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Историко-культурный контекст Ветхого Завета

В.Сорокин

Евреи в пустыне

При чтении Пятикнижия и Книги Иисуса Навина прежде всего естественно встаёт вопрос о времени, которое евреи провели в пустыне. Традиционным сроком считается сорок лет, что не удивительно, так как именно он указан в ветхозаветных книгах. Но при этом приходится учитывать, что сорокалетний срок у семитских народов (в том числе у евреев) считался в древности символическим, обозначая срок жизни одного поколения. Очевидно, речь в данном случае должна идти о том, что одно поколение евреев должно было родиться, вырасти и состариться в пустыне. Впрочем, отсюда вовсе не следует, что никто из покинувших Египет во время Исхода не дожил до завоевания Палестины. Так, в Книге Иисуса Навина упоминаются двое доживших, хотя в описываемое время они, очевидно, были уже глубокими старцами (Ис Нав 14:6-13). Сорок лет в данном случае — не срок жизни, а скорее, срок дееспособности одного поколения (от 20 до 60 лет).

На что же в таком случае можно ориентироваться при определении времени пребывания евреев в пустыне? Прежде всего, по-видимому, на продолжительность жизни Моисея и Иисуса Навина, упомянутую в ветхозаветных книгах, которая определена в 120 и в 110 лет соответственно (Втор 34:7; Ис Нав 24:29). Кочевые народы порой довольно небрежно относятся к хронологии вообще и к датировке таких событий, как войны и завоевания, в частности. Но о том, сколько лет прожили на свете их вожди, они помнят достаточно хорошо. В принципе, долгожители среди кочевников встречаются не так уж редко, и продолжительность жизни в 110 или в 120 лет не должна нас в данном случае особенно удивлять. Однако очевидно, что в таком случае едва ли можно говорить о том, что Исход отделяет от завоевания евреями Палестины всего 40 лет.

Сколько же времени могли провести в пустыне выходцы из Египта и их потомки? Во время возвращения Моисея в Египет ему было 80 лет (Исх 7:7). В данном случае, можно думать, перед нами не округление, а точная цифра, так как указанный здесь же возраст Аарона составлял 83 года. Если предположить, что Исход состоялся через 2 или 3 года после описанных событий, то можно думать, что ко времени смерти Моисея евреи провели в пустыне уже около 40 лет (в данном случае возможно и округление, как это случается иногда в том случае, когда число лет сохраняется в течение известного периода времени в устной передаче, но допуск в 2-3 года в данном случае ничего принципиально не меняет). Судя по тому, что во время событий, имевших место вскоре после Исхода, Иисус Навин был ещё «юношей» (евр. נער наар, букв. «подросток»), ему должно было быть 14–18 лет, в год смерти Моисея ему должно было быть 54–58 лет (не более 60, учитывая допуски), а до окончания первого этапа завоевания евреями Палестины должно было пройти ещё около 50 лет, при том, что, судя по Ис Нав 13:1-6, ко времени смерти Иисуса Навина оно ещё не было завершено. В таком случае оказывается, что от Исхода до смерти Иисуса Навина должно было пройти около 100 лет, а до окончания завоевания евреями Палестины — около 120-150 лет, и, если предположить, что Исход имел место во второй половине XV века, то завоевание Палестины могло завершиться около середины XIII века.

На такое развитие событий указывает не только Библия, но и известные сегодня небиблейские данные. Прежде всего, речь идёт о древнеегипетском архиве времён Эхнатона ( XIV веке), обнаруженном в Тель-эль-Амарне (Египет). Этот архив содержит донесения правителей городов Северной Палестины, которые в XIV веке были вассалами фараона. В них говорится о постоянных набегах кочевников-варваров на палестинские города, и можно думать, что среди «варваров» были и еврейские племена. К концу XIV века, когда египетская армия покинула Палестину, дорога кочевым завоевателям в Палестину оказалась открыта. На такое развитие событий указывают и археологические данные, полученные в процессе раскопок северно-палестинских городов: многие из них на протяжении XIV и XIII веков подвергались разрушениям, причём неоднократно. По-видимому, эти разрушения и были следствием тех набегов, донесения о которых сохранились в архивах Тель-эль-Амарны. Но в таком случае приходится предполагать, что, несмотря на постоянные набеги на протяжении всего XIV века, окончательно утвердиться в Палестине евреям, скорее всего, удалось лишь в первой половине XIII века.

Из ветхозаветных книг кочевой период описан прежде всего в Книге Исхода и в Книге Чисел, причём, вероятнее всего, именно последняя даёт нам образцы наиболее архаичных текстов. Приходится признать, что образцы эти оказываются для современного читателя наименее интересными: это, например, численность еврейского населения по племенам (глава 1 книги), перечисление пожертвований, сделанных каждым племенем на религиозные нужды (глава 7 книги) или названия мест, через которые проходил народ по пути из Египта в Трансиорданию (глава 33 книги). Но именно такого рода тексты у подавляющего большинства народов, имеющих собственную письменность, оказываются хронологически наиболее ранними: ведь письменность начинают использовать, прежде всего, для административных и хозяйственных нужд, и потому юридические и административно-хозяйственные тексты оказываются самыми древними, а поэты и философы начинают пользоваться письменностью отнюдь не в числе первых. Надо заметить, что Книга Чисел состоит, в основном, из текстов именно такого типа, хотя не исключено, что не все они восходят к кочевой эпохе. Конечно, в дописьменный период вся эта информация сохранялась в устной передаче, и записана она была, вероятнее всего, уже в эпоху Судей.

Особый интерес вызывают главы Книги Чисел, посвящённые культу и религиозному законодательству. Замечательно, прежде всего, то, что, по-видимому, клан Леви («колено Левиино» Синодального перевода) уже достаточно рано (и, вероятнее всего, уже в кочевой период) начинает восприниматься как клан, чьим традиционным клановым занятием становится служение при Скинии и её хранение, причём из всех родов этого клана именно род Аарона начинает выделяться особо (главы 3 и 4). Надо заметить, что для кланового общества представление о традиционных и наследственных для того или иного рода или клана занятиях является типичным; однако интересно, что такая «профессионализация» клана Леви и рода Аарона происходит достаточно рано. Конечно, связь конкретных родов внутри клана с определёнными видами служения при Скинии внутри клана, как она описана в главе 4 Книги Чисел, появляется позже, уже после создания второй Скинии, но очевидно, что уже в эпоху Судей культ и служение при Скинии воспринимались, как традиционное занятие клана Леви. Об этом напоминает и рассказ, приведенный в главе 16 Книги Чисел, который можно рассматривать как своеобразную апологию такого взгляда.

