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Новое небо над новой землей (размышления над Библией)

В.В. Сорокин

Жертвенная кровь

Жертвоприношение как форма богопочитания была известна еврейскому народу задолго до Исхода и сооружения Скинии Завета, и внешне оно ничем существенно не отличалось от аналогичных форм языческого культа. В обоих случаях в жертву приносили обычно или плоды земли (прежде всего хлебы; у многих народов сохранились даже специальные культовые виды выпечки, к которым относятся в т.ч. и специальные пресные хлебцы, называемые у евреев мацот), или скот (обычно овец, реже — коров и коз). Жертвоприношение у язычников совершалось одновременно с молитвою тому из богов, кого хотели почтить, так что оно оказывалось обычно средоточием почти всякой языческой религиозной церемонии, формы которой в остальном могли быть очень различны. Жертвоприношение плодов земли было, разумеется, бескровным: их обычно просто оставляли на алтаре для «освящения», после чего некоторая часть этого «освящённого» приношения съедалась, а другая оставлялась до следующего жертвоприношения, перед началом которого она обычно сжигалась во славу того бога, которому приносилась жертва. Иногда на жертвенник также возливали вино, мёд, молоко или специально приготовленное масло. Иначе совершалось жертвоприношение скота. В таком случае животное обычно подводили к жертвеннику и там его закалывали с молитвой тому богу, которому приносили жертву. После этого жрец или совершающий жертвоприношение кропил кровью жертвенного животного сначала жертвенник, а затем себя и всех участвующих в действе, после чего одна часть мяса убитого животного сжигалась на жертвеннике, а другая зажаривалась и съедалась или одним жрецом, или всеми участниками жертвоприношения. По общераспространённому в языческом мире мнению, восходящим к небу дымом от сжигаемых жертв питались боги. Иногда, в особо торжественных случаях, жертвенное животное сжигалось на огне целиком, при этом обычно читались молитвы и пелись гимны тому богу, которому приносилась жертва, и в этом случае, разумеется, никакой ритуальной трапезы не было.

Очевидно, жертвоприношение в Израиле совершалось аналогичным образом (Лев 1:1-17; Лев 3:1 — 4:35). Несомненно, однако, и то, что при внешнем сходстве духовный смысл его был совершенно иным. Чтобы понять смысл жертвоприношения, важно помнить, что мистике и антропологии Израиля был чужд языческий спиритуализм, что с библейской точки зрения человек должен войти в мир кадош весь, душою и телом, а потому и Господь должен был получить доступ не только к душе человека, но и к его телу. И здесь особое значение имела жертвенная кровь и освящённое мясо. Кровь издавна и справедливо почиталась древними основою жизни; но, в отличие от учёных нового времени, древние видели в крови прежде всего не насыщенный сложнейшими химическими соединениями раствор, а носитель особого начала, являющегося основой всех психофизиологических процессов, несводимый ни к каким биохимическим или биофизическим их элементам. Египтяне называли эту основу ба, предполагая наличие её как у человека, так и у животных и даже у растений. Ба может приобретать то или иное качество, определяя тем самым существование конкретных видов и форм живого вещества; сама же она представляет собою своего рода «субстанцию жизни», без наличия которой никакая органическая жизнь невозможна. С точки зрения современной науки вопрос об особой «субстанции жизни» остаётся открытым — ведь и биологическая наука нового времени знает виталистские концепции, предполагающие наличие во всяком организме особого «жизненного начала». Были, разумеется, и попытки свести все формы организации живого вещества к неживому (органическая жизнь описывалась при этом исключительно в рамках физических и химических взаимодействий), но открытия нашего века, прежде всего в области генетики, окончательно эти попытки похоронили. Древние же видели в «субстанции жизни» основание, не только соединяющее воедино на особом метафизическом уровне всё живое, но и делающее жизнь началом вселенским. Из особой, совершенной «субстанции жизни», по их представлениям, состоял мир, который они называли «надлунным», и этот мир виделся им также совершенным и неизменным. Что же до конкретных форм жизни, то, например, по мнению египетских философов, ба у животных и у человека связана с кровью, а у растений — с растительными соками.

