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Историко-культурный контекст Ветхого Завета

В.Сорокин

Иудея до ассирийских войн

После смерти Соломона и распада возглавляемой им страны его сын и преемник Ровоам оказался правителем небольшого государства, занимавшего Иудейское нагорье и южную часть Самарии, а также некоторые области в пустыне Негев, включая оазис Беэр-Шева (Вирсавия). Это государство, просуществовавшее до начала VI века, историки называют обычно Южным Царством или Иудейским Царством, а иногда и просто Иудеей. В отличие от Северного Царства, Иудее удалось пережить ассирийские войны, по окончании которых она просуществовала ещё почти два столетия, и конец её истории положило нашествие вавилонян. Надо заметить, что Иудея как государство во всех отношениях уступала Северному Царству. Территориально она была меньше последнего почти вдвое; из двенадцати еврейских кланов в Иудее обитало лишь два. Крупных городов здесь не было, за исключением Иерусалима; население сохраняло в основном прежний, патриархальный образ жизни, занимаясь, как встарь, террасным земледелием и пастбищно-отгонным скотоводством горного типа. По сравнению с экономически и культурно развитым Севером Иудея была тихой и провинциальной страной.

Для внешней политики Иудеи на всём протяжении IX и первой половины VIII столетия основополагающее значение имели её отношения с северным соседом. Чаще всего они были враждебными (3 Цар 15:6, 16, 32; 4 Цар 14:8–14), но бывали и случаи совместных действий против общего противника (4 Цар 3:6–7; 8:28–29). Речь в данном случае идёт о противнике, угрожавшем скорее Северному Царству, чем собственно Иудее; у самой же Иудеи, кроме Самарийского Царства, других серьёзных противников в Палестине не было. Воевать правителям Иудеи в основном приходилось со своими соперниками из Северного Царства. Впрочем, непростые отношения складывались у Иудеи также и с Идумеей (4 Цар 8:20; 14:7). Во времена единого Израиля Идумея находилась под контролем израильских правителей, впоследствии же, воспользовавшись изменившейся ситуацией и слабостью Иудеи, которая не могла уже контролировать прежние территории так, как это делалось при Соломоне, отделилась, образовав независимое государство во главе с собственным правителем. Что же касается соседних государств, то они в рассматриваемый нами период в дела Иудеи не вмешивались; единственное исключение составляет поход на Иерусалим фараона Шешонка (Сусакима), попытавшегося восстановить в Палестине былое влияние Египта (3 Цар 14:25–26; об этом походе есть упоминания и в египетских источниках).

Внутриполитическая ситуация в Иудее в целом всегда была стабильнее, чем в Северном Царстве. Главным образом этому способствовал тот факт, что здесь существовала легитимная династия, причём её легитимность подтверждалась традицией, восходящей к Давиду. К тому же, в сознании подавляющего большинства жителей Иудеи эта легитимность была освящена пророческими откровениями и связанными с ней династическими обещаниями, данными Давиду. И здесь были вполне возможны дворцовые перевороты, которые упоминаются в Книгах Царей, но в истории Иудеи их было всё же меньше, чем в истории Самарии. Впрочем, даже в таких условиях едва ли можно говорить о формировании в Иудее традиции абсолютной наследственной монархии. По-видимому, подобного рода тенденция в иудейском обществе имелась, но для формирования монархической системы наподобие, например, египетской или вавилонской требовалось как минимум несколько столетий, если не тысячелетий, которых у Иудеи не было.

Что касается религиозной ситуации, то для её понимания необходимо учитывать, что общее положение Иудеи в этом отношении существенно отличалось от того, которое складывалось на Севере. В отличие от Самарийского Царства, Иудея была в основном мононациональной страной. Население её, по-видимому, было преимущественно (если не исключительно) еврейским. Исключение составляла Идумея, но и её жители рассматривались как члены племён, родственных племенам еврейским, и на них во все времена еврейской истории смотрели скорее как на своих, чем как на чужаков. Впрочем, идумеи традиционно не были яхвистами, и религиозное различие между ними и евреями становилось очевидным. По-видимому, именно оно и привело в конечном итоге к отделению Идумеи от Иудеи. Однако проблема язычников всё же никогда не стояла здесь так остро, как на Севере. К тому же, у правителей Иудеи не было решительно никаких причин для формального отказа от яхвизма в том его виде, в котором он существовал в стране при Давиде и Соломоне. Напротив, сохранение Иерусалима как религиозной столицы яхвизма могло бы принести им в будущем ощутимые политические дивиденды. Иудейским правителям не было никакого смысла пересматривать религиозную политику своих предшественников и вводить в этой области какие-то новшества.

При таких условиях едва ли можно было ожидать от правителей Иудеи каких-то кардинальных религиозных реформ; их и не последовало, по крайней мере, до восшествия на престол Иосии, правление которого относится уже к совершенно иной эпохе. Но приходится иметь в виду, что формальная приверженность яхвизму отнюдь не означала автоматического его распространения в широких слоях общества. Уже в последние годы правления Соломона приходилось говорить скорее об уменьшении популярности яхвизма в стране, чем о росте числа его приверженцев. Судя по описаниям Книг Царей, относящимся к Иудее, приходится думать, что и при преемниках Соломона ситуация, как правило, была не намного лучше. Фактическая религиозная политика отдельных правителей могла быть более или менее прояхвистской, но здесь имелись вполне определённые пределы. Ни один из них никогда бы не решился отказаться от государственного статуса яхвизма. С другой стороны, до полной централизации яхвистского культа (а следовательно, и до полной ликвидации общественных языческих святилищ) дело прежде Иосии никто не доводил. Речь могла идти лишь идти о той мере внимания, которую уделял тот или иной правитель яхвизму, то есть о том, способствовал ли он распространению в обществе яхвизма (и тогда последний обычно расширял своё влияние) или пускал религиозную политику на самотёк (в таком случае популярность яхвизма вновь уменьшалась).

На первый взгляд, такая зависимость влияния яхвизма в обществе от государственной поддержки должна была бы свидетельствовать о его нежизнеспособности. Но приходится учитывать, что в рассматриваемый период яхвизм уже на протяжении почти полутора столетий рассматривался еврейским обществом именно как государственная религия. Между тем, в древности на государственную религию и смотрели обычно, как на дело государства по преимуществу. Иными словами, в случаях, когда дело касалось государственной религии, соответствующих религиозных инициатив ожидали именно от государства, и ни от кого другого. Ожидать в этих случаях инициативы от частных лиц было бы, с точки зрения людей рассматриваемой эпохи, так же странно, как в случае, когда дело касалось бы объявления войны или заключения дипломатического союза. В такой ситуации интенсивность яхвистской религиозной жизни зависела всецело от активности официальных религиозных властей, и, в первую очередь, от храмового священства. Иное дело языческие культы: большинство языческих святилищ было в те времена в Иудее племенными и родовыми, и интенсивность связанной с ними религиозной жизни властями никак не определялась.

В таких условиях особую роль в иудейской религиозной жизни играл Храм и храмовое священство. На Севере ситуация была несколько иной. Там священнические общины, организованные основателем страны Иеровоамом, всецело зависели от властей и не могли ни играть собственной политической роли, ни пользоваться сколько-нибудь значительным влиянием в обществе. Там определяющую роль в яхвистской религиозной жизни играли пророческие общины и их лидеры. В Иудее же пророческих общин, похоже, не было вовсе, хотя, конечно, нельзя исключать, что деятельность кого-либо из северных пророков затрагивала также и соседнюю страну. Зато священство здесь пользовалось авторитетом нередко большим, чем правитель. Именно представители иерусалимского священства бывали обычно сторонниками проведения активной государственной политики в поддержку яхвизма. Иногда им удавалось даже привести к власти своего ставленника (4 Цар 11), который в дальнейшем делал всё возможное для укрепления в стране яхвизма и, прежде всего, для восстановления Храма (4 Цар 12).

Такое вмешательство в политическую жизнь в значительной мере политизировало и само священство. По-видимому, традиция участия иерусалимского священства в политической жизни, заложенная в этот период, сделала впоследствии (уже после Вавилонского плена) возможным приход священства к власти в созданной персами еврейской национальной автономии и образование там иерократического режима. Между тем, такая политизация не всегда шла на пользу самому священству, хотя она и была в известной степени неизбежной, так как в древности на Ближнем Востоке жречество, связанное с государственными святилищами, повсеместно вовлекалось в политику и участвовало в государственной деятельности. Конечно, иерусалимское священство никогда не пользовалось в Иудее таким влиянием, каким пользовались египетские жреческие корпорации у себя в стране, но их влияние всё же не шло ни в какое сравнение с влиянием жречества в греко-римском мире, где жреческие должности были обычными выборными магистратурами, ничем не отличавшимися от прочих. При это содержание роскошного Храма обходилось дорого для маленькой страны, ресурсы которой не шли ни в какое сравнение с Израилем эпохи Соломона.