Не менее интересен и тип той общины, которая сложилась вокруг Моисея в процессе Исхода. На её характер проливает свет происшествие, описанное в Книге Чисел (11:26-29). Здесь, очевидно, речь идёт о появлении пророков, не принадлежащих к числу «избранных» Моисея, то есть к числу учеников, входящих в его общину. Очевидно, речь в данном случае может идти лишь о пророческой общине — иначе трудно было бы объяснить, почему на «чужих» пророков её члены должны были смотреть, как на конкурентов. Но ведь и Аарон, несомненно, должен был принадлежать к числу «избранных», он всегда оставался рядом с Моисеем, по-видимому, взяв на себя такие функции, как жертвоприношение и вообще всё, связанное с культом. Вероятнее всего, именно поэтому на него и стали впоследствии смотреть, как на родоначальника священнических династий. Но он принадлежит к одному с Моисеем роду, и преемника Аарону после его смерти избирают с ведома Моисея (Числ 20:28). Здесь, очевидно, речь идёт о наследственной преемственности, и, возможно, именно с этого момента начинается определённое разделение функций, так как, в отличие от Аарона, о пророческом призвании его сына нам ничего не известно. Но, во всяком случае, в случае левитского священства перед нами уникальный пример священнической общины, корни которой восходят к пророческой традиции.

По-видимому, именно моисеева община и сделала возможным в том числе и появление самой еврейской нации. Собственно, этногенез еврейского народа до сих пор остаётся загадкой. Можно с уверенностью сказать лишь одно: из Египта вышла смешанная разноплеменная толпа, а к началу завоевания Палестины в Трансиордании мы находим сложившуюся нацию, где очевидно присутствует такое понятие, как общенациональные задачи. Об этом ярко свидетельствует эпизод, описанный в главе 32 Книги Чисел. Здесь, в сущности, племена, избравшие себе для жительства Трансиорданию, призываются прежде участвовать в решении главной общенациональной задачи, после чего им предоставляется поселиться там, где им больше нравится. Неудивительно, что такой задачей оказывается завоевание Палестины — ради этого и был организован Исход. Очевидно, не будь идея возвращения к алтарям предков главной целью Исхода, не было бы и еврейской нации, выросшей на основе этой идеи. А главными её носителями и пропагандистами были члены моисеевой общины и, конечно, прежде всего, сам Моисей.

Собственно, вся история Исхода и кочевого периода, как она изложена в Книге Исхода и в Книге Чисел, и представляет собой рассказ о том, как разноплеменная толпа превращалась в нацию, а из нередко случайных людей формировалась религиозная община, готовая вести священную войну за алтари своих предков. Первые попытки были не слишком удачны. По-видимому, они были предприняты тогда, когда выходцы из Египта находились в оазисе Кадеш-Барнеа (Кадес-Варни). Вероятнее всего, именно туда отправился народ сразу после заключения союза на Синае, и там, можно думать, он оставался достаточно долго (Числ 33:36). Возможно, именно здесь произошли события, описанные в Книге Исхода, как имевшие место вскоре после заключения союза (глава 32). Не исключено, что именно после них и было принято решение предпринять активные действия, описанные в главах 13-14 Книги Чисел. Они-то и показали, что народ пока ещё не готов к войне. Оставалось одно: отложить завоевание земли до тех времён, пока на смену поколению недавних египтян придут потомки родившихся в пустыне, которые уже не будут с тоской вспоминать египетскую жизнь и дрожать при одной мысли о том, что им придётся идти на штурм хорошо укреплённых городов.

Но для этого было необходимо найти место, где народ мог бы жить на протяжении последующих десятилетий. Необходимо было, несмотря на пережитую горечь отступничества и поражения, отправляться в путь, хотя, по-видимому, порой самому Моисею должно было казаться, что порученное ему Богом предприятие не имеет никаких шансов на успех (Исх 33). Очевидно, после этого народ и отправляется в Трансиорданию, которая, в отличие от Синая и пустыни Негев, представляла собой сухую степь, где условия для кочевого или полукочевого скотоводства были намного благоприятнее. Надо заметить, что завоевание Палестины сразу после Исхода было затруднительно ещё и потому, что в процессе проникновения в Палестину еврейским племенам раньше или позже неизбежно пришлось бы столкнуться с находившимися в Палестине египетскими гарнизонами. По-видимому, именно для избежания такого столкновения первые попытки проникновения в Палестину предпринимаются с южного направления, из оазиса Кадеш-Барнеа (Кадес-Варни) на Беэр-Шеву (Вирсавию) и далее в район Хеврона, в южные предгорья Иудеи, где египетское присутствие было наименее заметно. Но всё же трудно предсказать точно, какой могла бы быть реакция египтян на такую активность кочевников на южных границах контролируемых ими территорий. Тем не менее, даже в этот период евреям, действуй они решительнее, возможно, удалось бы проникнуть в Беэр-Шеву (Вирсавию) и там закрепиться.

Между тем, при чтении Книги Чисел встаёт вопрос о том, как менялась численность еврейского народа на протяжении кочевого периода. В книге дважды приводятся результаты подсчёта населения, и оба раза приводится цифра, составляющая приблизительно 600 тысяч человек, причём речь идёт в обоих случаях о воинах («годных для войны») (Числ 1:46; 26:51). Речь, по-видимому, идёт о данных, полученных в результате одного и того же подсчёта, или, по крайней мере, о двух разных подсчётах, сделанных приблизительно в одно и то же время — иначе трудно было бы объяснить столь незначительную разницу в числе воинов при обоих подсчётах. Перед нами, несомненно, не просто народ, но готовое к войне племенное ополчение, стан которого напоминает военный лагерь ополченцев, собранный вокруг Скинии, как вокруг своей главной святыни (Числ 2). В данном случае речь, несомненно, должна идти уже об эпохе, когда на смену выходцам из Египта пришли их потомки, готовые к войне. Едва ли такое количество народа могло выйти из Египта, тем более, что в это число не входили женщины и дети — с ними численность народа должна была составлять не менее полутора миллионов, хотя более вероятной представляется цифра 2–3 миллиона. Представить себе такую толпу беглецов, покидающих Египет, совершенно невозможно — тогда один лишь переход через Тростниковое море должен был бы занять несколько суток.

О росте численности населения у кочевников в период Патриархов дают нам данные, приведённые в Книге Бытия. Судя по ним, вскоре после переселения из Месопотамии в Палестину у Авраама было около 300 человек, не считая женщин и детей (Быт 14:14) — а с ними, можно думать, не менее тысячи. О переселенцах в Египет говорится, что их было 70 человек (Быт 46:27), но речь, по-видимому, идёт о главах больших патриархальных родов, численность каждого из которых могла достигать нескольких десятков человек — в таком случае речь может идти о нескольких тысячах потомках Иакова, поселившихся в Египте во времена Иосифа. В таком случае на протяжении жизни двух поколений число потомков Авраама должно было вырасти в три-четыре раза. Учитывая, что и в Египте потомки Иакова жили на протяжении четырёх или пяти поколений (около 200 лет, с конца XVII века до конца XV века), можно предположить, что число выходцев из Египта вполне могло достигнуть нескольких десятков тысяч человек, но даже при самых оптимистичных подсчётах оно едва ли могло превысить 100 тысяч. В таком случае приходится предполагать, что за время жизни в пустыне число потомков выходцев из Египта должно было на протяжении жизни трёх поколений увеличиться в несколько десятков раз! Такое было бы возможно лишь в том случае, если бы к ним во время кочевого периода присоединялись выходцы из других племён, притом в значительном количестве.

