest I say, not the Lord, that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he must not divorce her.
13
And a woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to live with her, she must not send her husband away.
14
For the unbelieving husband is sanctified through his wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified through her believing husband; for otherwise your children are unclean, but now they are holy.
15
Yet if the unbelieving one leaves, let him leave; the brother or the sister is not under bondage in such cases, but God has called us to peace.
16
For how do you know, O wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, O husband, whether you will save your wife?
17
Only, as the Lord has assigned to each one, as God has called each, in this manner let him walk. And so I direct in all the churches.
18
Was any man called when he was already circumcised? He is not to become uncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? He is not to be circumcised.
19
Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but what matters is the keeping of the commandments of God.
20
Each man must remain in that condition in which he was called.
21
Were you called while a slave? Do not worry about it; but if you are able also to become free, rather do that.
22
For he who was called in the Lord while a slave, is the Lord’s freedman; likewise he who was called while free, is Christ’s slave.
23
You were bought with a price; do not become slaves of men.
24
Brethren, each one is to remain with God in that condition in which he was called.
25
Now concerning virgins I have no command of the Lord, but I give an opinion as one who by the mercy of the Lord is trustworthy.
26
I think then that this is good in view of the present distress, that it is good for a man to remain as he is.
27
Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek to be released. Are you released from a wife? Do not seek a wife.
28
But if you marry, you have not sinned; and if a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will have trouble in this life, and I am trying to spare you.
29
But this I say, brethren, the time has been shortened, so that from now on those who have wives should be as though they had none;
30
and those who weep, as though they did not weep; and those who rejoice, as though they did not rejoice; and those who buy, as though they did not possess;
31
and those who use the world, as though they did not make full use of it; for the form of this world is passing away.
32
But I want you to be free from concern. One who is unmarried is concerned about the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord;
33
but one who is married is concerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife,
34
and his interests are divided. The woman who is unmarried, and the virgin, is concerned about the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and spirit; but one who is married is concerned about the things of the world, how she may please her husband.
35
This I say for your own benefit; not to put a restraint upon you, but to promote what is appropriate and to secure undistracted devotion to the Lord.
36
But if any man thinks that he is acting unbecomingly toward his virgin daughter, if she is past her youth, and if it must be so, let him do what he wishes, he does not sin; let her marry.
37
But he who stands firm in his heart, being under no constraint, but has authority over his own will, and has decided this in his own heart, to keep his own virgin daughter, he will do well.
38
So then both he who gives his own virgin daughter in marriage does well, and he who does not give her in marriage will do better.
39
A wife is bound as long as her husband lives; but if her husband is dead, she is free to be married to whom she wishes, only in the Lord.
40
But in my opinion she is happier if she remains as she is; and I think that I also have the Spirit of God.
Скрыть
1
If I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but do not have love, I have become a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal.
2
If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and all knowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing.
3
And if I give all my possessions to feed the poor, and if I surrender my body to be burned, but do not have love, it profits me nothing.
4
Love is patient, love is kind and is not jealous; love does not brag and is not arrogant,
5
does not act unbecomingly; it does not seek its own, is not provoked, does not take into account a wrong suffered,
6
does not rejoice in unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth;
7
bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.
8
Love never fails; but if there are gifts of prophecy, they will be done away; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be done away.
9
For we know in part and we prophesy in part;
10
but when the perfect comes, the partial will be done away.
11
When I was a child, I used to speak like a child, think like a child, reason like a child; when I became a man, I did away with childish things.
12
For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face; now I know in part, but then I will know fully just as I also have been fully known.
13
But now faith, hope, love, abide these three; but the greatest of these is love.
Скрыть
1
And when I came to you, brethren, I did not come with superiority of speech or of wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony of God.
2
For I determined to know nothing among you except Jesus Christ, and Him crucified.
3
I was with you in weakness and in fear and in much trembling,
4
and my message and my preaching were not in persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power,
5
so that your faith would not rest on the wisdom of men, but on the power of God.
6
Yet we do speak wisdom among those who are mature; a wisdom, however, not of this age nor of the rulers of this age, who are passing away;
7
but we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God predestined before the ages to our glory;
8
the wisdom which none of the rulers of this age has understood; for if they had understood it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory;
9
but just as it is written, “THINGS WHICH EYE HAS NOT SEEN AND EAR HAS NOT HEARD, AND which HAVE NOT ENTERED THE HEART OF MAN, ALL THAT GOD HAS PREPARED FOR THOSE WHO LOVE HIM.”