Рассмотренное нами положение сохранялось в Иудее до начала VIII века, когда религиозная ситуация здесь кардинально изменилась. Перемены эти стали заметны далеко не сразу. Речь идёт о формировании в Иудее в первой половине VIII века нового типа пророческой религиозности и о появлении первых представителей так называемых поздних, или классических, пророков. Их появление именно в данный период было не случайным. Прежде на протяжении почти столетия религиозные поиски на Юге были связаны со священнической средой. По-видимому, именно в IX века появляется так называемый Кодекс святости (Лев 19-26), который был ответом иерусалимского священства на вопрос о том, как соблюдать Тору и хранить чистоту в новых, изменившихся по сравнению с патриархальной эпохой, условиях. Однако немалую роль в религиозной жизни Иудеи должны были играть и идеи, связанные с пророческими общинами Севера. Представленный ими традиционный тип пророческой религиозности и называют обычно раннепророческим. Однако после совершённого при участии Елисея в Самарии теократического переворота и последовавшей за ним массовой резни на пророков стали смотреть как на людей опасных, в них стали видеть религиозных фанатиков, ради торжества своих идеалов не останавливающихся ни перед чем. Такая репутация в значительной степени дискредитировала не только пророческое движение, но и яхвизм в целом. К тому же, провал попыток реформы, предпринятой во время правления Ииуя, ясно показал исчерпанность тех идей, на которых основывалось раннепророческое движение.

Именно в этой ситуации на смену ранним пророкам приходят те, кого называют обычно поздними пророками или пророками-писателями. Последнее название связано с тем, что именно их именами надписаны пророческие книги, которые мы находим в Ветхом Завете. Впрочем, его надо всё же считать в значительной мере условным. Дело в том, что сами пророки, по-видимому, не записывали своих проповедей, а произносили их публично, как это делали и их предшественники — представители раннепророческого движения. Бывали, конечно, и исключения: так, Иеремия записал, по особому указанию свыше, некоторые из своих проповедей (Иер 36:2–3), но сам факт того, что такое указание потребовалось, говорит о том, что перед нами всё же именно исключение, а не правило. Записи пророческих проповедей были сделаны их слушателями, или, вернее, учениками и последователями, для которых всё, сказанное пророками, было чрезвычайно важно. Окончательная редактура этих записей, вероятнее всего, происходила не по горячим следам, а много позже, когда уже сложилась практика чтения пророческих текстов в Синагоге и, соответственно, возникла необходимость упорядочить существовавшие на тот момент записи. Такая редактура должна была быть произведена уже после Вавилонского плена, и, во всяком случае, не ранее V века, так как в V веке ещё проповедовали последние из поздних пророков — Захария и Малахия.

Судя по всем имеющимся на сегодняшний день текстологическим данным, редактура эта была очень бережной. Речь в большинстве случаев, по-видимому, должна идти лишь об упорядочении записанных ранее проповедей и о сведении их в сборники, связанные с именем того или иного пророка. Иногда к сборникам добавлялись исторические вставки уточняющего и пояснительного характера, как это имеет место в первой части Книги Исайи и в Книге Иеремии. Кроме того, в состав Книги Исайи её авторы включили проповеди двух разных пророков, из которых один (библеисты называют его обычно просто Исайей или Исайей Иерусалимским) жил в Иерусалиме во время правления Езекии, а другой (библеисты называют его Второисайей или Исайей Вавилонским) — в Вавилоне незадолго до конца Вавилонского плена. Об этом свидетельствует, прежде всего, тот факт, что вторая часть Книги Исайи (гл. 40–66 книги) очевидно отражает в своём тексте более позднюю эпоху по сравнению с первой частью. Если первая часть книги и собранные в ней проповеди прямо относятся ко времени правления Езекии (Ис 1:1), то во второй упоминается Кир Великий (Ис 45:1) и провозглашается окончание времени испытания (Ис 40:1–2), то есть Вавилонского плена. Данные события разделяет двести лет (Езекия правил в середине VIII века, а плен завершился в конце VI века), что и заставляет думать о двух разных пророках, живших в разные эпохи.

Впрочем, такое соединение двух сборников в один едва ли можно считать случайным. По-видимому, перед нами композиционный замысел, охватывающий книги поздних пророков в целом. Скорее всего, первая часть этой композиции (та, которую мы обычно называем большими пророками) была изначально задумана как часть, целиком посвящённая мессианской традиции, причём первая из составляющих её книг, Книга Исайи, должна была занять в ней особое место: именно здесь мы находим квинтэссенцию мессианской проповеди поздних пророков, дополненную и расширенную Книгой Иеремии и Книгой Иезекииля (Книгу Даниила иудейская традиция в число пророческих не включает). Так в пророческом корпусе выделялась главная тема, которой был яхвистский мессианизм, а в ней, в свою очередь, выделялось смысловое ядро, объединённое композиционно в один сборник. Вполне вероятно, что автор проповедей, включённых во вторую часть Книги Исайи, действительно носил соответствующее имя, которое у евреев было распространено достаточно широко не только в допленную эпоху, но и во время плена, что и позволило редакторам Книги Исайи соединить два сборника воедино.

Что же представляло собой движение поздних пророков? Прежде всего, необходимо отметить, что, по сравнению с раннепророческим движением, оно было гораздо более персонифицированным. Такого феномена, как пророческая община, движение поздних пророков, по-видимому, не знало. Его представителями были, прежде всего, отдельные личности, которые, ощущая себя преемниками своих предшественников, живших в прежние века, тем не менее отнюдь не идентифицировали себя с современным им организованным пророческим движением. Так, Амос говорил о себе, что он «не пророк и не сын пророка» (Ам 7:14), очевидно, не желая, чтобы его приняли за пророка в традиционном смысле слова. Традиционное пророческое движение (то самое, которое называют обычно раннепророческим) при этом не исчезло с появлением поздних пророков; оно продолжало существовать вплоть до плена, духовно окончательно выродившись: общины, где прежде встречались подлинные пророки, превратились в сборища экстатиков, говоривших то, чего ожидала от них услышать возбуждённая толпа. Неудивительно, что поздние пророки старались держаться подальше от этих любителей экстазов, которых, конечно, было немало в любой восточной толпе.

Но был в такой отстранённости от традиционных форм пророческой организации и иной смысл. Прежде всего, необходимо было, чтобы пророческий дар перестал ассоциироваться в обществе с той воинственностью и безжалостностью, которая отличала пророческие общины Севера. К тому же, необходимо было разрушить традиционные представления о пророке как об отшельнике, живущем своей особенной жизнью в общине себе подобных. Поздние пророки уже не стремились поразить своих слушателей внешней загадочностью или необычностью своего образа жизни. Напротив, они, кажется, стремились сделать всё возможное, чтобы как можно меньше отличаться от тех, среди кого они жили. По-видимому, это было важно с точки зрения возложенной на них Богом миссии: приблизить пророческое откровение к обычному человеку с тем, чтобы слушающие пророка не думали, будто пророк человек особенный, не такой, как другие. Слушающие должны были понять, что пророческое откровение — дар Божий, доступный всякому, невзирая на образ жизни, род занятий, меру образованности и другие личные особенности человека. И действительно, среди поздних пророков встречаются люди самых разных сословий, профессий, образа жизни и рода занятий.

Тип религиозности поздних пророков по сравнению с раннепророческим также меняется. Экстатика становится более редким явлением, одновременно смягчаясь и делаясь более спокойной. Выражение יד יהוה яд яхве «рука Яхве» («рука Господня» Синодального перевода), обозначающая, очевидно, мгновенное вхождение пророка в состояние бурного экстаза, у поздних пророков практически не встречается, за исключением Иезекииля (Иезек 1:3, 3:14). Опыт слышания голоса Божия, столь хорошо знакомый ранним пророкам, разумеется, не исчез, и соответствующее выражение דבר יהוה давар яхве «слово Яхве» («слово Господне» Синодального перевода) у поздних пророков встречается так же часто, как и у ранних. Но содержание откровения меняется. Прежде, у ранних пророков, откровения напоминали столь широко распространённые в языческом мире оракулы, представлявшие собой краткие определения, касавшиеся обычно конкретных людей или конкретных племён и народов. Не случайно от ранних пророков не сохранилось записей их пророчеств: касаясь лишь тех, к кому были обращены, они, в сущности, не были интересны потомкам. Иное дело проповедь поздних пророков, через которых Бог открывал Своему народу многое из того, что будет чрезвычайно важно для него не только при жизни самого пророка, но и в грядущие века. Кроме того, религиозность поздних пророков включает своеобразный визионерский опыт, типичным носителем которого является Иезекииль. Замечателен этот опыт тем, что видения тех, для кого он был характерен, обладают собственной ценностью и значением (черта, не характерная для опыта раннепророческого).