Надо заметить, что некоторые упоминания о контактах между евреями и другими племенами, притом отнюдь не всегда враждебных, в Книге Чисел имеются. Так, упоминается племя Мидьян (Мадианитян), с представителями которых отношения, можно думать, были регулярными (Числ 25:6, 16-18); разделило их, по-видимому, превращение еврейского народа в единую религиозную общину, готовящуюся к войне, однако трудно сказать точно, сколько народу из этого племени успело ещё раньше присоединиться к тем или иным еврейским кланам. Конечно, чаще отношения евреев с местным населением оказывались отнюдь не дружескими, но едва ли можно считать случайным, что для идумеев и даже для египтян религиозные законы делают исключение в том, что касается возможности присоединения к еврейскому народу (Втор 23:7): по-видимому, и те, и другие активно участвовали в процессе складывания еврейской нации. Эпизод, описанный в Числ 20:14-21, весьма красноречив: евреи не решаются начинать войну с идумеями, и, возможно, не только потому, что те были сильнее, но и потому, что их воспринимали как родственное племя, с которым было возможно общение. Между тем, поселившись в Трансиордании, евреи оказались в непосредственном контакте с идумеями, и остаётся лишь догадываться, какое количество последних присоединилось к еврейскому народу.

Однако и воевать евреям пришлось немало, притом ещё прежде того времени, когда они вторглись в Палестину. Ведь Трансиордания, куда они направлялись, отнюдь не пустовала — население её составляли аммонитяне и моавитяне. Собственно, первыми войнами евреев были войны с этими племенами (Числ 21-25), хотя, судя по упоминанию Числ 25:1-3, отношения были не всегда враждебными. И всё же и моавитяне, и аммонитяне, обитавшие в Трансиордании задолго до появления там евреев, были для них естественными соперниками. Конечно, такие стычки между небольшими семитскими народами недалеко уходили от межплеменных войн и мало напоминали серьёзные военные действия, но они воспитывали в евреях боевой дух и приучали их не бояться врагов, постепенно (на протяжении двух поколений) превратив их из робких египетских пастухов в воинственных кочевников, готовых не только воевать со своими соседями, но и брать штурмом укреплённые палестинские города, пробиваясь к алтарям предков и отвоёвывая себе право жить на обещанной им Богом земле.