10
For to us God revealed them through the Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things, even the depths of God.
11
For who among men knows the thoughts of a man except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so the thoughts of God no one knows except the Spirit of God.
12
Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things freely given to us by God,
13
which things we also speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, combining spiritual thoughts with spiritual words.
14
But a natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised.
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But he who is spiritual appraises all things, yet he himself is appraised by no one.
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For WHO HAS KNOWN THE MIND OF THE LORD, THAT HE WILL INSTRUCT HIM? But we have the mind of Christ.
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Be imitators of me, just as I also am of Christ.
2
Now I praise you because you remember me in everything and hold firmly to the traditions, just as I delivered them to you.
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But I want you to understand that Christ is the head of every man, and the man is the head of a woman, and God is the head of Christ.
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Every man who has something on his head while praying or prophesying disgraces his head.
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But every woman who has her head uncovered while praying or prophesying disgraces her head, for she is one and the same as the woman whose head is shaved.
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For if a woman does not cover her head, let her also have her hair cut off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, let her cover her head.
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For a man ought not to have his head covered, since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man.
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For man does not originate from woman, but woman from man;
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for indeed man was not created for the woman’s sake, but woman for the man’s sake.
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Therefore the woman ought to have a symbol of authority on her head, because of the angels.
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However, in the Lord, neither is woman independent of man, nor is man independent of woman.
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For as the woman originates from the man, so also the man has his birth through the woman; and all things originate from God.
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Judge for yourselves: is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered?
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Does not even nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him,
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but if a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her? For her hair is given to her for a covering.
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But if one is inclined to be contentious, we have no other practice, nor have the churches of God.
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But in giving this instruction, I do not praise you, because you come together not for the better but for the worse.
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For, in the first place, when you come together as a church, I hear that divisions exist among you; and in part I believe it.
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For there must also be factions among you, so that those who are approved may become evident among you.
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Therefore when you meet together, it is not to eat the Lord’s Supper,
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for in your eating each one takes his own supper first; and one is hungry and another is drunk.
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What! Do you not have houses in which to eat and drink? Or do you despise the church of God and shame those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you? In this I will not praise you.
23
For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread;
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and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”
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In the same way He took the cup also after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.”
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For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes.
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Therefore whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner, shall be guilty of the body and the blood of the Lord.
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But a man must examine himself, and in so doing he is to eat of the bread and drink of the cup.
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For he who eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgment to himself if he does not judge the body rightly.
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For this reason many among you are weak and sick, and a number sleep.
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But if we judged ourselves rightly, we would not be judged.
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But when we are judged, we are disciplined by the Lord so that we will not be condemned along with the world.
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So then, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another.
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If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that you will not come together for judgment. The remaining matters I will arrange when I come.
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Now I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received, in which also you stand,
2
by which also you are saved, if you hold fast the word which I preached to you, unless you believed in vain.
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For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures,
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and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,
5
and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.
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After that He appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep;
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then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles;
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and last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared to me also.
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For I am the least of the apostles, and not fit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
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But by the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace toward me did not prove vain; but I labored even more than all of them, yet not I, but the grace of God with me.
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Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed.
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Now if Christ is preached, that He has been raised from the dead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead?
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But if there is no resurrection of the dead, not even Christ has been raised;
14
and if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is vain, your faith also is vain.
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Moreover we are even found to be false witnesses of God, because we testified against God that He raised Christ, whom He did not raise, if in fact the dead are not raised.
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For if the dead are not raised, not even Christ has been raised;
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and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is worthless; you are still in your sins.
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Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished.
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If we have hoped in Christ in this life only, we are of all men most to be pitied.
20
But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep.
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For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead.
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For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
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But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ’s at His coming,
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then comes the end, when He hands over the kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all authority and power.
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For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet.
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The last enemy that will be abolished is death.
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For HE HAS PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET. But when He says, “All things are put in subjection,” it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him.
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When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all.
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Otherwise, what will those do who are baptized for the dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why then are they baptized for them?
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Why are we also in danger every hour?