Первыми из поздних пророков были Амос и Осия. Амос родился в небольшом иудейском городке Текоа (Фекоя) и был пастухом, вероятно, принадлежа к одному из тех родов, которые вели полукочевой образ жизни в Самарийской степи (Ам 1:1). Проповедовал он, по-видимому, как на Севре, в Бейт-Эле (Вефиле) (Ам 7:12–13), так и на Юге, в Иерусалиме (Ам 6:1). Основной темой его проповеди стала тема суда Божия (Ам 5:18–24). По-видимому, звучала она в дни больших яхвистских праздников, когда и на Юге, и на Севере все, от мала до велика, принимали участие в торжествах, вспоминая в эти дни, что и они тоже яхвисты, и ожидая, что день торжества Божия станет и днём их собственного торжества. Между тем, пророк напоминает им о том, что яхвизм начинается с соблюдения заповедей, о которых большинство его слушателей, по-видимому, особенно не задумывалось, а день суда — это не день торжества, а день встречи с Богом лицом к лицу, который может оказаться для многих совсем не таким радостным, как они ожидают. Такое представление о суде было для слушателей Амоса чем-то новым и неслыханным: они, как и большинство их современников в других странах, были, очевидно, уверены, что торжество их Бога станет и их собственным торжеством, а суд коснётся всех, кто не принадлежит к народу Божию, но никак не их самих.

Осия дополнил проповедь Амоса о суде Божием проповедью о Его милости. Сравнивая народ Божий с неверной женой (Ос 3:1), он прекрасно понимает, что рассчитывать можно не на то, что положено по закону, но лишь на милость Божию, на то, что Бог, ничем более не обязанный Своему народу, нарушившему все взятые на себя во время заключения союза обязательства, всё же из любви сжалится над ним так же, как муж может из любви к изменившей ему жене вновь взять её в свой дом (Ос 2). Не случайно для Осии основой богопознания становятся отношения с Богом, описываемые им в понятиях חסד хесед и אמת эмет. Первое из них означает «милость» или «милосердие», а отношения, им описываемые, предполагают, что те, кого они связывают, готовы сделать друг для друга всё, и гораздо более того, к чему их обязывает закон или заключённый союз. Так Бог готов сделать для Своего народа гораздо более того, на что народ имеет право по закону, и лишь в этом для народа, преступившего закон, остаётся надежда на спасение и избавление от гибели. Второе переводится обычно словом «истина», хотя точнее было бы перевести его как «верность»: именно верность требуется от народа, желающего восстановить отношения с Богом, разрушенные изменой Ему. Лишь такие отношения с Богом могли бы помочь избежать катастрофы, которая между тем надвигалась на еврейский народ: над Палестиной уже нависала грозная тень Ассирии.