Отрывки к тексту:
Jos 14
Deu 34
Jos 13
Num 1
Num 7
Num 33
Num 3
Num 4
Num 16
Num 11
Num 20
Num 32
Num 13
Num 14
Num 26
Gen 14
Gen 46
Num 25
1
Now Joshua was old and advanced in years when the LORD said to him, “You are old and advanced in years, and very much of the land remains to be possessed.
2
This is the land that remains: all the regions of the Philistines and all those of the Geshurites;
3
from the Shihor which is east of Egypt, even as far as the border of Ekron to the north (it is counted as Canaanite); the five lords of the Philistines: the Gazite, the Ashdodite, the Ashkelonite, the Gittite, the Ekronite; and the Avvite
4
to the south, all the land of the Canaanite, and Mearah that belongs to the Sidonians, as far as Aphek, to the border of the Amorite;
5
and the land of the Gebalite, and all of Lebanon, toward the east, from Baal-gad below Mount Hermon as far as Lebo-hamath.
6
All the inhabitants of the hill country from Lebanon as far as Misrephoth-maim, all the Sidonians, I will drive them out from before the sons of Israel; only allot it to Israel for an inheritance as I have commanded you.
7
Now therefore, apportion this land for an inheritance to the nine tribes and the half-tribe of Manasseh.”
8
With the other half-tribe, the Reubenites and the Gadites received their inheritance which Moses gave them beyond the Jordan to the east, just as Moses the servant of the LORD gave to them;
9
from Aroer, which is on the edge of the valley of the Arnon, with the city which is in the middle of the valley, and all the plain of Medeba, as far as Dibon;
10
and all the cities of Sihon king of the Amorites, who reigned in Heshbon, as far as the border of the sons of Ammon;
11
and Gilead, and the territory of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and all Mount Hermon, and all Bashan as far as Salecah;
12
all the kingdom of Og in Bashan, who reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei (he alone was left of the remnant of the Rephaim); for Moses struck them and dispossessed them.
13
But the sons of Israel did not dispossess the Geshurites or the Maacathites; for Geshur and Maacath live among Israel until this day.
14
Only to the tribe of Levi he did not give an inheritance; the offerings by fire to the LORD, the God of Israel, are their inheritance, as He spoke to him.
15
So Moses gave an inheritance to the tribe of the sons of Reuben according to their families.
16
Their territory was from Aroer, which is on the edge of the valley of the Arnon, with the city which is in the middle of the valley and all the plain by Medeba;
17
Heshbon, and all its cities which are on the plain: Dibon and Bamoth-baal and Beth-baal-meon,
18
and Jahaz and Kedemoth and Mephaath,
19
and Kiriathaim and Sibmah and Zereth-shahar on the hill of the valley,
20
and Beth-peor and the slopes of Pisgah and Beth-jeshimoth,
21
even all the cities of the plain and all the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites who reigned in Heshbon, whom Moses struck with the chiefs of Midian, Evi and Rekem and Zur and Hur and Reba, the princes of Sihon, who lived in the land.
22
The sons of Israel also killed Balaam the son of Beor, the diviner, with the sword among the rest of their slain.
23
The border of the sons of Reuben was the Jordan. This was the inheritance of the sons of Reuben according to their families, the cities and their villages.
24
Moses also gave an inheritance to the tribe of Gad, to the sons of Gad, according to their families.
25
Their territory was Jazer, and all the cities of Gilead, and half the land of the sons of Ammon, as far as Aroer which is before Rabbah;
26
and from Heshbon as far as Ramath-mizpeh and Betonim, and from Mahanaim as far as the border of Debir;
27
and in the valley, Beth-haram and Beth-nimrah and Succoth and Zaphon, the rest of the kingdom of Sihon king of Heshbon, with the Jordan as a border, as far as the lower end of the Sea of Chinnereth beyond the Jordan to the east.
28
This is the inheritance of the sons of Gad according to their families, the cities and their villages.
29
Moses also gave an inheritance to the half-tribe of Manasseh; and it was for the half-tribe of the sons of Manasseh according to their families.
30
Their territory was from Mahanaim, all Bashan, all the kingdom of Og king of Bashan, and all the towns of Jair, which are in Bashan, sixty cities;
31
also half of Gilead, with Ashtaroth and Edrei, the cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan, were for the sons of Machir the son of Manasseh, for half of the sons of Machir according to their families.
32
These are the territories which Moses apportioned for an inheritance in the plains of Moab, beyond the Jordan at Jericho to the east.
33
But to the tribe of Levi, Moses did not give an inheritance; the LORD, the God of Israel, is their inheritance, as He had promised to them.
Скрыть
1
Now Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, which is opposite Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land, Gilead as far as Dan,
2
and all Naphtali and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah as far as the western sea,
3
and the Negev and the plain in the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, as far as Zoar.
4
Then the LORD said to him, “This is the land which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, ‘I will give it to your descendants’; I have let you see it with your eyes, but you shall not go over there.”
5
So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD.
6
And He buried him in the valley in the land of Moab, opposite Beth-peor; but no man knows his burial place to this day.
7
Although Moses was one hundred and twenty years old when he died, his eye was not dim, nor his vigor abated.
8
So the sons of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; then the days of weeping and mourning for Moses came to an end.
9
Now Joshua the son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid his hands on him; and the sons of Israel listened to him and did as the LORD had commanded Moses.
10
Since that time no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face,
11
for all the signs and wonders which the LORD sent him to perform in the land of Egypt against Pharaoh, all his servants, and all his land,
12
and for all the mighty power and for all the great terror which Moses performed in the sight of all Israel.
Скрыть
1
Now Joshua was old and advanced in years when the LORD said to him, “You are old and advanced in years, and very much of the land remains to be possessed.
2
This is the land that remains: all the regions of the Philistines and all those of the Geshurites;
3
from the Shihor which is east of Egypt, even as far as the border of Ekron to the north (it is counted as Canaanite); the five lords of the Philistines: the Gazite, the Ashdodite, the Ashkelonite, the Gittite, the Ekronite; and the Avvite
4
to the south, all the land of the Canaanite, and Mearah that belongs to the Sidonians, as far as Aphek, to the border of the Amorite;
5
and the land of the Gebalite, and all of Lebanon, toward the east, from Baal-gad below Mount Hermon as far as Lebo-hamath.
6
All the inhabitants of the hill country from Lebanon as far as Misrephoth-maim, all the Sidonians, I will drive them out from before the sons of Israel; only allot it to Israel for an inheritance as I have commanded you.
7
Now therefore, apportion this land for an inheritance to the nine tribes and the half-tribe of Manasseh.”
8
With the other half-tribe, the Reubenites and the Gadites received their inheritance which Moses gave them beyond the Jordan to the east, just as Moses the servant of the LORD gave to them;
9
from Aroer, which is on the edge of the valley of the Arnon, with the city which is in the middle of the valley, and all the plain of Medeba, as far as Dibon;
10
and all the cities of Sihon king of the Amorites, who reigned in Heshbon, as far as the border of the sons of Ammon;
11
and Gilead, and the territory of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and all Mount Hermon, and all Bashan as far as Salecah;
12
all the kingdom of Og in Bashan, who reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei (he alone was left of the remnant of the Rephaim); for Moses struck them and dispossessed them.
13
But the sons of Israel did not dispossess the Geshurites or the Maacathites; for Geshur and Maacath live among Israel until this day.
14
Only to the tribe of Levi he did not give an inheritance; the offerings by fire to the LORD, the God of Israel, are their inheritance, as He spoke to him.
15
So Moses gave an inheritance to the tribe of the sons of Reuben according to their families.
16
Their territory was from Aroer, which is on the edge of the valley of the Arnon, with the city which is in the middle of the valley and all the plain by Medeba;
17
Heshbon, and all its cities which are on the plain: Dibon and Bamoth-baal and Beth-baal-meon,
18
and Jahaz and Kedemoth and Mephaath,
19
and Kiriathaim and Sibmah and Zereth-shahar on the hill of the valley,
20
and Beth-peor and the slopes of Pisgah and Beth-jeshimoth,
21
even all the cities of the plain and all the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites who reigned in Heshbon, whom Moses struck with the chiefs of Midian, Evi and Rekem and Zur and Hur and Reba, the princes of Sihon, who lived in the land.
22
The sons of Israel also killed Balaam the son of Beor, the diviner, with the sword among the rest of their slain.
23
The border of the sons of Reuben was the Jordan. This was the inheritance of the sons of Reuben according to their families, the cities and their villages.
24
Moses also gave an inheritance to the tribe of Gad, to the sons of Gad, according to their families.
25
Their territory was Jazer, and all the cities of Gilead, and half the land of the sons of Ammon, as far as Aroer which is before Rabbah;