31
I affirm, brethren, by the boasting in you which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily.
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If from human motives I fought with wild beasts at Ephesus, what does it profit me? If the dead are not raised, LET US EAT AND DRINK, FOR TOMORROW WE DIE.
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Do not be deceived: “Bad company corrupts good morals.”
34
Become sober-minded as you ought, and stop sinning; for some have no knowledge of God. I speak this to your shame.
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But someone will say, “How are the dead raised? And with what kind of body do they come?”
36
You fool! That which you sow does not come to life unless it dies;
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and that which you sow, you do not sow the body which is to be, but a bare grain, perhaps of wheat or of something else.
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But God gives it a body just as He wished, and to each of the seeds a body of its own.
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All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of beasts, and another flesh of birds, and another of fish.
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There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is another.
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There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory.
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So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown a perishable body, it is raised an imperishable body;
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it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power;
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it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body.
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So also it is written, “The first MAN, Adam, BECAME A LIVING SOUL.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.
46
However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual.
47
The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven.
48
As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly.
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Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.
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Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable.
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Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed,
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in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.
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For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality.
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But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, “DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in victory.
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O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR VICTORY? O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR STING?”
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The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law;
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but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
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Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord.
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Then after an interval of fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus along also.
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It was because of a revelation that I went up; and I submitted to them the gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but I did so in private to those who were of reputation, for fear that I might be running, or had run, in vain.
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But not even Titus, who was with me, though he was a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised.
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But it was because of the false brethren secretly brought in, who had sneaked in to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, in order to bring us into bondage.
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But we did not yield in subjection to them for even an hour, so that the truth of the gospel would remain with you.
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But from those who were of high reputation (what they were makes no difference to me; God shows no partiality)—well, those who were of reputation contributed nothing to me.
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But on the contrary, seeing that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been to the circumcised
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(for He who effectually worked for Peter in his apostleship to the circumcised effectually worked for me also to the Gentiles),
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and recognizing the grace that had been given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, so that we might go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised.
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They only asked us to remember the poor—the very thing I also was eager to do.
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But when Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned.
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For prior to the coming of certain men from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles; but when they came, he began to withdraw and hold himself aloof, fearing the party of the circumcision.
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The rest of the Jews joined him in hypocrisy, with the result that even Barnabas was carried away by their hypocrisy.
14
But when I saw that they were not straightforward about the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas in the presence of all, “If you, being a Jew, live like the Gentiles and not like the Jews, how is it that you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?
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“We are Jews by nature and not sinners from among the Gentiles;
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nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified.
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But if, while seeking to be justified in Christ, we ourselves have also been found sinners, is Christ then a minister of sin? May it never be!
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For if I rebuild what I have once destroyed, I prove myself to be a transgressor.
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For through the Law I died to the Law, so that I might live to God.
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I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself up for me.
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I do not nullify the grace of God, for if righteousness comes through the Law, then Christ died needlessly.”
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You foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as crucified?
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This is the only thing I want to find out from you: did you receive the Spirit by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?
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Are you so foolish? Having begun by the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the flesh?
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Did you suffer so many things in vain—if indeed it was in vain?
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So then, does He who provides you with the Spirit and works miracles among you, do it by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?
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Even so Abraham BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS RECKONED TO HIM AS RIGHTEOUSNESS.
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Therefore, be sure that it is those who are of faith who are sons of Abraham.
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The Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, “ALL THE NATIONS WILL BE BLESSED IN YOU.”
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So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer.
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For as many as are of the works of the Law are under a curse; for it is written, “CURSED IS EVERYONE WHO DOES NOT ABIDE BY ALL THINGS WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF THE LAW, TO PERFORM THEM.”
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Now that no one is justified by the Law before God is evident; for, “THE RIGHTEOUS MAN SHALL LIVE BY FAITH.”
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However, the Law is not of faith; on the contrary, “HE WHO PRACTICES THEM SHALL LIVE BY THEM.”
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Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us—for it is written, “CURSED IS EVERYONE WHO HANGS ON A TREE”—
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in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.
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Brethren, I speak in terms of human relations: even though it is only a man’s covenant, yet when it has been ratified, no one sets it aside or adds conditions to it.
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Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as referring to many, but rather to one, “And to your seed,” that is, Christ.