Отрывки к тексту:
Ki1 15
Ki2 14
Ki2 3
Ki2 8
Ki2 14
Ki2 11
Ki2 12
Jer 36
Isa 1
Isa 45
Isa 40
Amo 7
Eze 1
Eze 3
Amo 1
Amo 6
Amo 5
Hos 3
1
Now in the eighteenth year of King Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, Abijam became king over Judah.
2
He reigned three years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom.
3
He walked in all the sins of his father which he had committed before him; and his heart was not wholly devoted to the LORD his God, like the heart of his father David.
4
But for David’s sake the LORD his God gave him a lamp in Jerusalem, to raise up his son after him and to establish Jerusalem;
5
because David did what was right in the sight of the LORD, and had not turned aside from anything that He commanded him all the days of his life, except in the case of Uriah the Hittite.
6
There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all the days of his life.
7
Now the rest of the acts of Abijam and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? And there was war between Abijam and Jeroboam.
8
And Abijam slept with his fathers and they buried him in the city of David; and Asa his son became king in his place.
9
So in the twentieth year of Jeroboam the king of Israel, Asa began to reign as king of Judah.
10
He reigned forty-one years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom.
11
Asa did what was right in the sight of the LORD, like David his father.
12
He also put away the male cult prostitutes from the land and removed all the idols which his fathers had made.
13
He also removed Maacah his mother from being queen mother, because she had made a horrid image as an Asherah; and Asa cut down her horrid image and burned it at the brook Kidron.
14
But the high places were not taken away; nevertheless the heart of Asa was wholly devoted to the LORD all his days.
15
He brought into the house of the LORD the dedicated things of his father and his own dedicated things: silver and gold and utensils.
16
Now there was war between Asa and Baasha king of Israel all their days.
17
Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah and fortified Ramah in order to prevent anyone from going out or coming in to Asa king of Judah.
18
Then Asa took all the silver and the gold which were left in the treasuries of the house of the LORD and the treasuries of the king’s house, and delivered them into the hand of his servants. And King Asa sent them to Ben-hadad the son of Tabrimmon, the son of Hezion, king of Aram, who lived in Damascus, saying,
19
“Let there be a treaty between you and me, as between my father and your father. Behold, I have sent you a present of silver and gold; go, break your treaty with Baasha king of Israel so that he will withdraw from me.”
20
So Ben-hadad listened to King Asa and sent the commanders of his armies against the cities of Israel, and conquered Ijon, Dan, Abel-beth-maacah and all Chinneroth, besides all the land of Naphtali.
21
When Baasha heard of it, he ceased fortifying Ramah and remained in Tirzah.
22
Then King Asa made a proclamation to all Judah—none was exempt—and they carried away the stones of Ramah and its timber with which Baasha had built. And King Asa built with them Geba of Benjamin and Mizpah.
23
Now the rest of all the acts of Asa and all his might and all that he did and the cities which he built, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? But in the time of his old age he was diseased in his feet.
24
And Asa slept with his fathers and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father; and Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his place.
25
Now Nadab the son of Jeroboam became king over Israel in the second year of Asa king of Judah, and he reigned over Israel two years.
26
He did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of his father and in his sin which he made Israel sin.
27
Then Baasha the son of Ahijah of the house of Issachar conspired against him, and Baasha struck him down at Gibbethon, which belonged to the Philistines, while Nadab and all Israel were laying siege to Gibbethon.
28
So Baasha killed him in the third year of Asa king of Judah and reigned in his place.
29
It came about as soon as he was king, he struck down all the household of Jeroboam. He did not leave to Jeroboam any persons alive, until he had destroyed them, according to the word of the LORD, which He spoke by His servant Ahijah the Shilonite,
30
and because of the sins of Jeroboam which he sinned, and which he made Israel sin, because of his provocation with which he provoked the LORD God of Israel to anger.
31
Now the rest of the acts of Nadab and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?
32
There was war between Asa and Baasha king of Israel all their days.
33
In the third year of Asa king of Judah, Baasha the son of Ahijah became king over all Israel at Tirzah, and reigned twenty-four years.
34
He did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of Jeroboam and in his sin which he made Israel sin.
Скрыть
1
In the second year of Joash son of Joahaz king of Israel, Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah became king.
2
He was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Jehoaddin of Jerusalem.
3
He did right in the sight of the LORD, yet not like David his father; he did according to all that Joash his father had done.
4
Only the high places were not taken away; the people still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places.
5
Now it came about, as soon as the kingdom was firmly in his hand, that he killed his servants who had slain the king his father.
6
But the sons of the slayers he did not put to death, according to what is written in the book of the Law of Moses, as the LORD commanded, saying, “The fathers shall not be put to death for the sons, nor the sons be put to death for the fathers; but each shall be put to death for his own sin.”
7
He killed of Edom in the Valley of Salt 10,000 and took Sela by war, and named it Joktheel to this day.
8
Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash, the son of Jehoahaz son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, “Come, let us face each other.”
9
Jehoash king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, “The thorn bush which was in Lebanon sent to the cedar which was in Lebanon, saying, ‘Give your daughter to my son in marriage.’ But there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon, and trampled the thorn bush.
10
You have indeed defeated Edom, and your heart has become proud. Enjoy your glory and stay at home; for why should you provoke trouble so that you, even you, would fall, and Judah with you?”
11
But Amaziah would not listen. So Jehoash king of Israel went up; and he and Amaziah king of Judah faced each other at Beth-shemesh, which belongs to Judah.
12
Judah was defeated by Israel, and they fled each to his tent.
13
Then Jehoash king of Israel captured Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Jehoash the son of Ahaziah, at Beth-shemesh, and came to Jerusalem and tore down the wall of Jerusalem from the Gate of Ephraim to the Corner Gate, 400 cubits.
14
He took all the gold and silver and all the utensils which were found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasuries of the king’s house, the hostages also, and returned to Samaria.
15
Now the rest of the acts of Jehoash which he did, and his might and how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?
16
So Jehoash slept with his fathers and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel; and Jeroboam his son became king in his place.
17
Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived fifteen years after the death of Jehoash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel.
18
Now the rest of the acts of Amaziah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?
19
They conspired against him in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish; but they sent after him to Lachish and killed him there.
20
Then they brought him on horses and he was buried at Jerusalem with his fathers in the city of David.
21
All the people of Judah took Azariah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the place of his father Amaziah.
22
He built Elath and restored it to Judah after the king slept with his fathers.
23
In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel became king in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years.
24
He did evil in the sight of the LORD; he did not depart from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which he made Israel sin.
25
He restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath as far as the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the LORD, the God of Israel, which He spoke through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet, who was of Gath-hepher.
26
For the LORD saw the affliction of Israel, which was very bitter; for there was neither bond nor free, nor was there any helper for Israel.
27
The LORD did not say that He would blot out the name of Israel from under heaven, but He saved them by the hand of Jeroboam the son of Joash.
28
Now the rest of the acts of Jeroboam and all that he did and his might, how he fought and how he recovered for Israel, Damascus and Hamath, which had belonged to Judah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?
29
And Jeroboam slept with his fathers, even with the kings of Israel, and Zechariah his son became king in his place.
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1
Now Jehoram the son of Ahab became king over Israel at Samaria in the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned twelve years.
2
He did evil in the sight of the LORD, though not like his father and his mother; for he put away the sacred pillar of Baal which his father had made.
3
Nevertheless, he clung to the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which he made Israel sin; he did not depart from them.
4
Now Mesha king of Moab was a sheep breeder, and used to pay the king of Israel 100,000 lambs and the wool of 100,000 rams.
5
But when Ahab died, the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel.
6
And King Jehoram went out of Samaria at that time and mustered all Israel.
7
Then he went and sent word to Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, saying, “The king of Moab has rebelled against me. Will you go with me to fight against Moab?” And he said, “I will go up; I am as you are, my people as your people, my horses as your horses.”
8
He said, “Which way shall we go up?” And he answered, “The way of the wilderness of Edom.”
9
So the king of Israel went with the king of Judah and the king of Edom; and they made a circuit of seven days’ journey, and there was no water for the army or for the cattle that followed them.
10
Then the king of Israel said, “Alas! For the LORD has called these three kings to give them into the hand of Moab.”
11
But Jehoshaphat said, “Is there not a prophet of the LORD here, that we may inquire of the LORD by him?” And one of the king of Israel’s servants answered and said, “Elisha the son of Shaphat is here, who used to pour water on the hands of Elijah.”
12
Jehoshaphat said, “The word of the LORD is with him.” So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to him.
13
Now Elisha said to the king of Israel, “What do I have to do with you? Go to the prophets of your father and to the prophets of your mother.” And the king of Israel said to him, “No, for the LORD has called these three kings together to give them into the hand of Moab.”
14
Elisha said, “As the LORD of hosts lives, before whom I stand, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, I would not look at you nor see you.
15
But now bring me a minstrel.” And it came about, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the LORD came upon him.
16
He said, “Thus says the LORD, ‘Make this valley full of trenches.’
17
For thus says the LORD, ‘You shall not see wind nor shall you see rain; yet that valley shall be filled with water, so that you shall drink, both you and your cattle and your beasts.
18
This is but a slight thing in the sight of the LORD; He will also give the Moabites into your hand.
19
Then you shall strike every fortified city and every choice city, and fell every good tree and stop all springs of water, and mar every good piece of land with stones.’”
20
It happened in the morning about the time of offering the sacrifice, that behold, water came by the way of Edom, and the country was filled with water.
21
Now all the Moabites heard that the kings had come up to fight against them. And all who were able to put on armor and older were summoned and stood on the border.
22
They rose early in the morning, and the sun shone on the water, and the Moabites saw the water opposite them as red as blood.
23
Then they said, “This is blood; the kings have surely fought together, and they have slain one another. Now therefore, Moab, to the spoil!”
24
But when they came to the camp of Israel, the Israelites arose and struck the Moabites, so that they fled before them; and they went forward into the land, slaughtering the Moabites.
25
Thus they destroyed the cities; and each one threw a stone on every piece of good land and filled it. So they stopped all the springs of water and felled all the good trees, until in Kir-hareseth only they left its stones; however, the slingers went about it and struck it.
26
When the king of Moab saw that the battle was too fierce for him, he took with him 700 men who drew swords, to break through to the king of Edom; but they could not.
27
Then he took his oldest son who was to reign in his place, and offered him as a burnt offering on the wall. And there came great wrath against Israel, and they departed from him and returned to their own land.
Скрыть
1
Now Elisha spoke to the woman whose son he had restored to life, saying, “Arise and go with your household, and sojourn wherever you can sojourn; for the LORD has called for a famine, and it will even come on the land for seven years.”
2
So the woman arose and did according to the word of the man of God, and she went with her household and sojourned in the land of the Philistines seven years.
3
At the end of seven years, the woman returned from the land of the Philistines; and she went out to appeal to the king for her house and for her field.
4
Now the king was talking with Gehazi, the servant of the man of God, saying, “Please relate to me all the great things that Elisha has done.”
5
As he was relating to the king how he had restored to life the one who was dead, behold, the woman whose son he had restored to life appealed to the king for her house and for her field. And Gehazi said, “My lord, O king, this is the woman and this is her son, whom Elisha restored to life.”
6
When the king asked the woman, she related it to him. So the king appointed for her a certain officer, saying, “Restore all that was hers and all the produce of the field from the day that she left the land even until now.”
7
Then Elisha came to Damascus. Now Ben-hadad king of Aram was sick, and it was told him, saying, “The man of God has come here.”
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The king said to Hazael, “Take a gift in your hand and go to meet the man of God, and inquire of the LORD by him, saying, ‘Will I recover from this sickness?’”
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So Hazael went to meet him and took a gift in his hand, even every kind of good thing of Damascus, forty camels’ loads; and he came and stood before him and said, “Your son Ben-hadad king of Aram has sent me to you, saying, ‘Will I recover from this sickness?’”
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Then Elisha said to him, “Go, say to him, ‘You will surely recover,’ but the LORD has shown me that he will certainly die.”
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He fixed his gaze steadily on him until he was ashamed, and the man of God wept.
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Hazael said, “Why does my lord weep?” Then he answered, “Because I know the evil that you will do to the sons of Israel: their strongholds you will set on fire, and their young men you will kill with the sword, and their little ones you will dash in pieces, and their women with child you will rip up.”
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Then Hazael said, “But what is your servant, who is but a dog, that he should do this great thing?” And Elisha answered, “The LORD has shown me that you will be king over Aram.”