В Библии начало, аналогичное египетскому ба, называется нефеш. Слово это в синодальном тексте переводится обычно как «душа», хотя с привычными нам личностными представлениями о душе человека оно никак не связано (впрочем, в современном иврите под словом нефеш также понимается обычно «душа» в христианском смысле этого слова). Словом нефеш называется средоточие жизни не только человека (Быт 2:7), но и всякого вообще живого существа, и в этом случае нефеш связывается именно с кровью (Быт 9:4; ср. Втор 12:23). То, что изначально нефеш человека связан не с кровью, а с «дыханием жизни» (Быт 2:7), говорит об истинной душевно-телесной природе человека, ещё не искажённой грехопадением и не одетой «ризами кожаными» (Быт 3:21), напоминая одновременно о том, чем нам надлежит стать в конце времён после преображения. А на пути к этому завершению мировой истории Господь протягивает человеку Свою руку, открывая ему Себя в том, что человеку привычнее и понятнее всего — в плоти и крови. Ведь кровь жертвенных животных, попадая на стоящий у входа в Скинию жертвенник, совершенно реально освящалась таинственным Присутствием, этот жертвенник осенявшим; а затем эта освящённая кровь освящала и человека, который, вкушая после окропления кровью жертвенное мясо, становился причастным Богу в полной мере душой и телом. Впрочем, душе во всяком случае отдавалось первенство, и жертвоприношению всегда предшествовала молитва, благодарственная или хвалебная в случае «жертвы мирной» (Лев 3:2) или «жертвы всесожжения» (Лев 1:4) и, очевидно, покаянная в случае «жертвы за грех» (Лев 4:4, Лев 4:15, 24, 29). Здесь и пролегало различие между жертвой языческой и жертвой яхвистской. «Субстанция жизни» во всяком случае оказывалась открытой к разного рода метафизическим воздействиям, и этим ещё в предисторический период пользовались люди, желая обрести возможность магического воздействия на мир. Вместо молитв в этих случаях читались заклинания, а жертвенная кровь, подверженная действию не только стихийных начал, но нередко и духов тьмы, соединяла человека, уж конечно, не с Богом Живым. Да и молитва у язычника порою граничила с заклинанием: считалось возможным воздействовать на богов, к которым обращается приносящий жертву, и даже связать их клятвой, которую они принуждены будут исполнить, иногда против своего желания. А ведические тексты, например, иногда прямо говорят о том, что мудрец, овладевший искусством жертвоприношений и чтения особых мантр-заклинаний, не только владеет стихиями мира сего, но стоит даже выше богов и демонов. И только в Израиле, когда Господь протянул свою руку к жертвеннику, жертвенная кровь стала соединять человека с Ним, поистине его освящая. Освящённая плоть и освящённая кровь, через которые Господь входит в человека постольку, поскольку открыто Господу его сердце — в этом смысл жертвоприношений Израиля, и здесь, в жертвенном агнце, ясно виден уже не аллегорический, а мистический прообраз Того, Кто пришёл дать верующим в Него Своё Тело и Свою Кровь, открывающие совершенную полноту благодати. При таком подходе вполне естественно было бы увидеть в «жертве мирной» прообраз св. Евхаристии, а в «жертве за грех» — прообраз таинства исповеди. При посвящении священников существовал особый ритуал жертвоприношений (Лев 8:1-9, Лев 8:24), смысл которого был связан с ожидающим священника предстоятельским служением (вначале помазание елеем (Лев 8:1-13), затем обычная жертва за грех (Лев 8:14-17) и всесожжение (Лев 8:18-21); далее — специальное жертвоприношение и помазание священника освящённой кровью — как призвание на особое служение (Лев 8:22-30), и в завершение, после семи дней углублённых молитв (Лев 8:31-36), жертвоприношение от имени всего народа за священника (Лев 9:1-14) и первое жертвоприношение священника за народ (Лев 9:15-24), после которого обряд считался законченным). Это особое посвящение является, в сущности, прообразом таинства священства. О том, что ритуальные очистительные омовения были прообразом таинства св. Крещения, было сказано и написано немало, равно как и об обычае помазания священников, пророков и царей, из коего выросли в Церкви таинства миропомазания и елеосвящения; однако следует помнить, что в Израиле эти действия совершались обычно (а в случае очистительного омовения — обязательно, см., напр., Лев 15:13-15) перед жертвоприношением, предваряя его. По-видимому, благодатная полнота этих действий стала раскрываться лишь после Крещения Господня и св. Пятидесятницы.