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What I am saying is this: the Law, which came four hundred and thirty years later, does not invalidate a covenant previously ratified by God, so as to nullify the promise.
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For if the inheritance is based on law, it is no longer based on a promise; but God has granted it to Abraham by means of a promise.
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Why the Law then? It was added because of transgressions, having been ordained through angels by the agency of a mediator, until the seed would come to whom the promise had been made.
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Now a mediator is not for one party only; whereas God is only one.
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Is the Law then contrary to the promises of God? May it never be! For if a law had been given which was able to impart life, then righteousness would indeed have been based on law.
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But the Scripture has shut up everyone under sin, so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.
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But before faith came, we were kept in custody under the law, being shut up to the faith which was later to be revealed.
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Therefore the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith.
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But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor.
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For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.
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For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.
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There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
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And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to promise.
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Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything,
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but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father.
3
So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world.
4
But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law,
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so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons.
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Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!”
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Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God.
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However at that time, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those which by nature are no gods.
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But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how is it that you turn back again to the weak and worthless elemental things, to which you desire to be enslaved all over again?
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You observe days and months and seasons and years.
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I fear for you, that perhaps I have labored over you in vain.
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I beg of you, brethren, become as I am, for I also have become as you are. You have done me no wrong;
13
but you know that it was because of a bodily illness that I preached the gospel to you the first time;
14
and that which was a trial to you in my bodily condition you did not despise or loathe, but you received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus Himself.
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Where then is that sense of blessing you had? For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me.
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So have I become your enemy by telling you the truth?
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They eagerly seek you, not commendably, but they wish to shut you out so that you will seek them.
18
But it is good always to be eagerly sought in a commendable manner, and not only when I am present with you.
19
My children, with whom I am again in labor until Christ is formed in you—
20
but I could wish to be present with you now and to change my tone, for I am perplexed about you.
21
Tell me, you who want to be under law, do you not listen to the law?
22
For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman and one by the free woman.
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But the son by the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman through the promise.
24
This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; she is Hagar.
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Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children.
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But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother.
27
For it is written, “REJOICE, BARREN WOMAN WHO DOES NOT BEAR; BREAK FORTH AND SHOUT, YOU WHO ARE NOT IN LABOR; FOR MORE NUMEROUS ARE THE CHILDREN OF THE DESOLATE THAN OF THE ONE WHO HAS A HUSBAND.”
28
And you brethren, like Isaac, are children of promise.
29
But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so it is now also.
30
But what does the Scripture say? “CAST OUT THE BONDWOMAN AND HER SON, FOR THE SON OF THE BONDWOMAN SHALL NOT BE AN HEIR WITH THE SON OF THE FREE WOMAN.”
31
So then, brethren, we are not children of a bondwoman, but of the free woman.
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Therefore I urge you, brethren, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service of worship.
2
And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect.
3
For through the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but to think so as to have sound judgment, as God has allotted to each a measure of faith.
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For just as we have many members in one body and all the members do not have the same function,
5
so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another.
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Since we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, each of us is to exercise them accordingly: if prophecy, according to the proportion of his faith;
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if service, in his serving; or he who teaches, in his teaching;
8
or he who exhorts, in his exhortation; he who gives, with liberality; he who leads, with diligence; he who shows mercy, with cheerfulness.
9
Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil; cling to what is good.
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Be devoted to one another in brotherly love; give preference to one another in honor;
11
not lagging behind in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord;
12
rejoicing in hope, persevering in tribulation, devoted to prayer,
13
contributing to the needs of the saints, practicing hospitality.
14
Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse.
15
Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep.
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Be of the same mind toward one another; do not be haughty in mind, but associate with the lowly. Do not be wise in your own estimation.
17
Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect what is right in the sight of all men.
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If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men.
19
Never take your own revenge, beloved, but leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY,” says the Lord.
20
“BUT IF YOUR ENEMY IS HUNGRY, FEED HIM, AND IF HE IS THIRSTY, GIVE HIM A DRINK; FOR IN SO DOING YOU WILL HEAP BURNING COALS ON HIS HEAD.”
21
Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
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Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra. And a disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek,
2
and he was well spoken of by the brethren who were in Lystra and Iconium.
3
Paul wanted this man to go with him; and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those parts, for they all knew that his father was a Greek.