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So he departed from Elisha and returned to his master, who said to him, “What did Elisha say to you?” And he answered, “He told me that you would surely recover.”
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On the following day, he took the cover and dipped it in water and spread it on his face, so that he died. And Hazael became king in his place.
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Now in the fifth year of Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel, Jehoshaphat being then the king of Judah, Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah became king.
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He was thirty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem.
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He walked in the way of the kings of Israel, just as the house of Ahab had done, for the daughter of Ahab became his wife; and he did evil in the sight of the LORD.
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However, the LORD was not willing to destroy Judah, for the sake of David His servant, since He had promised him to give a lamp to him through his sons always.
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In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves.
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Then Joram crossed over to Zair, and all his chariots with him. And he arose by night and struck the Edomites who had surrounded him and the captains of the chariots; but his army fled to their tents.
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So Edom revolted against Judah to this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time.
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The rest of the acts of Joram and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?
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So Joram slept with his fathers and was buried with his fathers in the city of David; and Ahaziah his son became king in his place.
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In the twelfth year of Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel, Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah began to reign.
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Ahaziah was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Athaliah the granddaughter of Omri king of Israel.
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He walked in the way of the house of Ahab and did evil in the sight of the LORD, like the house of Ahab had done, because he was a son-in-law of the house of Ahab.
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Then he went with Joram the son of Ahab to war against Hazael king of Aram at Ramoth-gilead, and the Arameans wounded Joram.
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So King Joram returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which the Arameans had inflicted on him at Ramah when he fought against Hazael king of Aram. Then Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Joram the son of Ahab in Jezreel because he was sick.
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In the second year of Joash son of Joahaz king of Israel, Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah became king.
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He was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Jehoaddin of Jerusalem.
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He did right in the sight of the LORD, yet not like David his father; he did according to all that Joash his father had done.
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Only the high places were not taken away; the people still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places.
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Now it came about, as soon as the kingdom was firmly in his hand, that he killed his servants who had slain the king his father.
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But the sons of the slayers he did not put to death, according to what is written in the book of the Law of Moses, as the LORD commanded, saying, “The fathers shall not be put to death for the sons, nor the sons be put to death for the fathers; but each shall be put to death for his own sin.”
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He killed of Edom in the Valley of Salt 10,000 and took Sela by war, and named it Joktheel to this day.
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Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash, the son of Jehoahaz son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, “Come, let us face each other.”
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Jehoash king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, “The thorn bush which was in Lebanon sent to the cedar which was in Lebanon, saying, ‘Give your daughter to my son in marriage.’ But there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon, and trampled the thorn bush.
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You have indeed defeated Edom, and your heart has become proud. Enjoy your glory and stay at home; for why should you provoke trouble so that you, even you, would fall, and Judah with you?”
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But Amaziah would not listen. So Jehoash king of Israel went up; and he and Amaziah king of Judah faced each other at Beth-shemesh, which belongs to Judah.
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Judah was defeated by Israel, and they fled each to his tent.
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Then Jehoash king of Israel captured Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Jehoash the son of Ahaziah, at Beth-shemesh, and came to Jerusalem and tore down the wall of Jerusalem from the Gate of Ephraim to the Corner Gate, 400 cubits.
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He took all the gold and silver and all the utensils which were found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasuries of the king’s house, the hostages also, and returned to Samaria.
15
Now the rest of the acts of Jehoash which he did, and his might and how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?
16
So Jehoash slept with his fathers and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel; and Jeroboam his son became king in his place.
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Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived fifteen years after the death of Jehoash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel.
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Now the rest of the acts of Amaziah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?
19
They conspired against him in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish; but they sent after him to Lachish and killed him there.
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Then they brought him on horses and he was buried at Jerusalem with his fathers in the city of David.
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All the people of Judah took Azariah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the place of his father Amaziah.
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He built Elath and restored it to Judah after the king slept with his fathers.
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In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel became king in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years.
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He did evil in the sight of the LORD; he did not depart from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which he made Israel sin.
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He restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath as far as the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the LORD, the God of Israel, which He spoke through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet, who was of Gath-hepher.
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For the LORD saw the affliction of Israel, which was very bitter; for there was neither bond nor free, nor was there any helper for Israel.
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The LORD did not say that He would blot out the name of Israel from under heaven, but He saved them by the hand of Jeroboam the son of Joash.
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Now the rest of the acts of Jeroboam and all that he did and his might, how he fought and how he recovered for Israel, Damascus and Hamath, which had belonged to Judah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?
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And Jeroboam slept with his fathers, even with the kings of Israel, and Zechariah his son became king in his place.
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When Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she rose and destroyed all the royal offspring.
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But Jehosheba, the daughter of King Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah and stole him from among the king’s sons who were being put to death, and placed him and his nurse in the bedroom. So they hid him from Athaliah, and he was not put to death.
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So he was hidden with her in the house of the LORD six years, while Athaliah was reigning over the land.
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Now in the seventh year Jehoiada sent and brought the captains of hundreds of the Carites and of the guard, and brought them to him in the house of the LORD. Then he made a covenant with them and put them under oath in the house of the LORD, and showed them the king’s son.
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He commanded them, saying, “This is the thing that you shall do: one third of you, who come in on the sabbath and keep watch over the king’s house
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(one third also shall be at the gate Sur, and one third at the gate behind the guards), shall keep watch over the house for defense.
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Two parts of you, even all who go out on the sabbath, shall also keep watch over the house of the LORD for the king.
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Then you shall surround the king, each with his weapons in his hand; and whoever comes within the ranks shall be put to death. And be with the king when he goes out and when he comes in.”
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So the captains of hundreds did according to all that Jehoiada the priest commanded. And each one of them took his men who were to come in on the sabbath, with those who were to go out on the sabbath, and came to Jehoiada the priest.
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The priest gave to the captains of hundreds the spears and shields that had been King David’s, which were in the house of the LORD.
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The guards stood each with his weapons in his hand, from the right side of the house to the left side of the house, by the altar and by the house, around the king.
12
Then he brought the king’s son out and put the crown on him and gave him the testimony; and they made him king and anointed him, and they clapped their hands and said, “Long live the king!”
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When Athaliah heard the noise of the guard and of the people, she came to the people in the house of the LORD.
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She looked and behold, the king was standing by the pillar, according to the custom, with the captains and the trumpeters beside the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced and blew trumpets. Then Athaliah tore her clothes and cried, “Treason! Treason!”
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And Jehoiada the priest commanded the captains of hundreds who were appointed over the army and said to them, “Bring her out between the ranks, and whoever follows her put to death with the sword.” For the priest said, “Let her not be put to death in the house of the LORD.”
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So they seized her, and when she arrived at the horses’ entrance of the king’s house, she was put to death there.
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Then Jehoiada made a covenant between the LORD and the king and the people, that they would be the LORD’S people, also between the king and the people.
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All the people of the land went to the house of Baal, and tore it down; his altars and his images they broke in pieces thoroughly, and killed Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars. And the priest appointed officers over the house of the LORD.
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He took the captains of hundreds and the Carites and the guards and all the people of the land; and they brought the king down from the house of the LORD, and came by the way of the gate of the guards to the king’s house. And he sat on the throne of the kings.
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So all the people of the land rejoiced and the city was quiet. For they had put Athaliah to death with the sword at the king’s house.
21
Jehoash was seven years old when he became king.
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In the seventh year of Jehu, Jehoash became king, and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Zibiah of Beersheba.
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Jehoash did right in the sight of the LORD all his days in which Jehoiada the priest instructed him.
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Only the high places were not taken away; the people still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places.
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Then Jehoash said to the priests, “All the money of the sacred things which is brought into the house of the LORD, in current money, both the money of each man’s assessment and all the money which any man’s heart prompts him to bring into the house of the LORD,
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let the priests take it for themselves, each from his acquaintance; and they shall repair the damages of the house wherever any damage may be found.”
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But it came about that in the twenty-third year of King Jehoash the priests had not repaired the damages of the house.
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Then King Jehoash called for Jehoiada the priest, and for the other priests and said to them, “Why do you not repair the damages of the house? Now therefore take no more money from your acquaintances, but pay it for the damages of the house.”
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So the priests agreed that they would take no more money from the people, nor repair the damages of the house.
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But Jehoiada the priest took a chest and bored a hole in its lid and put it beside the altar, on the right side as one comes into the house of the LORD; and the priests who guarded the threshold put in it all the money which was brought into the house of the LORD.
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When they saw that there was much money in the chest, the king’s scribe and the high priest came up and tied it in bags and counted the money which was found in the house of the LORD.
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They gave the money which was weighed out into the hands of those who did the work, who had the oversight of the house of the LORD; and they paid it out to the carpenters and the builders who worked on the house of the LORD;
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and to the masons and the stonecutters, and for buying timber and hewn stone to repair the damages to the house of the LORD, and for all that was laid out for the house to repair it.
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But there were not made for the house of the LORD silver cups, snuffers, bowls, trumpets, any vessels of gold, or vessels of silver from the money which was brought into the house of the LORD;
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for they gave that to those who did the work, and with it they repaired the house of the LORD.