Но прообраз — не образ, и прообраз полноты не есть полнота. С кровью животного Господь входил в человека настолько, насколько тот мог вместить; Кровь Христова открывает нам Его в полноте, и Он вмещается в наше сердце до конца в момент причащения, а затем остаётся с нами в той мере, в какой мы можем удержать Его благодать, которая, чаще всего, увы, уходит, как вода в песок. Именно поэтому для Общины Израиля особое значение имеет психофизиологический аспект духовной жизни. Он очень важен и в языческой аскетике — ведь язычник обычно относится к Божеству как к объекту, к которому нужно мистически приблизиться с тем, чтобы им овладеть. В яхвистской Общине, разумеется, дело обстояло не так; но благодать Божию каждый в Общине вмещал по мере сил, и мера эта определялась не только открытостью сердца, но и аскетической чистотой тела. Для христианина аскеза имеет прежде всего духовный смысл, психофизиологический аспект в христианской аскетике отходит обычно на второй план; для яхвиста он почти так же важен, как и аспект духовный. Потому-то в Книге Левита мы находим не только описание чинопоследования жертвоприношений, но и правила ритуальной чистоты. Разумеется, Книга эта была написана сравнительно поздно, едва ли раньше IX в. до Р.Х. даже в самых ранних своих редакциях, но в основе своей изложенные в ней правила кашрута восходят, несомненно, ко временам гораздо более ранним. Прежде всего обращает на себя внимание перечисление «чистых» и «нечистых» животных (Лев 11:1-47), которое до сих пор в иудаизме составляет основу норм кашрута в отношении пищи. Это перечисление вызывает немало вопросов. Иудейские толкователи говорят обычно о непостижимости смысла повелений Божиих, призывая соблюдать Тору, веря Богу на слово; христианские экзегеты предлагают различные (обычно весьма искусственные) аллегорические толкования. Между тем, перечисление это станет вполне понятным, если вспомнить, что языческая аскетика знает целую систему специально разработанных типов питания, так или иначе целенаправленно воздействующих на психофизиологическое состояние человека. В этом контексте вспоминают обычно прежде всего китайскую традицию, в т.ч. особую разработанную в древнем Китае систему питания, рекомендуемую философам и в особенности тем, кто собирается посвятить себя духовной жизни, — система эта обостряла работу мысли и мистическое восприятие. Менее известно то, что аналогичные методики были известны и в древнем Средиземноморье, и в т.ч. в Египте, где существовали известные пищевые ограничения, в частности, для жрецов. Соблюдение рекомендуемых норм имело целью достижение тех же результатов, что и китайская «диета мудреца». Видимо, к тому же стремился и тот, кто составил список «чистых» и «нечистых» животных в Книге Левита; во всяком случае, распределение их в основном совпадает с египетским. Важными с психофизиологической точки зрения оказываются также некоторые моменты, связанные с половой сферой; и испокон веку было известно всему миру, что нет лучшего способа восстановить нарушенное равновесие психофизиологического состояния человека, чем холодная вода из естественного источника (Лев 12:1-8; Лев 15:1-32). Разумеется, все эти установления ценны не сами по себе, но лишь как дополнение к главному; главное же — жертвоприношение, совершаемое от чистого сердца и с искренней молитвой. После разрушения Второго Храма установления эти потеряли смысл даже для тех, кто не принял Христа: не к чему стало готовиться, жертвоприношения прекратились, осталась лишь молитва, которая обычно не требует столь тщательной психофизиологической подготовки. После разрушения Храма и прекращения жертвоприношений иудаизм оказался в таком же положении по отношению к древнему яхвизму, как протестантизм по отношению к Церкви: осталась вера, молитва, традиция, но духовно-мистический и культовый стержень исчез. Впрочем, это случилось уже после явления в мир Того, Кто Сам стал последней жертвой за жизнь мира. Тем же, кто остался верен Завету Моисея и не принял Завета Нового, остаётся уповать на явление мал'ах яхве в надежде, что Господь не оставит искренне верующих в Него. Да и может ли исчезнуть иудаизм, пока сохраняется хотя бы одна община искренне верующих, которых осеняет покой шаббата? Конечно, человек, влезающий по верёвочной лестнице в окно, когда открыта дверь, выглядит несколько странно; но ведь и мы, считающие себя христианами и вполне церковными людьми, большею частью стоим на пороге, лишь изредка и ненадолго его переступая, и, наверное, мы тоже выглядим со стороны несколько странно, особенно когда стараемся при всём этом уверить окружающих, что мы-то и есть самые настоящие обитатели дома. Здесь мы, в сущности, имеем дело с тайной, которая, вероятнее всего, разрешится лишь в конце времён.