4
Now while they were passing through the cities, they were delivering the decrees which had been decided upon by the apostles and elders who were in Jerusalem, for them to observe.
5
So the churches were being strengthened in the faith, and were increasing in number daily.
6
They passed through the Phrygian and Galatian region, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia;
7
and after they came to Mysia, they were trying to go into Bithynia, and the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them;
8
and passing by Mysia, they came down to Troas.
9
A vision appeared to Paul in the night: a man of Macedonia was standing and appealing to him, and saying, “Come over to Macedonia and help us.”
10
When he had seen the vision, immediately we sought to go into Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to preach the gospel to them.
11
So putting out to sea from Troas, we ran a straight course to Samothrace, and on the day following to Neapolis;
12
and from there to Philippi, which is a leading city of the district of Macedonia, a Roman colony; and we were staying in this city for some days.
13
And on the Sabbath day we went outside the gate to a riverside, where we were supposing that there would be a place of prayer; and we sat down and began speaking to the women who had assembled.
14
A woman named Lydia, from the city of Thyatira, a seller of purple fabrics, a worshiper of God, was listening; and the Lord opened her heart to respond to the things spoken by Paul.
15
And when she and her household had been baptized, she urged us, saying, “If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house and stay.” And she prevailed upon us.
16
It happened that as we were going to the place of prayer, a slave-girl having a spirit of divination met us, who was bringing her masters much profit by fortune-telling.
17
Following after Paul and us, she kept crying out, saying, “These men are bond-servants of the Most High God, who are proclaiming to you the way of salvation.”
18
She continued doing this for many days. But Paul was greatly annoyed, and turned and said to the spirit, “I command you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!” And it came out at that very moment.
19
But when her masters saw that their hope of profit was gone, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them into the market place before the authorities,
20
and when they had brought them to the chief magistrates, they said, “These men are throwing our city into confusion, being Jews,
21
and are proclaiming customs which it is not lawful for us to accept or to observe, being Romans.”
22
The crowd rose up together against them, and the chief magistrates tore their robes off them and proceeded to order them to be beaten with rods.
23
When they had struck them with many blows, they threw them into prison, commanding the jailer to guard them securely;
24
and he, having received such a command, threw them into the inner prison and fastened their feet in the stocks.
25
But about midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns of praise to God, and the prisoners were listening to them;
26
and suddenly there came a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison house were shaken; and immediately all the doors were opened and everyone’s chains were unfastened.
27
When the jailer awoke and saw the prison doors opened, he drew his sword and was about to kill himself, supposing that the prisoners had escaped.
28
But Paul cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Do not harm yourself, for we are all here!”
29
And he called for lights and rushed in, and trembling with fear he fell down before Paul and Silas,
30
and after he brought them out, he said, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?”
31
They said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.”
32
And they spoke the word of the Lord to him together with all who were in his house.
33
And he took them that very hour of the night and washed their wounds, and immediately he was baptized, he and all his household.
34
And he brought them into his house and set food before them, and rejoiced greatly, having believed in God with his whole household.
35
Now when day came, the chief magistrates sent their policemen, saying, “Release those men.”
36
And the jailer reported these words to Paul, saying, “The chief magistrates have sent to release you. Therefore come out now and go in peace.”
37
But Paul said to them, “They have beaten us in public without trial, men who are Romans, and have thrown us into prison; and now are they sending us away secretly? No indeed! But let them come themselves and bring us out.”
38
The policemen reported these words to the chief magistrates. They were afraid when they heard that they were Romans,
39
and they came and appealed to them, and when they had brought them out, they kept begging them to leave the city.
40
They went out of the prison and entered the house of Lydia, and when they saw the brethren, they encouraged them and departed.
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Now the apostles and the brethren who were throughout Judea heard that the Gentiles also had received the word of God.
2
And when Peter came up to Jerusalem, those who were circumcised took issue with him,
3
saying, “You went to uncircumcised men and ate with them.”
4
But Peter began speaking and proceeded to explain to them in orderly sequence, saying,
5
“I was in the city of Joppa praying; and in a trance I saw a vision, an object coming down like a great sheet lowered by four corners from the sky; and it came right down to me,
6
and when I had fixed my gaze on it and was observing it I saw the four-footed animals of the earth and the wild beasts and the crawling creatures and the birds of the air.