26
and from Heshbon as far as Ramath-mizpeh and Betonim, and from Mahanaim as far as the border of Debir;
27
and in the valley, Beth-haram and Beth-nimrah and Succoth and Zaphon, the rest of the kingdom of Sihon king of Heshbon, with the Jordan as a border, as far as the lower end of the Sea of Chinnereth beyond the Jordan to the east.
28
This is the inheritance of the sons of Gad according to their families, the cities and their villages.
29
Moses also gave an inheritance to the half-tribe of Manasseh; and it was for the half-tribe of the sons of Manasseh according to their families.
30
Their territory was from Mahanaim, all Bashan, all the kingdom of Og king of Bashan, and all the towns of Jair, which are in Bashan, sixty cities;
31
also half of Gilead, with Ashtaroth and Edrei, the cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan, were for the sons of Machir the son of Manasseh, for half of the sons of Machir according to their families.
32
These are the territories which Moses apportioned for an inheritance in the plains of Moab, beyond the Jordan at Jericho to the east.
33
But to the tribe of Levi, Moses did not give an inheritance; the LORD, the God of Israel, is their inheritance, as He had promised to them.
Скрыть
1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first of the second month, in the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt, saying,
2
“Take a census of all the congregation of the sons of Israel, by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, every male, head by head
3
from twenty years old and upward, whoever is able to go out to war in Israel, you and Aaron shall number them by their armies.
4
With you, moreover, there shall be a man of each tribe, each one head of his father’s household.
5
These then are the names of the men who shall stand with you: of Reuben, Elizur the son of Shedeur;
6
of Simeon, Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai;
7
of Judah, Nahshon the son of Amminadab;
8
of Issachar, Nethanel the son of Zuar;
9
of Zebulun, Eliab the son of Helon;
10
of the sons of Joseph: of Ephraim, Elishama the son of Ammihud; of Manasseh, Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur;
11
of Benjamin, Abidan the son of Gideoni;
12
of Dan, Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai;
13
of Asher, Pagiel the son of Ochran;
14
of Gad, Eliasaph the son of Deuel;
15
of Naphtali, Ahira the son of Enan.
16
These are they who were called of the congregation, the leaders of their fathers’ tribes; they were the heads of divisions of Israel.”
17
So Moses and Aaron took these men who had been designated by name,
18
and they assembled all the congregation together on the first of the second month. Then they registered by ancestry in their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, head by head,
19
just as the LORD had commanded Moses. So he numbered them in the wilderness of Sinai.
20
Now the sons of Reuben, Israel’s firstborn, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, head by head, every male from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
21
their numbered men of the tribe of Reuben were 46,500.
22
Of the sons of Simeon, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, their numbered men, according to the number of names, head by head, every male from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
23
their numbered men of the tribe of Simeon were 59,300.
24
Of the sons of Gad, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
25
their numbered men of the tribe of Gad were 45,650.
26
Of the sons of Judah, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
27
their numbered men of the tribe of Judah were 74,600.
28
Of the sons of Issachar, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
29
their numbered men of the tribe of Issachar were 54,400.
30
Of the sons of Zebulun, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
31
their numbered men of the tribe of Zebulun were 57,400.
32
Of the sons of Joseph, namely, of the sons of Ephraim, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
33
their numbered men of the tribe of Ephraim were 40,500.
34
Of the sons of Manasseh, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
35
their numbered men of the tribe of Manasseh were 32,200.
36
Of the sons of Benjamin, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
37
their numbered men of the tribe of Benjamin were 35,400.
38
Of the sons of Dan, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
39
their numbered men of the tribe of Dan were 62,700.
40
Of the sons of Asher, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
41
their numbered men of the tribe of Asher were 41,500.
42
Of the sons of Naphtali, their genealogical registration by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war,
43
their numbered men of the tribe of Naphtali were 53,400.
44
These are the ones who were numbered, whom Moses and Aaron numbered, with the leaders of Israel, twelve men, each of whom was of his father’s household.
45
So all the numbered men of the sons of Israel by their fathers’ households, from twenty years old and upward, whoever was able to go out to war in Israel,
46
even all the numbered men were 603,550.
47
The Levites, however, were not numbered among them by their fathers’ tribe.
48
For the LORD had spoken to Moses, saying,
49
“Only the tribe of Levi you shall not number, nor shall you take their census among the sons of Israel.
50
But you shall appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of the testimony, and over all its furnishings and over all that belongs to it. They shall carry the tabernacle and all its furnishings, and they shall take care of it; they shall also camp around the tabernacle.
51
So when the tabernacle is to set out, the Levites shall take it down; and when the tabernacle encamps, the Levites shall set it up. But the layman who comes near shall be put to death.
52
The sons of Israel shall camp, each man by his own camp, and each man by his own standard, according to their armies.
53
But the Levites shall camp around the tabernacle of the testimony, so that there will be no wrath on the congregation of the sons of Israel. So the Levites shall keep charge of the tabernacle of the testimony.”
54
Thus the sons of Israel did; according to all which the LORD had commanded Moses, so they did.
Скрыть
1
Now on the day that Moses had finished setting up the tabernacle, he anointed it and consecrated it with all its furnishings and the altar and all its utensils; he anointed them and consecrated them also.
2
Then the leaders of Israel, the heads of their fathers’ households, made an offering (they were the leaders of the tribes; they were the ones who were over the numbered men).
3
When they brought their offering before the LORD, six covered carts and twelve oxen, a cart for every two of the leaders and an ox for each one, then they presented them before the tabernacle.
4
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
5
“Accept these things from them, that they may be used in the service of the tent of meeting, and you shall give them to the Levites, to each man according to his service.”
6
So Moses took the carts and the oxen and gave them to the Levites.
7
Two carts and four oxen he gave to the sons of Gershon, according to their service,
8
and four carts and eight oxen he gave to the sons of Merari, according to their service, under the direction of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest.
9
But he did not give any to the sons of Kohath because theirs was the service of the holy objects, which they carried on the shoulder.
10
The leaders offered the dedication offering for the altar when it was anointed, so the leaders offered their offering before the altar.
11
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Let them present their offering, one leader each day, for the dedication of the altar.”
12
Now the one who presented his offering on the first day was Nahshon the son of Amminadab, of the tribe of Judah;
13
and his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
14
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
15
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
16
one male goat for a sin offering;
17
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Nahshon the son of Amminadab.
18
On the second day Nethanel the son of Zuar, leader of Issachar, presented an offering;
19
he presented as his offering one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
20
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
21
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
22
one male goat for a sin offering;
23
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Nethanel the son of Zuar.
24
On the third day it was Eliab the son of Helon, leader of the sons of Zebulun;
25
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
26
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
27
one young bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
28
one male goat for a sin offering;
29
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Eliab the son of Helon.
30
On the fourth day it was Elizur the son of Shedeur, leader of the sons of Reuben;
31
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
32
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
33
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
34
one male goat for a sin offering;
35
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Elizur the son of Shedeur.
36
On the fifth day it was Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai, leader of the children of Simeon;
37
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
38
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
39
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
40
one male goat for a sin offering;
41