Отрывки к тексту:
Lev 1
Lev 3:1-4:35
Lev 8-9
Lev 11
Lev 12
Lev 15
1
Then the LORD called to Moses and spoke to him from the tent of meeting, saying,
2
“Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘When any man of you brings an offering to the LORD, you shall bring your offering of animals from the herd or the flock.
3
If his offering is a burnt offering from the herd, he shall offer it, a male without defect; he shall offer it at the doorway of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the LORD.
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He shall lay his hand on the head of the burnt offering, that it may be accepted for him to make atonement on his behalf.
5
He shall slay the young bull before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons the priests shall offer up the blood and sprinkle the blood around on the altar that is at the doorway of the tent of meeting.
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He shall then skin the burnt offering and cut it into its pieces.
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The sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire on the altar and arrange wood on the fire.
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Then Aaron’s sons the priests shall arrange the pieces, the head and the suet over the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.
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Its entrails, however, and its legs he shall wash with water. And the priest shall offer up in smoke all of it on the altar for a burnt offering, an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the LORD.
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‘But if his offering is from the flock, of the sheep or of the goats, for a burnt offering, he shall offer it a male without defect.
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He shall slay it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD, and Aaron’s sons the priests shall sprinkle its blood around on the altar.
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He shall then cut it into its pieces with its head and its suet, and the priest shall arrange them on the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.
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The entrails, however, and the legs he shall wash with water. And the priest shall offer all of it, and offer it up in smoke on the altar; it is a burnt offering, an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the LORD.
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‘But if his offering to the LORD is a burnt offering of birds, then he shall bring his offering from the turtledoves or from young pigeons.
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The priest shall bring it to the altar, and wring off its head and offer it up in smoke on the altar; and its blood is to be drained out on the side of the altar.
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He shall also take away its crop with its feathers and cast it beside the altar eastward, to the place of the ashes.
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Then he shall tear it by its wings, but shall not sever it. And the priest shall offer it up in smoke on the altar on the wood which is on the fire; it is a burnt offering, an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the LORD.
Скрыть
1
‘Now if his offering is a sacrifice of peace offerings, if he is going to offer out of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without defect before the LORD.
2
He shall lay his hand on the head of his offering and slay it at the doorway of the tent of meeting, and Aaron’s sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood around on the altar.
3
From the sacrifice of the peace offerings he shall present an offering by fire to the LORD, the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is on the entrails,
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and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he shall remove with the kidneys.
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Then Aaron’s sons shall offer it up in smoke on the altar on the burnt offering, which is on the wood that is on the fire; it is an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the LORD.
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But if his offering for a sacrifice of peace offerings to the LORD is from the flock, he shall offer it, male or female, without defect.
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If he is going to offer a lamb for his offering, then he shall offer it before the LORD,
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and he shall lay his hand on the head of his offering and slay it before the tent of meeting, and Aaron’s sons shall sprinkle its blood around on the altar.
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From the sacrifice of peace offerings he shall bring as an offering by fire to the LORD, its fat, the entire fat tail which he shall remove close to the backbone, and the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is on the entrails,
10
and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he shall remove with the kidneys.
11
Then the priest shall offer it up in smoke on the altar as food, an offering by fire to the LORD.
12
‘Moreover, if his offering is a goat, then he shall offer it before the LORD,
13
and he shall lay his hand on its head and slay it before the tent of meeting, and the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle its blood around on the altar.
14
From it he shall present his offering as an offering by fire to the LORD, the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that is on the entrails,
15
and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he shall remove with the kidneys.
16
The priest shall offer them up in smoke on the altar as food, an offering by fire for a soothing aroma; all fat is the LORD’S.
17
It is a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings: you shall not eat any fat or any blood.’”
1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
2
“Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘If a person sins unintentionally in any of the things which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and commits any of them,
3
if the anointed priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer to the LORD a bull without defect as a sin offering for the sin he has committed.
4
He shall bring the bull to the doorway of the tent of meeting before the LORD, and he shall lay his hand on the head of the bull and slay the bull before the LORD.
5
Then the anointed priest is to take some of the blood of the bull and bring it to the tent of meeting,
6
and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary.
7
The priest shall also put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense which is before the LORD in the tent of meeting; and all the blood of the bull he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting.
8
He shall remove from it all the fat of the bull of the sin offering: the fat that covers the entrails, and all the fat which is on the entrails,
9
and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he shall remove with the kidneys
10
(just as it is removed from the ox of the sacrifice of peace offerings), and the priest is to offer them up in smoke on the altar of burnt offering.