7
I also heard a voice saying to me, ‘Get up, Peter; kill and eat.’
8
But I said, ‘By no means, Lord, for nothing unholy or unclean has ever entered my mouth.’
9
But a voice from heaven answered a second time, ‘What God has cleansed, no longer consider unholy.’
10
This happened three times, and everything was drawn back up into the sky.
11
And behold, at that moment three men appeared at the house in which we were staying, having been sent to me from Caesarea.
12
The Spirit told me to go with them without misgivings. These six brethren also went with me and we entered the man’s house.
13
And he reported to us how he had seen the angel standing in his house, and saying, ‘Send to Joppa and have Simon, who is also called Peter, brought here;
14
and he will speak words to you by which you will be saved, you and all your household.’
15
And as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell upon them just as He did upon us at the beginning.
16
And I remembered the word of the Lord, how He used to say, ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’
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Therefore if God gave to them the same gift as He gave to us also after believing in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I that I could stand in God’s way?”
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When they heard this, they quieted down and glorified God, saying, “Well then, God has granted to the Gentiles also the repentance that leads to life.”
19
So then those who were scattered because of the persecution that occurred in connection with Stephen made their way to Phoenicia and Cyprus and Antioch, speaking the word to no one except to Jews alone.
20
But there were some of them, men of Cyprus and Cyrene, who came to Antioch and began speaking to the Greeks also, preaching the Lord Jesus.
21
And the hand of the Lord was with them, and a large number who believed turned to the Lord.
22
The news about them reached the ears of the church at Jerusalem, and they sent Barnabas off to Antioch.
23
Then when he arrived and witnessed the grace of God, he rejoiced and began to encourage them all with resolute heart to remain true to the Lord;
24
for he was a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit and of faith. And considerable numbers were brought to the Lord.
25
And he left for Tarsus to look for Saul;
26
and when he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. And for an entire year they met with the church and taught considerable numbers; and the disciples were first called Christians in Antioch.
27
Now at this time some prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch.
28
One of them named Agabus stood up and began to indicate by the Spirit that there would certainly be a great famine all over the world. And this took place in the reign of Claudius.
29
And in the proportion that any of the disciples had means, each of them determined to send a contribution for the relief of the brethren living in Judea.
30
And this they did, sending it in charge of Barnabas and Saul to the elders.
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Now there were at Antioch, in the church that was there, prophets and teachers: Barnabas, and Simeon who was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen who had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul.
2
While they were ministering to the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart for Me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.”
3
Then, when they had fasted and prayed and laid their hands on them, they sent them away.
4
So, being sent out by the Holy Spirit, they went down to Seleucia and from there they sailed to Cyprus.
5
When they reached Salamis, they began to proclaim the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews; and they also had John as their helper.
6
When they had gone through the whole island as far as Paphos, they found a magician, a Jewish false prophet whose name was Bar-Jesus,
7
who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of intelligence. This man summoned Barnabas and Saul and sought to hear the word of God.
8
But Elymas the magician (for so his name is translated) was opposing them, seeking to turn the proconsul away from the faith.
9
But Saul, who was also known as Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, fixed his gaze on him,
10
and said, “You who are full of all deceit and fraud, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease to make crooked the straight ways of the Lord?
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Now, behold, the hand of the Lord is upon you, and you will be blind and not see the sun for a time.” And immediately a mist and a darkness fell upon him, and he went about seeking those who would lead him by the hand.
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Then the proconsul believed when he saw what had happened, being amazed at the teaching of the Lord.
13
Now Paul and his companions put out to sea from Paphos and came to Perga in Pamphylia; but John left them and returned to Jerusalem.
14
But going on from Perga, they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, and on the Sabbath day they went into the synagogue and sat down.
15
After the reading of the Law and the Prophets the synagogue officials sent to them, saying, “Brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say it.”
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Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said, “Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen:
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The God of this people Israel chose our fathers and made the people great during their stay in the land of Egypt, and with an uplifted arm He led them out from it.
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For a period of about forty years He put up with them in the wilderness.
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When He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He distributed their land as an inheritance—all of which took about four hundred and fifty years.
20
After these things He gave them judges until Samuel the prophet.
21
Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.