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.
42
On the sixth day it was Eliasaph the son of Deuel, leader of the sons of Gad;
43
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
44
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
45
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
46
one male goat for a sin offering;
47
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Eliasaph the son of Deuel.
48
On the seventh day it was Elishama the son of Ammihud, leader of the sons of Ephraim;
49
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
50
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
51
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
52
one male goat for a sin offering;
53
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Elishama the son of Ammihud.
54
On the eighth day it was Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur, leader of the sons of Manasseh;
55
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
56
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
57
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
58
one male goat for a sin offering;
59
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur.
60
On the ninth day it was Abidan the son of Gideoni, leader of the sons of Benjamin;
61
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
62
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
63
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
64
one male goat for a sin offering;
65
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Abidan the son of Gideoni.
66
On the tenth day it was Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai, leader of the sons of Dan;
67
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
68
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
69
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
70
one male goat for a sin offering;
71
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai.
72
On the eleventh day it was Pagiel the son of Ochran, leader of the sons of Asher;
73
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
74
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
75
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
76
one male goat for a sin offering;
77
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Pagiel the son of Ochran.
78
On the twelfth day it was Ahira the son of Enan, leader of the sons of Naphtali;
79
his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering;
80
one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense;
81
one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering;
82
one male goat for a sin offering;
83
and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Ahira the son of Enan.
84
This was the dedication offering for the altar from the leaders of Israel when it was anointed: twelve silver dishes, twelve silver bowls, twelve gold pans,
85
each silver dish weighing one hundred and thirty shekels and each bowl seventy; all the silver of the utensils was 2,400 shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary;
86
the twelve gold pans, full of incense, weighing ten shekels apiece, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, all the gold of the pans 120 shekels;
87
all the oxen for the burnt offering twelve bulls, all the rams twelve, the male lambs one year old with their grain offering twelve, and the male goats for a sin offering twelve;
88
and all the oxen for the sacrifice of peace offerings 24 bulls, all the rams 60, the male goats 60, the male lambs one year old 60. This was the dedication offering for the altar after it was anointed.
89
Now when Moses went into the tent of meeting to speak with Him, he heard the voice speaking to him from above the mercy seat that was on the ark of the testimony, from between the two cherubim, so He spoke to him.
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1
These are the journeys of the sons of Israel, by which they came out from the land of Egypt by their armies, under the leadership of Moses and Aaron.
2
Moses recorded their starting places according to their journeys by the command of the LORD, and these are their journeys according to their starting places.
3
They journeyed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the next day after the Passover the sons of Israel started out boldly in the sight of all the Egyptians,
4
while the Egyptians were burying all their firstborn whom the LORD had struck down among them. The LORD had also executed judgments on their gods.
5
Then the sons of Israel journeyed from Rameses and camped in Succoth.
6
They journeyed from Succoth and camped in Etham, which is on the edge of the wilderness.
7
They journeyed from Etham and turned back to Pi-hahiroth, which faces Baal-zephon, and they camped before Migdol.
8
They journeyed from before Hahiroth and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness; and they went three days’ journey in the wilderness of Etham and camped at Marah.
9
They journeyed from Marah and came to Elim; and in Elim there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there.
10
They journeyed from Elim and camped by the Red Sea.
11
They journeyed from the Red Sea and camped in the wilderness of Sin.
12
They journeyed from the wilderness of Sin and camped at Dophkah.
13
They journeyed from Dophkah and camped at Alush.
14
They journeyed from Alush and camped at Rephidim; now it was there that the people had no water to drink.
15
They journeyed from Rephidim and camped in the wilderness of Sinai.
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They journeyed from the wilderness of Sinai and camped at Kibroth-hattaavah.
17
They journeyed from Kibroth-hattaavah and camped at Hazeroth.
18
They journeyed from Hazeroth and camped at Rithmah.
19
They journeyed from Rithmah and camped at Rimmon-perez.
20
They journeyed from Rimmon-perez and camped at Libnah.
21
They journeyed from Libnah and camped at Rissah.
22
They journeyed from Rissah and camped in Kehelathah.
23
They journeyed from Kehelathah and camped at Mount Shepher.
24
They journeyed from Mount Shepher and camped at Haradah.
25
They journeyed from Haradah and camped at Makheloth.
26
They journeyed from Makheloth and camped at Tahath.
27
They journeyed from Tahath and camped at Terah.
28
They journeyed from Terah and camped at Mithkah.
29
They journeyed from Mithkah and camped at Hashmonah.
30
They journeyed from Hashmonah and camped at Moseroth.
31
They journeyed from Moseroth and camped at Bene-jaakan.
32
They journeyed from Bene-jaakan and camped at Hor-haggidgad.
33
They journeyed from Hor-haggidgad and camped at Jotbathah.
34
They journeyed from Jotbathah and camped at Abronah.
35
They journeyed from Abronah and camped at Ezion-geber.
36
They journeyed from Ezion-geber and camped in the wilderness of Zin, that is, Kadesh.
37
They journeyed from Kadesh and camped at Mount Hor, at the edge of the land of Edom.
38
Then Aaron the priest went up to Mount Hor at the command of the LORD, and died there in the fortieth year after the sons of Israel had come from the land of Egypt, on the first day in the fifth month.
39
Aaron was one hundred twenty-three years old when he died on Mount Hor.
40
Now the Canaanite, the king of Arad who lived in the Negev in the land of Canaan, heard of the coming of the sons of Israel.
41
Then they journeyed from Mount Hor and camped at Zalmonah.
42
They journeyed from Zalmonah and camped at Punon.
43
They journeyed from Punon and camped at Oboth.
44
They journeyed from Oboth and camped at Iye-abarim, at the border of Moab.
45
They journeyed from Iyim and camped at Dibon-gad.
46
They journeyed from Dibon-gad and camped at Almon-diblathaim.
47
They journeyed from Almon-diblathaim and camped in the mountains of Abarim, before Nebo.
48
They journeyed from the mountains of Abarim and camped in the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho.
49
They camped by the Jordan, from Beth-jeshimoth as far as Abel-shittim in the plains of Moab.
50
Then the LORD spoke to Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho, saying,
51
“Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘When you cross over the Jordan into the land of Canaan,
52
then you shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, and destroy all their figured stones, and destroy all their molten images and demolish all their high places;
53
and you shall take possession of the land and live in it, for I have given the land to you to possess it.
54
You shall inherit the land by lot according to your families; to the larger you shall give more inheritance, and to the smaller you shall give less inheritance. Wherever the lot falls to anyone, that shall be his. You shall inherit according to the tribes of your fathers.
55
But if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you, then it shall come about that those whom you let remain of them will become as pricks in your eyes and as thorns in your sides, and they will trouble you in the land in which you live.
56
And as I plan to do to them, so I will do to you.’”
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1
Now these are the records of the generations of Aaron and Moses at the time when the LORD spoke with Moses on Mount Sinai.
2
These then are the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab the firstborn, and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
3
These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the anointed priests, whom he ordained to serve as priests.
4
But Nadab and Abihu died before the LORD when they offered strange fire before the LORD in the wilderness of Sinai; and they had no children. So Eleazar and Ithamar served as priests in the lifetime of their father Aaron.
5
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
6
“Bring the tribe of Levi near and set them before Aaron the priest, that they may serve him.