11
But the hide of the bull and all its flesh with its head and its legs and its entrails and its refuse,
12
that is, all the rest of the bull, he is to bring out to a clean place outside the camp where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out it shall be burned.
13
‘Now if the whole congregation of Israel commits error and the matter escapes the notice of the assembly, and they commit any of the things which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and they become guilty;
14
when the sin which they have committed becomes known, then the assembly shall offer a bull of the herd for a sin offering and bring it before the tent of meeting.
15
Then the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before the LORD, and the bull shall be slain before the LORD.
16
Then the anointed priest is to bring some of the blood of the bull to the tent of meeting;
17
and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil.
18
He shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar which is before the LORD in the tent of meeting; and all the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting.
19
He shall remove all its fat from it and offer it up in smoke on the altar.
20
He shall also do with the bull just as he did with the bull of the sin offering; thus he shall do with it. So the priest shall make atonement for them, and they will be forgiven.
21
Then he is to bring out the bull to a place outside the camp and burn it as he burned the first bull; it is the sin offering for the assembly.
22
‘When a leader sins and unintentionally does any one of all the things which the LORD his God has commanded not to be done, and he becomes guilty,
23
if his sin which he has committed is made known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without defect.
24
He shall lay his hand on the head of the male goat and slay it in the place where they slay the burnt offering before the LORD; it is a sin offering.
25
Then the priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering; and the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering.
26
All its fat he shall offer up in smoke on the altar as in the case of the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him in regard to his sin, and he will be forgiven.
27
‘Now if anyone of the common people sins unintentionally in doing any of the things which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and becomes guilty,
28
if his sin which he has committed is made known to him, then he shall bring for his offering a goat, a female without defect, for his sin which he has committed.
29
He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slay the sin offering at the place of the burnt offering.
30
The priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering; and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar.
31
Then he shall remove all its fat, just as the fat was removed from the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall offer it up in smoke on the altar for a soothing aroma to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him, and he will be forgiven.
32
‘But if he brings a lamb as his offering for a sin offering, he shall bring it, a female without defect.
33
He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slay it for a sin offering in the place where they slay the burnt offering.
34
The priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar.
35
Then he shall remove all its fat, just as the fat of the lamb is removed from the sacrifice of the peace offerings, and the priest shall offer them up in smoke on the altar, on the offerings by fire to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him in regard to his sin which he has committed, and he will be forgiven.
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1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
2
“Take Aaron and his sons with him, and the garments and the anointing oil and the bull of the sin offering, and the two rams and the basket of unleavened bread,
3
and assemble all the congregation at the doorway of the tent of meeting.”
4
So Moses did just as the LORD commanded him. When the congregation was assembled at the doorway of the tent of meeting,
5
Moses said to the congregation, “This is the thing which the LORD has commanded to do.”
6
Then Moses had Aaron and his sons come near and washed them with water.
7
He put the tunic on him and girded him with the sash, and clothed him with the robe and put the ephod on him; and he girded him with the artistic band of the ephod, with which he tied it to him.
8
He then placed the breastpiece on him, and in the breastpiece he put the Urim and the Thummim.
9
He also placed the turban on his head, and on the turban, at its front, he placed the golden plate, the holy crown, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
10
Moses then took the anointing oil and anointed the tabernacle and all that was in it, and consecrated them.
11
He sprinkled some of it on the altar seven times and anointed the altar and all its utensils, and the basin and its stand, to consecrate them.
12
Then he poured some of the anointing oil on Aaron’s head and anointed him, to consecrate him.
13
Next Moses had Aaron’s sons come near and clothed them with tunics, and girded them with sashes and bound caps on them, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
14
Then he brought the bull of the sin offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the bull of the sin offering.
15
Next Moses slaughtered it and took the blood and with his finger put some of it around on the horns of the altar, and purified the altar. Then he poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar and consecrated it, to make atonement for it.
16
He also took all the fat that was on the entrails and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys and their fat; and Moses offered it up in smoke on the altar.
17
But the bull and its hide and its flesh and its refuse he burned in the fire outside the camp, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
18
Then he presented the ram of the burnt offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram.
19
Moses slaughtered it and sprinkled the blood around on the altar.
20
When he had cut the ram into its pieces, Moses offered up the head and the pieces and the suet in smoke.
21
After he had washed the entrails and the legs with water, Moses offered up the whole ram in smoke on the altar. It was a burnt offering for a soothing aroma; it was an offering by fire to the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
22
Then he presented the second ram, the ram of ordination, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram.