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Moreover, they did not require an accounting from the men into whose hand they gave the money to pay to those who did the work, for they dealt faithfully.
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The money from the guilt offerings and the money from the sin offerings was not brought into the house of the LORD; it was for the priests.
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Then Hazael king of Aram went up and fought against Gath and captured it, and Hazael set his face to go up to Jerusalem.
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Jehoash king of Judah took all the sacred things that Jehoshaphat and Jehoram and Ahaziah, his fathers, kings of Judah, had dedicated, and his own sacred things and all the gold that was found among the treasuries of the house of the LORD and of the king’s house, and sent them to Hazael king of Aram. Then he went away from Jerusalem.
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Now the rest of the acts of Joash and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?
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His servants arose and made a conspiracy and struck down Joash at the house of Millo as he was going down to Silla.
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For Jozacar the son of Shimeath and Jehozabad the son of Shomer, his servants, struck him and he died; and they buried him with his fathers in the city of David, and Amaziah his son became king in his place.
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In the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, this word came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying,
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“Take a scroll and write on it all the words which I have spoken to you concerning Israel and concerning Judah, and concerning all the nations, from the day I first spoke to you, from the days of Josiah, even to this day.
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Perhaps the house of Judah will hear all the calamity which I plan to bring on them, in order that every man will turn from his evil way; then I will forgive their iniquity and their sin.”
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Then Jeremiah called Baruch the son of Neriah, and Baruch wrote on a scroll at the dictation of Jeremiah all the words of the LORD which He had spoken to him.
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Jeremiah commanded Baruch, saying, “I am restricted; I cannot go into the house of the LORD.
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So you go and read from the scroll which you have written at my dictation the words of the LORD to the people in the LORD’S house on a fast day. And also you shall read them to all the people of Judah who come from their cities.
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Perhaps their supplication will come before the LORD, and everyone will turn from his evil way, for great is the anger and the wrath that the LORD has pronounced against this people.”
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Baruch the son of Neriah did according to all that Jeremiah the prophet commanded him, reading from the book the words of the LORD in the LORD’S house.
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Now in the fifth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, in the ninth month, all the people in Jerusalem and all the people who came from the cities of Judah to Jerusalem proclaimed a fast before the LORD.
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Then Baruch read from the book the words of Jeremiah in the house of the LORD in the chamber of Gemariah the son of Shaphan the scribe, in the upper court, at the entry of the New Gate of the LORD’S house, to all the people.
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Now when Micaiah the son of Gemariah, the son of Shaphan, had heard all the words of the LORD from the book,
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he went down to the king’s house, into the scribe’s chamber. And behold, all the officials were sitting there—Elishama the scribe, and Delaiah the son of Shemaiah, and Elnathan the son of Achbor, and Gemariah the son of Shaphan, and Zedekiah the son of Hananiah, and all the other officials.
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Micaiah declared to them all the words that he had heard when Baruch read from the book to the people.
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Then all the officials sent Jehudi the son of Nethaniah, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Cushi, to Baruch, saying, “Take in your hand the scroll from which you have read to the people and come.” So Baruch the son of Neriah took the scroll in his hand and went to them.
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They said to him, “Sit down, please, and read it to us.” So Baruch read it to them.
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When they had heard all the words, they turned in fear one to another and said to Baruch, “We will surely report all these words to the king.”
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And they asked Baruch, saying, “Tell us, please, how did you write all these words? Was it at his dictation?”
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Then Baruch said to them, “He dictated all these words to me, and I wrote them with ink on the book.”
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Then the officials said to Baruch, “Go, hide yourself, you and Jeremiah, and do not let anyone know where you are.”
20
So they went to the king in the court, but they had deposited the scroll in the chamber of Elishama the scribe, and they reported all the words to the king.
21
Then the king sent Jehudi to get the scroll, and he took it out of the chamber of Elishama the scribe. And Jehudi read it to the king as well as to all the officials who stood beside the king.
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Now the king was sitting in the winter house in the ninth month, with a fire burning in the brazier before him.
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When Jehudi had read three or four columns, the king cut it with a scribe’s knife and threw it into the fire that was in the brazier, until all the scroll was consumed in the fire that was in the brazier.
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Yet the king and all his servants who heard all these words were not afraid, nor did they rend their garments.
25
Even though Elnathan and Delaiah and Gemariah pleaded with the king not to burn the scroll, he would not listen to them.
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And the king commanded Jerahmeel the king’s son, Seraiah the son of Azriel, and Shelemiah the son of Abdeel to seize Baruch the scribe and Jeremiah the prophet, but the LORD hid them.
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Then the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah after the king had burned the scroll and the words which Baruch had written at the dictation of Jeremiah, saying,
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“Take again another scroll and write on it all the former words that were on the first scroll which Jehoiakim the king of Judah burned.
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And concerning Jehoiakim king of Judah you shall say, ‘Thus says the LORD, “You have burned this scroll, saying, ‘Why have you written on it that the king of Babylon will certainly come and destroy this land, and will make man and beast to cease from it?’”
30
Therefore thus says the LORD concerning Jehoiakim king of Judah, “He shall have no one to sit on the throne of David, and his dead body shall be cast out to the heat of the day and the frost of the night.
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I will also punish him and his descendants and his servants for their iniquity, and I will bring on them and the inhabitants of Jerusalem and the men of Judah all the calamity that I have declared to them—but they did not listen.”’”
32
Then Jeremiah took another scroll and gave it to Baruch the son of Neriah, the scribe, and he wrote on it at the dictation of Jeremiah all the words of the book which Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the fire; and many similar words were added to them.
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The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz concerning Judah and Jerusalem, which he saw during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.
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Listen, O heavens, and hear, O earth; For the LORD speaks, “Sons I have reared and brought up, But they have revolted against Me.
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“An ox knows its owner, And a donkey its master’s manger, But Israel does not know, My people do not understand.”
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Alas, sinful nation, People weighed down with iniquity, Offspring of evildoers, Sons who act corruptly! They have abandoned the LORD, They have despised the Holy One of Israel, They have turned away from Him.
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Where will you be stricken again, As you continue in your rebellion? The whole head is sick And the whole heart is faint.
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From the sole of the foot even to the head There is nothing sound in it, Only bruises, welts and raw wounds, Not pressed out or bandaged, Nor softened with oil.
7
Your land is desolate, Your cities are burned with fire, Your fields—strangers are devouring them in your presence; It is desolation, as overthrown by strangers.
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The daughter of Zion is left like a shelter in a vineyard, Like a watchman’s hut in a cucumber field, like a besieged city.
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Unless the LORD of hosts Had left us a few survivors, We would be like Sodom, We would be like Gomorrah.
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Hear the word of the LORD, You rulers of Sodom; Give ear to the instruction of our God, You people of Gomorrah.
11
“What are your multiplied sacrifices to Me?” Says the LORD. “I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams And the fat of fed cattle; And I take no pleasure in the blood of bulls, lambs or goats.
12
“When you come to appear before Me, Who requires of you this trampling of My courts?
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“Bring your worthless offerings no longer, Incense is an abomination to Me. New moon and sabbath, the calling of assemblies— I cannot endure iniquity and the solemn assembly.
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“I hate your new moon festivals and your appointed feasts, They have become a burden to Me; I am weary of bearing them.
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“So when you spread out your hands in prayer, I will hide My eyes from you; Yes, even though you multiply prayers, I will not listen. Your hands are covered with blood.
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“Wash yourselves, make yourselves clean; Remove the evil of your deeds from My sight. Cease to do evil,
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Learn to do good; Seek justice, Reprove the ruthless, Defend the orphan, Plead for the widow.
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“Come now, and let us reason together,” Says the LORD, “Though your sins are as scarlet, They will be as white as snow; Though they are red like crimson, They will be like wool.
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“If you consent and obey, You will eat the best of the land;
20
“But if you refuse and rebel, You will be devoured by the sword.” Truly, the mouth of the LORD has spoken.
21
How the faithful city has become a harlot, She who was full of justice! Righteousness once lodged in her, But now murderers.
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Your silver has become dross, Your drink diluted with water.
23
Your rulers are rebels And companions of thieves; Everyone loves a bribe And chases after rewards. They do not defend the orphan, Nor does the widow’s plea come before them.
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Therefore the Lord GOD of hosts, The Mighty One of Israel, declares, “Ah, I will be relieved of My adversaries And avenge Myself on My foes.
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“I will also turn My hand against you, And will smelt away your dross as with lye And will remove all your alloy.
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“Then I will restore your judges as at the first, And your counselors as at the beginning; After that you will be called the city of righteousness, A faithful city.”
27
Zion will be redeemed with justice And her repentant ones with righteousness.
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But transgressors and sinners will be crushed together, And those who forsake the LORD will come to an end.
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Surely you will be ashamed of the oaks which you have desired, And you will be embarrassed at the gardens which you have chosen.
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For you will be like an oak whose leaf fades away Or as a garden that has no water.
31
The strong man will become tinder, His work also a spark. Thus they shall both burn together And there will be none to quench them.
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Whom I have taken by the right hand, To subdue nations before him And to loose the loins of kings; To open doors before him so that gates will not be shut:
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Thus says the LORD to Cyrus His anointed,
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“I will go before you and make the rough places smooth; I will shatter the doors of bronze and cut through their iron bars.
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“I will give you the treasures of darkness And hidden wealth of secret places, So that you may know that it is I, The LORD, the God of Israel, who calls you by your name.
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“For the sake of Jacob My servant, And Israel My chosen one, I have also called you by your name; I have given you a title of honor Though you have not known Me.
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“I am the LORD, and there is no other; Besides Me there is no God. I will gird you, though you have not known Me;
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That men may know from the rising to the setting of the sun That there is no one besides Me. I am the LORD, and there is no other,
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The One forming light and creating darkness, Causing well-being and creating calamity; I am the LORD who does all these.
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“Drip down, O heavens, from above, And let the clouds pour down righteousness; Let the earth open up and salvation bear fruit, And righteousness spring up with it. I, the LORD, have created it.
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“Woe to the one who quarrels with his Maker— An earthenware vessel among the vessels of earth! Will the clay say to the potter, ‘What are you doing?’ Or the thing you are making say, ‘He has no hands’?
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“Woe to him who says to a father, ‘What are you begetting?’ Or to a woman, ‘To what are you giving birth?’”
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Thus says the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: “Ask Me about the things to come concerning My sons, And you shall commit to Me the work of My hands.
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“It is I who made the earth, and created man upon it. I stretched out the heavens with My hands And I ordained all their host.
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“I have aroused him in righteousness And I will make all his ways smooth; He will build My city and will let My exiles go free, Without any payment or reward,” says the LORD of hosts.
14