7
They shall perform the duties for him and for the whole congregation before the tent of meeting, to do the service of the tabernacle.
8
They shall also keep all the furnishings of the tent of meeting, along with the duties of the sons of Israel, to do the service of the tabernacle.
9
You shall thus give the Levites to Aaron and to his sons; they are wholly given to him from among the sons of Israel.
10
So you shall appoint Aaron and his sons that they may keep their priesthood, but the layman who comes near shall be put to death.”
11
Again the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
12
“Now, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the sons of Israel instead of every firstborn, the first issue of the womb among the sons of Israel. So the Levites shall be Mine.
13
For all the firstborn are Mine; on the day that I struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, I sanctified to Myself all the firstborn in Israel, from man to beast. They shall be Mine; I am the LORD.”
14
Then the LORD spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, saying,
15
“Number the sons of Levi by their fathers’ households, by their families; every male from a month old and upward you shall number.”
16
So Moses numbered them according to the word of the LORD, just as he had been commanded.
17
These then are the sons of Levi by their names: Gershon and Kohath and Merari.
18
These are the names of the sons of Gershon by their families: Libni and Shimei;
19
and the sons of Kohath by their families: Amram and Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel;
20
and the sons of Merari by their families: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their fathers’ households.
21
Of Gershon was the family of the Libnites and the family of the Shimeites; these were the families of the Gershonites.
22
Their numbered men, in the numbering of every male from a month old and upward, even their numbered men were 7,500.
23
The families of the Gershonites were to camp behind the tabernacle westward,
24
and the leader of the fathers’ households of the Gershonites was Eliasaph the son of Lael.
25
Now the duties of the sons of Gershon in the tent of meeting involved the tabernacle and the tent, its covering, and the screen for the doorway of the tent of meeting,
26
and the hangings of the court, and the screen for the doorway of the court which is around the tabernacle and the altar, and its cords, according to all the service concerning them.
27
Of Kohath was the family of the Amramites and the family of the Izharites and the family of the Hebronites and the family of the Uzzielites; these were the families of the Kohathites.
28
In the numbering of every male from a month old and upward, there were 8,600, performing the duties of the sanctuary.
29
The families of the sons of Kohath were to camp on the southward side of the tabernacle,
30
and the leader of the fathers’ households of the Kohathite families was Elizaphan the son of Uzziel.
31
Now their duties involved the ark, the table, the lampstand, the altars, and the utensils of the sanctuary with which they minister, and the screen, and all the service concerning them;
32
and Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest was the chief of the leaders of Levi, and had the oversight of those who perform the duties of the sanctuary.
33
Of Merari was the family of the Mahlites and the family of the Mushites; these were the families of Merari.
34
Their numbered men in the numbering of every male from a month old and upward, were 6,200.
35
The leader of the fathers’ households of the families of Merari was Zuriel the son of Abihail. They were to camp on the northward side of the tabernacle.
36
Now the appointed duties of the sons of Merari involved the frames of the tabernacle, its bars, its pillars, its sockets, all its equipment, and the service concerning them,
37
and the pillars around the court with their sockets and their pegs and their cords.
38
Now those who were to camp before the tabernacle eastward, before the tent of meeting toward the sunrise, are Moses and Aaron and his sons, performing the duties of the sanctuary for the obligation of the sons of Israel; but the layman coming near was to be put to death.
39
All the numbered men of the Levites, whom Moses and Aaron numbered at the command of the LORD by their families, every male from a month old and upward, were 22,000.
40
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Number every firstborn male of the sons of Israel from a month old and upward, and make a list of their names.
41
You shall take the Levites for Me, I am the LORD, instead of all the firstborn among the sons of Israel, and the cattle of the Levites instead of all the firstborn among the cattle of the sons of Israel.”
42
So Moses numbered all the firstborn among the sons of Israel, just as the LORD had commanded him;
43
and all the firstborn males by the number of names from a month old and upward, for their numbered men were 22,273.
44
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
45
“Take the Levites instead of all the firstborn among the sons of Israel and the cattle of the Levites. And the Levites shall be Mine; I am the LORD.
46
For the ransom of the 273 of the firstborn of the sons of Israel who are in excess beyond the Levites,
47
you shall take five shekels apiece, per head; you shall take them in terms of the shekel of the sanctuary (the shekel is twenty gerahs),
48
and give the money, the ransom of those who are in excess among them, to Aaron and to his sons.”
49
So Moses took the ransom money from those who were in excess, beyond those ransomed by the Levites;
50
from the firstborn of the sons of Israel he took the money in terms of the shekel of the sanctuary, 1,365.
51
Then Moses gave the ransom money to Aaron and to his sons, at the command of the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,
2
“Take a census of the descendants of Kohath from among the sons of Levi, by their families, by their fathers’ households,
3
from thirty years and upward, even to fifty years old, all who enter the service to do the work in the tent of meeting.
4
This is the work of the descendants of Kohath in the tent of meeting, concerning the most holy things.
5
“When the camp sets out, Aaron and his sons shall go in and they shall take down the veil of the screen and cover the ark of the testimony with it;
6
and they shall lay a covering of porpoise skin on it, and shall spread over it a cloth of pure blue, and shall insert its poles.
7
Over the table of the bread of the Presence they shall also spread a cloth of blue and put on it the dishes and the pans and the sacrificial bowls and the jars for the drink offering, and the continual bread shall be on it.
8
They shall spread over them a cloth of scarlet material, and cover the same with a covering of porpoise skin, and they shall insert its poles.
9
Then they shall take a blue cloth and cover the lampstand for the light, along with its lamps and its snuffers, and its trays and all its oil vessels, by which they serve it;
10
and they shall put it and all its utensils in a covering of porpoise skin, and shall put it on the carrying bars.
11
Over the golden altar they shall spread a blue cloth and cover it with a covering of porpoise skin, and shall insert its poles;
12
and they shall take all the utensils of service, with which they serve in the sanctuary, and put them in a blue cloth and cover them with a covering of porpoise skin, and put them on the carrying bars.
13
Then they shall take away the ashes from the altar, and spread a purple cloth over it.
14
They shall also put on it all its utensils by which they serve in connection with it: the firepans, the forks and shovels and the basins, all the utensils of the altar; and they shall spread a cover of porpoise skin over it and insert its poles.
15
When Aaron and his sons have finished covering the holy objects and all the furnishings of the sanctuary, when the camp is to set out, after that the sons of Kohath shall come to carry them, so that they will not touch the holy objects and die. These are the things in the tent of meeting which the sons of Kohath are to carry.
16
“The responsibility of Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest is the oil for the light and the fragrant incense and the continual grain offering and the anointing oil—the responsibility of all the tabernacle and of all that is in it, with the sanctuary and its furnishings.”
17
Then the LORD spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,
18
“Do not let the tribe of the families of the Kohathites be cut off from among the Levites.
19
But do this to them that they may live and not die when they approach the most holy objects: Aaron and his sons shall go in and assign each of them to his work and to his load;
20
but they shall not go in to see the holy objects even for a moment, or they will die.”
21
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
22
“Take a census of the sons of Gershon also, by their fathers’ households, by their families;
23
from thirty years and upward to fifty years old, you shall number them; all who enter to perform the service to do the work in the tent of meeting.
24
This is the service of the families of the Gershonites, in serving and in carrying:
25
they shall carry the curtains of the tabernacle and the tent of meeting with its covering and the covering of porpoise skin that is on top of it, and the screen for the doorway of the tent of meeting,
26
and the hangings of the court, and the screen for the doorway of the gate of the court which is around the tabernacle and the altar, and their cords and all the equipment for their service; and all that is to be done, they shall perform.
27