23
Moses slaughtered it and took some of its blood and put it on the lobe of Aaron’s right ear, and on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot.
24
He also had Aaron’s sons come near; and Moses put some of the blood on the lobe of their right ear, and on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot. Moses then sprinkled the rest of the blood around on the altar.
25
He took the fat, and the fat tail, and all the fat that was on the entrails, and the lobe of the liver and the two kidneys and their fat and the right thigh.
26
From the basket of unleavened bread that was before the LORD, he took one unleavened cake and one cake of bread mixed with oil and one wafer, and placed them on the portions of fat and on the right thigh.
27
He then put all these on the hands of Aaron and on the hands of his sons and presented them as a wave offering before the LORD.
28
Then Moses took them from their hands and offered them up in smoke on the altar with the burnt offering. They were an ordination offering for a soothing aroma; it was an offering by fire to the LORD.
29
Moses also took the breast and presented it for a wave offering before the LORD; it was Moses’ portion of the ram of ordination, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
30
So Moses took some of the anointing oil and some of the blood which was on the altar and sprinkled it on Aaron, on his garments, on his sons, and on the garments of his sons with him; and he consecrated Aaron, his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him.
31
Then Moses said to Aaron and to his sons, “Boil the flesh at the doorway of the tent of meeting, and eat it there together with the bread which is in the basket of the ordination offering, just as I commanded, saying, ‘Aaron and his sons shall eat it.’
32
The remainder of the flesh and of the bread you shall burn in the fire.
33
You shall not go outside the doorway of the tent of meeting for seven days, until the day that the period of your ordination is fulfilled; for he will ordain you through seven days.
34
The LORD has commanded to do as has been done this day, to make atonement on your behalf.
35
At the doorway of the tent of meeting, moreover, you shall remain day and night for seven days and keep the charge of the LORD, so that you will not die, for so I have been commanded.”
36
Thus Aaron and his sons did all the things which the LORD had commanded through Moses.
1
Now it came about on the eighth day that Moses called Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel;
2
and he said to Aaron, “Take for yourself a calf, a bull, for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering, both without defect, and offer them before the LORD.
3
Then to the sons of Israel you shall speak, saying, ‘Take a male goat for a sin offering, and a calf and a lamb, both one year old, without defect, for a burnt offering,
4
and an ox and a ram for peace offerings, to sacrifice before the LORD, and a grain offering mixed with oil; for today the LORD will appear to you.’”
5
So they took what Moses had commanded to the front of the tent of meeting, and the whole congregation came near and stood before the LORD.
6
Moses said, “This is the thing which the LORD has commanded you to do, that the glory of the LORD may appear to you.”
7
Moses then said to Aaron, “Come near to the altar and offer your sin offering and your burnt offering, that you may make atonement for yourself and for the people; then make the offering for the people, that you may make atonement for them, just as the LORD has commanded.”
8
So Aaron came near to the altar and slaughtered the calf of the sin offering which was for himself.
9
Aaron’s sons presented the blood to him; and he dipped his finger in the blood and put some on the horns of the altar, and poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar.
10
The fat and the kidneys and the lobe of the liver of the sin offering, he then offered up in smoke on the altar just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
11
The flesh and the skin, however, he burned with fire outside the camp.
12
Then he slaughtered the burnt offering; and Aaron’s sons handed the blood to him and he sprinkled it around on the altar.
13
They handed the burnt offering to him in pieces, with the head, and he offered them up in smoke on the altar.
14
He also washed the entrails and the legs, and offered them up in smoke with the burnt offering on the altar.
15
Then he presented the people’s offering, and took the goat of the sin offering which was for the people, and slaughtered it and offered it for sin, like the first.
16
He also presented the burnt offering, and offered it according to the ordinance.
17
Next he presented the grain offering, and filled his hand with some of it and offered it up in smoke on the altar, besides the burnt offering of the morning.
18
Then he slaughtered the ox and the ram, the sacrifice of peace offerings which was for the people; and Aaron’s sons handed the blood to him and he sprinkled it around on the altar.
19
As for the portions of fat from the ox and from the ram, the fat tail, and the fat covering, and the kidneys and the lobe of the liver,
20
they now placed the portions of fat on the breasts; and he offered them up in smoke on the altar.
21
But the breasts and the right thigh Aaron presented as a wave offering before the LORD, just as Moses had commanded.
22
Then Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them, and he stepped down after making the sin offering and the burnt offering and the peace offerings.
23
Moses and Aaron went into the tent of meeting. When they came out and blessed the people, the glory of the LORD appeared to all the people.