Thus says the LORD, “The products of Egypt and the merchandise of Cush And the Sabeans, men of stature, Will come over to you and will be yours; They will walk behind you, they will come over in chains And will bow down to you; They will make supplication to you: ‘Surely, God is with you, and there is none else, No other God.’”
15
Truly, You are a God who hides Himself, O God of Israel, Savior!
16
They will be put to shame and even humiliated, all of them; The manufacturers of idols will go away together in humiliation.
17
Israel has been saved by the LORD With an everlasting salvation; You will not be put to shame or humiliated To all eternity.
18
For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it and did not create it a waste place, but formed it to be inhabited), “I am the LORD, and there is none else.
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“I have not spoken in secret, In some dark land; I did not say to the offspring of Jacob, ‘Seek Me in a waste place’; I, the LORD, speak righteousness, Declaring things that are upright.
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“Gather yourselves and come; Draw near together, you fugitives of the nations; They have no knowledge, Who carry about their wooden idol And pray to a god who cannot save.
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“Declare and set forth your case; Indeed, let them consult together. Who has announced this from of old? Who has long since declared it? Is it not I, the LORD? And there is no other God besides Me, A righteous God and a Savior; There is none except Me.
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“Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; For I am God, and there is no other.
23
“I have sworn by Myself, The word has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness And will not turn back, That to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance.
24
“They will say of Me, ‘Only in the LORD are righteousness and strength.’ Men will come to Him, And all who were angry at Him will be put to shame.
25
“In the LORD all the offspring of Israel Will be justified and will glory.”
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“Comfort, O comfort My people,” says your God. “Speak kindly to Jerusalem; And call out to her, that her warfare has ended, That her iniquity has been removed, That she has received of the LORD’S hand Double for all her sins.”
3
A voice is calling, “Clear the way for the LORD in the wilderness; Make smooth in the desert a highway for our God.
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“Let every valley be lifted up, And every mountain and hill be made low; And let the rough ground become a plain, And the rugged terrain a broad valley;
5
Then the glory of the LORD will be revealed, And all flesh will see it together; For the mouth of the LORD has spoken.”
6
A voice says, “Call out.” Then he answered, “What shall I call out?” All flesh is grass, and all its loveliness is like the flower of the field.
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The grass withers, the flower fades, When the breath of the LORD blows upon it; Surely the people are grass.
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The grass withers, the flower fades, But the word of our God stands forever.
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Get yourself up on a high mountain, O Zion, bearer of good news, Lift up your voice mightily, O Jerusalem, bearer of good news; Lift it up, do not fear. Say to the cities of Judah, “Here is your God!”
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Behold, the Lord GOD will come with might, With His arm ruling for Him. Behold, His reward is with Him And His recompense before Him.
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Like a shepherd He will tend His flock, In His arm He will gather the lambs And carry them in His bosom; He will gently lead the nursing ewes.
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Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, And marked off the heavens by the span, And calculated the dust of the earth by the measure, And weighed the mountains in a balance And the hills in a pair of scales?
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Who has directed the Spirit of the LORD, Or as His counselor has informed Him?
14
With whom did He consult and who gave Him understanding? And who taught Him in the path of justice and taught Him knowledge And informed Him of the way of understanding?
15
Behold, the nations are like a drop from a bucket, And are regarded as a speck of dust on the scales; Behold, He lifts up the islands like fine dust.
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Even Lebanon is not enough to burn, Nor its beasts enough for a burnt offering.
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All the nations are as nothing before Him, They are regarded by Him as less than nothing and meaningless.
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To whom then will you liken God? Or what likeness will you compare with Him?
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As for the idol, a craftsman casts it, A goldsmith plates it with gold, And a silversmith fashions chains of silver.
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He who is too impoverished for such an offering Selects a tree that does not rot; He seeks out for himself a skillful craftsman To prepare an idol that will not totter.
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Do you not know? Have you not heard? Has it not been declared to you from the beginning? Have you not understood from the foundations of the earth?
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It is He who sits above the circle of the earth, And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in.
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He it is who reduces rulers to nothing, Who makes the judges of the earth meaningless.
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Scarcely have they been planted, Scarcely have they been sown, Scarcely has their stock taken root in the earth, But He merely blows on them, and they wither, And the storm carries them away like stubble.
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“To whom then will you liken Me That I would be his equal?” says the Holy One.
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Lift up your eyes on high And see who has created these stars, The One who leads forth their host by number, He calls them all by name; Because of the greatness of His might and the strength of His power, Not one of them is missing.
27
Why do you say, O Jacob, and assert, O Israel, “My way is hidden from the LORD, And the justice due me escapes the notice of my God”?
28
Do you not know? Have you not heard? The Everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth Does not become weary or tired. His understanding is inscrutable.
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He gives strength to the weary, And to him who lacks might He increases power.
30
Though youths grow weary and tired, And vigorous young men stumble badly,
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Yet those who wait for the LORD Will gain new strength; They will mount up with wings like eagles, They will run and not get tired, They will walk and not become weary.
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Thus the Lord GOD showed me, and behold, He was forming a locust-swarm when the spring crop began to sprout. And behold, the spring crop was after the king’s mowing.
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And it came about, when it had finished eating the vegetation of the land, that I said, “Lord GOD, please pardon! How can Jacob stand, For he is small?”
3
The LORD changed His mind about this. “It shall not be,” said the LORD.
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Thus the Lord GOD showed me, and behold, the Lord GOD was calling to contend with them by fire, and it consumed the great deep and began to consume the farm land.
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Then I said, “Lord GOD, please stop! How can Jacob stand, for he is small?”
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The LORD changed His mind about this. “This too shall not be,” said the Lord GOD.
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Thus He showed me, and behold, the Lord was standing by a vertical wall with a plumb line in His hand.
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The LORD said to me, “What do you see, Amos?” And I said, “A plumb line.” Then the Lord said, “Behold I am about to put a plumb line In the midst of My people Israel. I will spare them no longer.
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“The high places of Isaac will be desolated And the sanctuaries of Israel laid waste. Then I will rise up against the house of Jeroboam with the sword.”
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Then Amaziah, the priest of Bethel, sent word to Jeroboam king of Israel, saying, “Amos has conspired against you in the midst of the house of Israel; the land is unable to endure all his words.
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For thus Amos says, ‘Jeroboam will die by the sword and Israel will certainly go from its land into exile.’”
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Then Amaziah said to Amos, “Go, you seer, flee away to the land of Judah and there eat bread and there do your prophesying!
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But no longer prophesy at Bethel, for it is a sanctuary of the king and a royal residence.”
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Then Amos replied to Amaziah, “I am not a prophet, nor am I the son of a prophet; for I am a herdsman and a grower of sycamore figs.
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But the LORD took me from following the flock and the LORD said to me, ‘Go prophesy to My people Israel.’
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Now hear the word of the LORD: you are saying, ‘You shall not prophesy against Israel nor shall you speak against the house of Isaac.’
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Therefore, thus says the LORD, ‘Your wife will become a harlot in the city, your sons and your daughters will fall by the sword, your land will be parceled up by a measuring line and you yourself will die upon unclean soil. Moreover, Israel will certainly go from its land into exile.’”
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Now it came about in the thirtieth year, on the fifth day of the fourth month, while I was by the river Chebar among the exiles, the heavens were opened and I saw visions of God.
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(On the fifth of the month in the fifth year of King Jehoiachin’s exile,
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the word of the LORD came expressly to Ezekiel the priest, son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and there the hand of the LORD came upon him.)
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As I looked, behold, a storm wind was coming from the north, a great cloud with fire flashing forth continually and a bright light around it, and in its midst something like glowing metal in the midst of the fire.
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Within it there were figures resembling four living beings. And this was their appearance: they had human form.
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Each of them had four faces and four wings.
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Their legs were straight and their feet were like a calf’s hoof, and they gleamed like burnished bronze.
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Under their wings on their four sides were human hands. As for the faces and wings of the four of them,
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their wings touched one another; their faces did not turn when they moved, each went straight forward.
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As for the form of their faces, each had the face of a man; all four had the face of a lion on the right and the face of a bull on the left, and all four had the face of an eagle.
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Such were their faces. Their wings were spread out above; each had two touching another being, and two covering their bodies.
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And each went straight forward; wherever the spirit was about to go, they would go, without turning as they went.
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In the midst of the living beings there was something that looked like burning coals of fire, like torches darting back and forth among the living beings. The fire was bright, and lightning was flashing from the fire.
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And the living beings ran to and fro like bolts of lightning.
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Now as I looked at the living beings, behold, there was one wheel on the earth beside the living beings, for each of the four of them.
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The appearance of the wheels and their workmanship was like sparkling beryl, and all four of them had the same form, their appearance and workmanship being as if one wheel were within another.
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Whenever they moved, they moved in any of their four directions without turning as they moved.
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As for their rims they were lofty and awesome, and the rims of all four of them were full of eyes round about.
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Whenever the living beings moved, the wheels moved with them. And whenever the living beings rose from the earth, the wheels rose also.
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Wherever the spirit was about to go, they would go in that direction. And the wheels rose close beside them; for the spirit of the living beings was in the wheels.
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Whenever those went, these went; and whenever those stood still, these stood still. And whenever those rose from the earth, the wheels rose close beside them; for the spirit of the living beings was in the wheels.
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Now over the heads of the living beings there was something like an expanse, like the awesome gleam of crystal, spread out over their heads.
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Under the expanse their wings were stretched out straight, one toward the other; each one also had two wings covering its body on the one side and on the other.
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I also heard the sound of their wings like the sound of abundant waters as they went, like the voice of the Almighty, a sound of tumult like the sound of an army camp; whenever they stood still, they dropped their wings.
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And there came a voice from above the expanse that was over their heads; whenever they stood still, they dropped their wings.
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Now above the expanse that was over their heads there was something resembling a throne, like lapis lazuli in appearance; and on that which resembled a throne, high up, was a figure with the appearance of a man.
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Then I noticed from the appearance of His loins and upward something like glowing metal that looked like fire all around within it, and from the appearance of His loins and downward I saw something like fire; and there was a radiance around Him.
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As the appearance of the rainbow in the clouds on a rainy day, so was the appearance of the surrounding radiance. Such was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell on my face and heard a voice speaking.
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Then He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you find; eat this scroll, and go, speak to the house of Israel.”
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So I opened my mouth, and He fed me this scroll.
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He said to me, “Son of man, feed your stomach and fill your body with this scroll which I am giving you.” Then I ate it, and it was sweet as honey in my mouth.