22
After He had removed him, He raised up David to be their king, concerning whom He also testified and said, ‘I HAVE FOUND DAVID the son of Jesse, A MAN AFTER MY HEART, who will do all My will.’
23
From the descendants of this man, according to promise, God has brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus,
24
after John had proclaimed before His coming a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.
25
And while John was completing his course, he kept saying, ‘What do you suppose that I am? I am not He. But behold, one is coming after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.’
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“Brethren, sons of Abraham’s family, and those among you who fear God, to us the message of this salvation has been sent.
27
For those who live in Jerusalem, and their rulers, recognizing neither Him nor the utterances of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled these by condemning Him.
28
And though they found no ground for putting Him to death, they asked Pilate that He be executed.
29
When they had carried out all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the cross and laid Him in a tomb.
30
But God raised Him from the dead;
31
and for many days He appeared to those who came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, the very ones who are now His witnesses to the people.
32
And we preach to you the good news of the promise made to the fathers,
33
that God has fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the second Psalm, ‘YOU ARE MY SON; TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU.’
34
As for the fact that He raised Him up from the dead, no longer to return to decay, He has spoken in this way: ‘I WILL GIVE YOU THE HOLY and SURE blessings OF DAVID.’
35
Therefore He also says in another Psalm, ‘YOU WILL NOT ALLOW YOUR HOLY ONE TO UNDERGO DECAY.’
36
For David, after he had served the purpose of God in his own generation, fell asleep, and was laid among his fathers and underwent decay;
37
but He whom God raised did not undergo decay.
38
Therefore let it be known to you, brethren, that through Him forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you,
39
and through Him everyone who believes is freed from all things, from which you could not be freed through the Law of Moses.
40
Therefore take heed, so that the thing spoken of in the Prophets may not come upon you:
41
‘BEHOLD, YOU SCOFFERS, AND MARVEL, AND PERISH; FOR I AM ACCOMPLISHING A WORK IN YOUR DAYS, A WORK WHICH YOU WILL NEVER BELIEVE, THOUGH SOMEONE SHOULD DESCRIBE IT TO YOU.’”
42
As Paul and Barnabas were going out, the people kept begging that these things might be spoken to them the next Sabbath.
43
Now when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up, many of the Jews and of the God-fearing proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas, who, speaking to them, were urging them to continue in the grace of God.
44
The next Sabbath nearly the whole city assembled to hear the word of the Lord.
45
But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and began contradicting the things spoken by Paul, and were blaspheming.
46
Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly and said, “It was necessary that the word of God be spoken to you first; since you repudiate it and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we are turning to the Gentiles.
47
For so the Lord has commanded us, ‘I HAVE PLACED YOU AS A LIGHT FOR THE GENTILES, THAT YOU MAY BRING SALVATION TO THE END OF THE EARTH.’”
48
When the Gentiles heard this, they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord; and as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed.
49
And the word of the Lord was being spread through the whole region.
50
But the Jews incited the devout women of prominence and the leading men of the city, and instigated a persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and drove them out of their district.
51
But they shook off the dust of their feet in protest against them and went to Iconium.
52
And the disciples were continually filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit.
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It was for freedom that Christ set us free; therefore keep standing firm and do not be subject again to a yoke of slavery.
2
Behold I, Paul, say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no benefit to you.
3
And I testify again to every man who receives circumcision, that he is under obligation to keep the whole Law.
4
You have been severed from Christ, you who are seeking to be justified by law; you have fallen from grace.
5
For we through the Spirit, by faith, are waiting for the hope of righteousness.
6
For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but faith working through love.
7
You were running well; who hindered you from obeying the truth?
8
This persuasion did not come from Him who calls you.
9
A little leaven leavens the whole lump of dough.
10
I have confidence in you in the Lord that you will adopt no other view; but the one who is disturbing you will bear his judgment, whoever he is.
11
But I, brethren, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? Then the stumbling block of the cross has been abolished.
12
I wish that those who are troubling you would even mutilate themselves.
13
For you were called to freedom, brethren; only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another.
14
For the whole Law is fulfilled in one word, in the statement, “YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.”
15
But if you bite and devour one another, take care that you are not consumed by one another.
16
But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh.
17
For the flesh sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; for these are in opposition to one another, so that you may not do the things that you please.