24
Then fire came out from before the LORD and consumed the burnt offering and the portions of fat on the altar; and when all the people saw it, they shouted and fell on their faces.
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1
The LORD spoke again to Moses and to Aaron, saying to them,
2
“Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘These are the creatures which you may eat from all the animals that are on the earth.
3
Whatever divides a hoof, thus making split hoofs, and chews the cud, among the animals, that you may eat.
4
Nevertheless, you are not to eat of these, among those which chew the cud, or among those which divide the hoof: the camel, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you.
5
Likewise, the shaphan, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you;
6
the rabbit also, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you;
7
and the pig, for though it divides the hoof, thus making a split hoof, it does not chew cud, it is unclean to you.
8
You shall not eat of their flesh nor touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you.
9
‘These you may eat, whatever is in the water: all that have fins and scales, those in the water, in the seas or in the rivers, you may eat.
10
But whatever is in the seas and in the rivers that does not have fins and scales among all the teeming life of the water, and among all the living creatures that are in the water, they are detestable things to you,
11
and they shall be abhorrent to you; you may not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses you shall detest.
12
Whatever in the water does not have fins and scales is abhorrent to you.
13
‘These, moreover, you shall detest among the birds; they are abhorrent, not to be eaten: the eagle and the vulture and the buzzard,
14
and the kite and the falcon in its kind,
15
every raven in its kind,
16
and the ostrich and the owl and the sea gull and the hawk in its kind,
17
and the little owl and the cormorant and the great owl,
18
and the white owl and the pelican and the carrion vulture,
19
and the stork, the heron in its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat.
20
‘All the winged insects that walk on all fours are detestable to you.
21
Yet these you may eat among all the winged insects which walk on all fours: those which have above their feet jointed legs with which to jump on the earth.
22
These of them you may eat: the locust in its kinds, and the devastating locust in its kinds, and the cricket in its kinds, and the grasshopper in its kinds.
23
But all other winged insects which are four-footed are detestable to you.
24
‘By these, moreover, you will be made unclean: whoever touches their carcasses becomes unclean until evening,
25
and whoever picks up any of their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening.
26
Concerning all the animals which divide the hoof but do not make a split hoof, or which do not chew cud, they are unclean to you: whoever touches them becomes unclean.
27
Also whatever walks on its paws, among all the creatures that walk on all fours, are unclean to you; whoever touches their carcasses becomes unclean until evening,
28
and the one who picks up their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; they are unclean to you.
29
‘Now these are to you the unclean among the swarming things which swarm on the earth: the mole, and the mouse, and the great lizard in its kinds,
30
and the gecko, and the crocodile, and the lizard, and the sand reptile, and the chameleon.
31
These are to you the unclean among all the swarming things; whoever touches them when they are dead becomes unclean until evening.
32
Also anything on which one of them may fall when they are dead becomes unclean, including any wooden article, or clothing, or a skin, or a sack—any article of which use is made—it shall be put in the water and be unclean until evening, then it becomes clean.
33
As for any earthenware vessel into which one of them may fall, whatever is in it becomes unclean and you shall break the vessel.
34
Any of the food which may be eaten, on which water comes, shall become unclean, and any liquid which may be drunk in every vessel shall become unclean.
35
Everything, moreover, on which part of their carcass may fall becomes unclean; an oven or a stove shall be smashed; they are unclean and shall continue as unclean to you.
36
Nevertheless a spring or a cistern collecting water shall be clean, though the one who touches their carcass shall be unclean.
37
If a part of their carcass falls on any seed for sowing which is to be sown, it is clean.
38
Though if water is put on the seed and a part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.
39
‘Also if one of the animals dies which you have for food, the one who touches its carcass becomes unclean until evening.
40
He too, who eats some of its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening, and the one who picks up its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening.
41
‘Now every swarming thing that swarms on the earth is detestable, not to be eaten.
42
Whatever crawls on its belly, and whatever walks on all fours, whatever has many feet, in respect to every swarming thing that swarms on the earth, you shall not eat them, for they are detestable.
43
Do not render yourselves detestable through any of the swarming things that swarm; and you shall not make yourselves unclean with them so that you become unclean.
44
For I am the LORD your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy, for I am holy. And you shall not make yourselves unclean with any of the swarming things that swarm on the earth.
45
For I am the LORD who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God; thus you shall be holy, for I am holy.’”