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Then He said to me, “Son of man, go to the house of Israel and speak with My words to them.
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For you are not being sent to a people of unintelligible speech or difficult language, but to the house of Israel,
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nor to many peoples of unintelligible speech or difficult language, whose words you cannot understand. But I have sent you to them who should listen to you;
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yet the house of Israel will not be willing to listen to you, since they are not willing to listen to Me. Surely the whole house of Israel is stubborn and obstinate.
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Behold, I have made your face as hard as their faces and your forehead as hard as their foreheads.
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Like emery harder than flint I have made your forehead. Do not be afraid of them or be dismayed before them, though they are a rebellious house.”
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Moreover, He said to me, “Son of man, take into your heart all My words which I will speak to you and listen closely.
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Go to the exiles, to the sons of your people, and speak to them and tell them, whether they listen or not, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD.’”
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Then the Spirit lifted me up, and I heard a great rumbling sound behind me, “Blessed be the glory of the LORD in His place.”
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And I heard the sound of the wings of the living beings touching one another and the sound of the wheels beside them, even a great rumbling sound.
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So the Spirit lifted me up and took me away; and I went embittered in the rage of my spirit, and the hand of the LORD was strong on me.
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Then I came to the exiles who lived beside the river Chebar at Tel-abib, and I sat there seven days where they were living, causing consternation among them.
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At the end of seven days the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
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“Son of man, I have appointed you a watchman to the house of Israel; whenever you hear a word from My mouth, warn them from Me.
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When I say to the wicked, ‘You will surely die,’ and you do not warn him or speak out to warn the wicked from his wicked way that he may live, that wicked man shall die in his iniquity, but his blood I will require at your hand.
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Yet if you have warned the wicked and he does not turn from his wickedness or from his wicked way, he shall die in his iniquity; but you have delivered yourself.
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Again, when a righteous man turns away from his righteousness and commits iniquity, and I place an obstacle before him, he will die; since you have not warned him, he shall die in his sin, and his righteous deeds which he has done shall not be remembered; but his blood I will require at your hand.
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However, if you have warned the righteous man that the righteous should not sin and he does not sin, he shall surely live because he took warning; and you have delivered yourself.”
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The hand of the LORD was on me there, and He said to me, “Get up, go out to the plain, and there I will speak to you.”
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So I got up and went out to the plain; and behold, the glory of the LORD was standing there, like the glory which I saw by the river Chebar, and I fell on my face.
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The Spirit then entered me and made me stand on my feet, and He spoke with me and said to me, “Go, shut yourself up in your house.
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As for you, son of man, they will put ropes on you and bind you with them so that you cannot go out among them.
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Moreover, I will make your tongue stick to the roof of your mouth so that you will be mute and cannot be a man who rebukes them, for they are a rebellious house.
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But when I speak to you, I will open your mouth and you will say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD.’ He who hears, let him hear; and he who refuses, let him refuse; for they are a rebellious house.
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The words of Amos, who was among the sheepherders from Tekoa, which he envisioned in visions concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake.
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He said, “The LORD roars from Zion And from Jerusalem He utters His voice; And the shepherds’ pasture grounds mourn, And the summit of Carmel dries up.”
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Thus says the LORD, “For three transgressions of Damascus and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they threshed Gilead with implements of sharp iron.
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“So I will send fire upon the house of Hazael And it will consume the citadels of Ben-hadad.
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“I will also break the gate bar of Damascus, And cut off the inhabitant from the valley of Aven, And him who holds the scepter, from Beth-eden; So the people of Aram will go exiled to Kir,” Says the LORD.
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Thus says the LORD, “For three transgressions of Gaza and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they deported an entire population To deliver it up to Edom.
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“So I will send fire upon the wall of Gaza And it will consume her citadels.
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“I will also cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod, And him who holds the scepter, from Ashkelon; I will even unleash My power upon Ekron, And the remnant of the Philistines will perish,” Says the Lord GOD.
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Thus says the LORD, “For three transgressions of Tyre and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they delivered up an entire population to Edom And did not remember the covenant of brotherhood.
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“So I will send fire upon the wall of Tyre And it will consume her citadels.”
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Thus says the LORD, “For three transgressions of Edom and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because he pursued his brother with the sword, While he stifled his compassion; His anger also tore continually, And he maintained his fury forever.
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“So I will send fire upon Teman And it will consume the citadels of Bozrah.”
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Thus says the LORD, “For three transgressions of the sons of Ammon and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they ripped open the pregnant women of Gilead In order to enlarge their borders.
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“So I will kindle a fire on the wall of Rabbah And it will consume her citadels Amid war cries on the day of battle, And a storm on the day of tempest.
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“Their king will go into exile, He and his princes together,” says the LORD.
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Woe to those who are at ease in Zion And to those who feel secure in the mountain of Samaria, The distinguished men of the foremost of nations, To whom the house of Israel comes.
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Go over to Calneh and look, And go from there to Hamath the great, Then go down to Gath of the Philistines. Are they better than these kingdoms, Or is their territory greater than yours?
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Do you put off the day of calamity, And would you bring near the seat of violence?
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Those who recline on beds of ivory And sprawl on their couches, And eat lambs from the flock And calves from the midst of the stall,
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Who improvise to the sound of the harp, And like David have composed songs for themselves,
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Who drink wine from sacrificial bowls While they anoint themselves with the finest of oils, Yet they have not grieved over the ruin of Joseph.
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Therefore, they will now go into exile at the head of the exiles, And the sprawlers’ banqueting will pass away.
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The Lord GOD has sworn by Himself, the LORD God of hosts has declared: “I loathe the arrogance of Jacob, And detest his citadels; Therefore I will deliver up the city and all it contains.”
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And it will be, if ten men are left in one house, they will die.
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Then one’s uncle, or his undertaker, will lift him up to carry out his bones from the house, and he will say to the one who is in the innermost part of the house, “Is anyone else with you?” And that one will say, “No one.” Then he will answer, “Keep quiet. For the name of the LORD is not to be mentioned.”
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For behold, the LORD is going to command that the great house be smashed to pieces and the small house to fragments.
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Do horses run on rocks? Or does one plow them with oxen? Yet you have turned justice into poison And the fruit of righteousness into wormwood,
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You who rejoice in Lodebar, And say, “Have we not by our own strength taken Karnaim for ourselves?”
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“For behold, I am going to raise up a nation against you, O house of Israel,” declares the LORD God of hosts, “And they will afflict you from the entrance of Hamath To the brook of the Arabah.”
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Hear this word which I take up for you as a dirge, O house of Israel:
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She has fallen, she will not rise again— The virgin Israel. She lies neglected on her land; There is none to raise her up.
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For thus says the Lord GOD, “The city which goes forth a thousand strong Will have a hundred left, And the one which goes forth a hundred strong Will have ten left to the house of Israel.”
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For thus says the LORD to the house of Israel, “Seek Me that you may live.
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“But do not resort to Bethel And do not come to Gilgal, Nor cross over to Beersheba; For Gilgal will certainly go into captivity And Bethel will come to trouble.
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“Seek the LORD that you may live, Or He will break forth like a fire, O house of Joseph, And it will consume with none to quench it for Bethel,
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For those who turn justice into wormwood And cast righteousness down to the earth.”
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He who made the Pleiades and Orion And changes deep darkness into morning, Who also darkens day into night, Who calls for the waters of the sea And pours them out on the surface of the earth, The LORD is His name.
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It is He who flashes forth with destruction upon the strong, So that destruction comes upon the fortress.
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They hate him who reproves in the gate, And they abhor him who speaks with integrity.
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Therefore because you impose heavy rent on the poor And exact a tribute of grain from them, Though you have built houses of well-hewn stone, Yet you will not live in them; You have planted pleasant vineyards, yet you will not drink their wine.
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For I know your transgressions are many and your sins are great, You who distress the righteous and accept bribes And turn aside the poor in the gate.
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Therefore at such a time the prudent person keeps silent, for it is an evil time.
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Seek good and not evil, that you may live; And thus may the LORD God of hosts be with you, Just as you have said!
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Hate evil, love good, And establish justice in the gate! Perhaps the LORD God of hosts May be gracious to the remnant of Joseph.
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Therefore thus says the LORD God of hosts, the Lord, “There is wailing in all the plazas, And in all the streets they say, ‘Alas! Alas!’ They also call the farmer to mourning And professional mourners to lamentation.
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“And in all the vineyards there is wailing, Because I will pass through the midst of you,” says the LORD.
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Alas, you who are longing for the day of the LORD, For what purpose will the day of the LORD be to you? It will be darkness and not light;
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As when a man flees from a lion And a bear meets him, Or goes home, leans his hand against the wall And a snake bites him.
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Will not the day of the LORD be darkness instead of light, Even gloom with no brightness in it?
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“I hate, I reject your festivals, Nor do I delight in your solemn assemblies.
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“Even though you offer up to Me burnt offerings and your grain offerings, I will not accept them; And I will not even look at the peace offerings of your fatlings.
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“Take away from Me the noise of your songs; I will not even listen to the sound of your harps.
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“But let justice roll down like waters And righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.
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“Did you present Me with sacrifices and grain offerings in the wilderness for forty years, O house of Israel?
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You also carried along Sikkuth your king and Kiyyun, your images, the star of your gods which you made for yourselves.
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Therefore, I will make you go into exile beyond Damascus,” says the LORD, whose name is the God of hosts.
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Then the LORD said to me, “Go again, love a woman who is loved by her husband, yet an adulteress, even as the LORD loves the sons of Israel, though they turn to other gods and love raisin cakes.”
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So I bought her for myself for fifteen shekels of silver and a homer and a half of barley.
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Then I said to her, “You shall stay with me for many days. You shall not play the harlot, nor shall you have a man; so I will also be toward you.”
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For the sons of Israel will remain for many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or sacred pillar and without ephod or household idols.
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Afterward the sons of Israel will return and seek the LORD their God and David their king; and they will come trembling to the LORD and to His goodness in the last days.
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