18
But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the Law.
19
Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, impurity, sensuality,
20
idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, disputes, dissensions, factions,
21
envying, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these, of which I forewarn you, just as I have forewarned you, that those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.
22
But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,
23
gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law.
24
Now those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.
25
If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit.
26
Let us not become boastful, challenging one another, envying one another.
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Brethren, even if anyone is caught in any trespass, you who are spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; each one looking to yourself, so that you too will not be tempted.
2
Bear one another’s burdens, and thereby fulfill the law of Christ.
3
For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself.
4
But each one must examine his own work, and then he will have reason for boasting in regard to himself alone, and not in regard to another.
5
For each one will bear his own load.
6
The one who is taught the word is to share all good things with the one who teaches him.
7
Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap.
8
For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life.
9
Let us not lose heart in doing good, for in due time we will reap if we do not grow weary.
10
So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, and especially to those who are of the household of the faith.
11
See with what large letters I am writing to you with my own hand.
12
Those who desire to make a good showing in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ.
13
For those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised so that they may boast in your flesh.
14
But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.
15
For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
16
And those who will walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God.
17
From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the brand-marks of Jesus.
18
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen.
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I wish that you would bear with me in a little foolishness; but indeed you are bearing with me.
2
For I am jealous for you with a godly jealousy; for I betrothed you to one husband, so that to Christ I might present you as a pure virgin.
3
But I am afraid that, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, your minds will be led astray from the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ.
4
For if one comes and preaches another Jesus whom we have not preached, or you receive a different spirit which you have not received, or a different gospel which you have not accepted, you bear this beautifully.
5
For I consider myself not in the least inferior to the most eminent apostles.
6
But even if I am unskilled in speech, yet I am not so in knowledge; in fact, in every way we have made this evident to you in all things.
7
Or did I commit a sin in humbling myself so that you might be exalted, because I preached the gospel of God to you without charge?
8
I robbed other churches by taking wages from them to serve you;
9
and when I was present with you and was in need, I was not a burden to anyone; for when the brethren came from Macedonia they fully supplied my need, and in everything I kept myself from being a burden to you, and will continue to do so.
10
As the truth of Christ is in me, this boasting of mine will not be stopped in the regions of Achaia.
11
Why? Because I do not love you? God knows I do!
12
But what I am doing I will continue to do, so that I may cut off opportunity from those who desire an opportunity to be regarded just as we are in the matter about which they are boasting.
13
For such men are false apostles, deceitful workers, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ.
14
No wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light.
15
Therefore it is not surprising if his servants also disguise themselves as servants of righteousness, whose end will be according to their deeds.
16
Again I say, let no one think me foolish; but if you do, receive me even as foolish, so that I also may boast a little.
17
What I am saying, I am not saying as the Lord would, but as in foolishness, in this confidence of boasting.
18
Since many boast according to the flesh, I will boast also.
19
For you, being so wise, tolerate the foolish gladly.
20
For you tolerate it if anyone enslaves you, anyone devours you, anyone takes advantage of you, anyone exalts himself, anyone hits you in the face.
21
To my shame I must say that we have been weak by comparison. But in whatever respect anyone else is bold—I speak in foolishness—I am just as bold myself.
22
Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they descendants of Abraham? So am I.
23
Are they servants of Christ?—I speak as if insane—I more so; in far more labors, in far more imprisonments, beaten times without number, often in danger of death.
24
Five times I received from the Jews thirty-nine lashes.
25
Three times I was beaten with rods, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, a night and a day I have spent in the deep.
26
I have been on frequent journeys, in dangers from rivers, dangers from robbers, dangers from my countrymen, dangers from the Gentiles, dangers in the city, dangers in the wilderness, dangers on the sea, dangers among false brethren;
27
I have been in labor and hardship, through many sleepless nights, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure.
28
Apart from such external things, there is the daily pressure on me of concern for all the churches.
29
Who is weak without my being weak? Who is led into sin without my intense concern?
30
If I have to boast, I will boast of what pertains to my weakness.
31
The God and Father of the Lord Jesus, He who is blessed forever, knows that I am not lying.
32
In Damascus the ethnarch under Aretas the king was guarding the city of the Damascenes in order to seize me,
33
and I was let down in a basket through a window in the wall, and so escaped his hands.
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