46
This is the law regarding the animal and the bird, and every living thing that moves in the waters and everything that swarms on the earth,
47
to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the edible creature and the creature which is not to be eaten.
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1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
2
“Speak to the sons of Israel, saying: ‘When a woman gives birth and bears a male child, then she shall be unclean for seven days, as in the days of her menstruation she shall be unclean.
3
On the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.
4
Then she shall remain in the blood of her purification for thirty-three days; she shall not touch any consecrated thing, nor enter the sanctuary until the days of her purification are completed.
5
But if she bears a female child, then she shall be unclean for two weeks, as in her menstruation; and she shall remain in the blood of her purification for sixty-six days.
6
‘When the days of her purification are completed, for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring to the priest at the doorway of the tent of meeting a one year old lamb for a burnt offering and a young pigeon or a turtledove for a sin offering.
7
Then he shall offer it before the LORD and make atonement for her, and she shall be cleansed from the flow of her blood. This is the law for her who bears a child, whether a male or a female.
8
But if she cannot afford a lamb, then she shall take two turtledoves or two young pigeons, the one for a burnt offering and the other for a sin offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her, and she will be clean.’”
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1
The LORD also spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,
2
“Speak to the sons of Israel, and say to them, ‘When any man has a discharge from his body, his discharge is unclean.
3
This, moreover, shall be his uncleanness in his discharge: it is his uncleanness whether his body allows its discharge to flow or whether his body obstructs its discharge.
4
Every bed on which the person with the discharge lies becomes unclean, and everything on which he sits becomes unclean.
5
Anyone, moreover, who touches his bed shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening;
6
and whoever sits on the thing on which the man with the discharge has been sitting, shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
7
Also whoever touches the person with the discharge shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
8
Or if the man with the discharge spits on one who is clean, he too shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
9
Every saddle on which the person with the discharge rides becomes unclean.
10
Whoever then touches any of the things which were under him shall be unclean until evening, and he who carries them shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
11
Likewise, whomever the one with the discharge touches without having rinsed his hands in water shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
12
However, an earthenware vessel which the person with the discharge touches shall be broken, and every wooden vessel shall be rinsed in water.
13
‘Now when the man with the discharge becomes cleansed from his discharge, then he shall count off for himself seven days for his cleansing; he shall then wash his clothes and bathe his body in running water and will become clean.
14
Then on the eighth day he shall take for himself two turtledoves or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD to the doorway of the tent of meeting and give them to the priest;
15
and the priest shall offer them, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf before the LORD because of his discharge.
16
‘Now if a man has a seminal emission, he shall bathe all his body in water and be unclean until evening.
17
As for any garment or any leather on which there is seminal emission, it shall be washed with water and be unclean until evening.
18
If a man lies with a woman so that there is a seminal emission, they shall both bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
19
‘When a woman has a discharge, if her discharge in her body is blood, she shall continue in her menstrual impurity for seven days; and whoever touches her shall be unclean until evening.
20
Everything also on which she lies during her menstrual impurity shall be unclean, and everything on which she sits shall be unclean.
21
Anyone who touches her bed shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
22
Whoever touches any thing on which she sits shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
23
Whether it be on the bed or on the thing on which she is sitting, when he touches it, he shall be unclean until evening.
24
If a man actually lies with her so that her menstrual impurity is on him, he shall be unclean seven days, and every bed on which he lies shall be unclean.
25
‘Now if a woman has a discharge of her blood many days, not at the period of her menstrual impurity, or if she has a discharge beyond that period, all the days of her impure discharge she shall continue as though in her menstrual impurity; she is unclean.
26
Any bed on which she lies all the days of her discharge shall be to her like her bed at menstruation; and every thing on which she sits shall be unclean, like her uncleanness at that time.
27
Likewise, whoever touches them shall be unclean and shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until evening.
28
When she becomes clean from her discharge, she shall count off for herself seven days; and afterward she will be clean.
29
Then on the eighth day she shall take for herself two turtledoves or two young pigeons and bring them in to the priest, to the doorway of the tent of meeting.
30
The priest shall offer the one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. So the priest shall make atonement on her behalf before the LORD because of her impure discharge.’
31
“Thus you shall keep the sons of Israel separated from their uncleanness, so that they will not die in their uncleanness by their defiling My tabernacle that is among them.”
32
This is the law for the one with a discharge, and for the man who has a seminal emission so that he is unclean by it,
33
and for the woman who is ill because of menstrual impurity, and for the one who has a discharge, whether a male or a female, or a man who lies with an unclean woman.
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