All the service of the sons of the Gershonites, in all their loads and in all their work, shall be performed at the command of Aaron and his sons; and you shall assign to them as a duty all their loads.
28
This is the service of the families of the sons of the Gershonites in the tent of meeting, and their duties shall be under the direction of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest.
29
“As for the sons of Merari, you shall number them by their families, by their fathers’ households;
30
from thirty years and upward even to fifty years old, you shall number them, everyone who enters the service to do the work of the tent of meeting.
31
Now this is the duty of their loads, for all their service in the tent of meeting: the boards of the tabernacle and its bars and its pillars and its sockets,
32
and the pillars around the court and their sockets and their pegs and their cords, with all their equipment and with all their service; and you shall assign each man by name the items he is to carry.
33
This is the service of the families of the sons of Merari, according to all their service in the tent of meeting, under the direction of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest.”
34
So Moses and Aaron and the leaders of the congregation numbered the sons of the Kohathites by their families and by their fathers’ households,
35
from thirty years and upward even to fifty years old, everyone who entered the service for work in the tent of meeting.
36
Their numbered men by their families were 2,750.
37
These are the numbered men of the Kohathite families, everyone who was serving in the tent of meeting, whom Moses and Aaron numbered according to the commandment of the LORD through Moses.
38
The numbered men of the sons of Gershon by their families and by their fathers’ households,
39
from thirty years and upward even to fifty years old, everyone who entered the service for work in the tent of meeting.
40
Their numbered men by their families, by their fathers’ households, were 2,630.
41
These are the numbered men of the families of the sons of Gershon, everyone who was serving in the tent of meeting, whom Moses and Aaron numbered according to the commandment of the LORD.
42
The numbered men of the families of the sons of Merari by their families, by their fathers’ households,
43
from thirty years and upward even to fifty years old, everyone who entered the service for work in the tent of meeting.
44
Their numbered men by their families were 3,200.
45
These are the numbered men of the families of the sons of Merari, whom Moses and Aaron numbered according to the commandment of the LORD through Moses.
46
All the numbered men of the Levites, whom Moses and Aaron and the leaders of Israel numbered, by their families and by their fathers’ households,
47
from thirty years and upward even to fifty years old, everyone who could enter to do the work of service and the work of carrying in the tent of meeting.
48
Their numbered men were 8,580.
49
According to the commandment of the LORD through Moses, they were numbered, everyone by his serving or carrying; thus these were his numbered men, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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1
Now Korah the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, with Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On the son of Peleth, sons of Reuben, took action,
2
and they rose up before Moses, together with some of the sons of Israel, two hundred and fifty leaders of the congregation, chosen in the assembly, men of renown.
3
They assembled together against Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “You have gone far enough, for all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is in their midst; so why do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?”
4
When Moses heard this, he fell on his face;
5
and he spoke to Korah and all his company, saying, “Tomorrow morning the LORD will show who is His, and who is holy, and will bring him near to Himself; even the one whom He will choose, He will bring near to Himself.
6
Do this: take censers for yourselves, Korah and all your company,
7
and put fire in them, and lay incense upon them in the presence of the LORD tomorrow; and the man whom the LORD chooses shall be the one who is holy. You have gone far enough, you sons of Levi!”
8
Then Moses said to Korah, “Hear now, you sons of Levi,
9
is it not enough for you that the God of Israel has separated you from the rest of the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to Himself, to do the service of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to stand before the congregation to minister to them;
10
and that He has brought you near, Korah, and all your brothers, sons of Levi, with you? And are you seeking for the priesthood also?
11
Therefore you and all your company are gathered together against the LORD; but as for Aaron, who is he that you grumble against him?”
12
Then Moses sent a summons to Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab; but they said, “We will not come up.
13
Is it not enough that you have brought us up out of a land flowing with milk and honey to have us die in the wilderness, but you would also lord it over us?
14
Indeed, you have not brought us into a land flowing with milk and honey, nor have you given us an inheritance of fields and vineyards. Would you put out the eyes of these men? We will not come up!”
15
Then Moses became very angry and said to the LORD, “Do not regard their offering! I have not taken a single donkey from them, nor have I done harm to any of them.”
16
Moses said to Korah, “You and all your company be present before the LORD tomorrow, both you and they along with Aaron.
17
Each of you take his firepan and put incense on it, and each of you bring his censer before the LORD, two hundred and fifty firepans; also you and Aaron shall each bring his firepan.”
18
So they each took his own censer and put fire on it, and laid incense on it; and they stood at the doorway of the tent of meeting, with Moses and Aaron.
19
Thus Korah assembled all the congregation against them at the doorway of the tent of meeting. And the glory of the LORD appeared to all the congregation.
20
Then the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,
21
“Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them instantly.”
22
But they fell on their faces and said, “O God, God of the spirits of all flesh, when one man sins, will You be angry with the entire congregation?”
23
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
24
“Speak to the congregation, saying, ‘Get back from around the dwellings of Korah, Dathan and Abiram.’”
25
Then Moses arose and went to Dathan and Abiram, with the elders of Israel following him,
26
and he spoke to the congregation, saying, “Depart now from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing that belongs to them, or you will be swept away in all their sin.”
27
So they got back from around the dwellings of Korah, Dathan and Abiram; and Dathan and Abiram came out and stood at the doorway of their tents, along with their wives and their sons and their little ones.
28
Moses said, “By this you shall know that the LORD has sent me to do all these deeds; for this is not my doing.
29
If these men die the death of all men or if they suffer the fate of all men, then the LORD has not sent me.
30
But if the LORD brings about an entirely new thing and the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that is theirs, and they descend alive into Sheol, then you will understand that these men have spurned the LORD.”
31
As he finished speaking all these words, the ground that was under them split open;
32
and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, and their households, and all the men who belonged to Korah with their possessions.
33
So they and all that belonged to them went down alive to Sheol; and the earth closed over them, and they perished from the midst of the assembly.
34
All Israel who were around them fled at their outcry, for they said, “The earth may swallow us up!”
35
Fire also came forth from the LORD and consumed the two hundred and fifty men who were offering the incense.
36
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
37
“Say to Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, that he shall take up the censers out of the midst of the blaze, for they are holy; and you scatter the burning coals abroad.
38
As for the censers of these men who have sinned at the cost of their lives, let them be made into hammered sheets for a plating of the altar, since they did present them before the LORD and they are holy; and they shall be for a sign to the sons of Israel.”
39
So Eleazar the priest took the bronze censers which the men who were burned had offered, and they hammered them out as a plating for the altar,
40
as a reminder to the sons of Israel that no layman who is not of the descendants of Aaron should come near to burn incense before the LORD; so that he will not become like Korah and his company—just as the LORD had spoken to him through Moses.
41
But on the next day all the congregation of the sons of Israel grumbled against Moses and Aaron, saying, “You are the ones who have caused the death of the LORD’S people.”
42
It came about, however, when the congregation had assembled against Moses and Aaron, that they turned toward the tent of meeting, and behold, the cloud covered it and the glory of the LORD appeared.
43
Then Moses and Aaron came to the front of the tent of meeting,
44
and the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
45
“Get away from among this congregation, that I may consume them instantly.” Then they fell on their faces.
46
Moses said to Aaron, “Take your censer and put in it fire from the altar, and lay incense on it; then bring it quickly to the congregation and make atonement for them, for wrath has gone forth from the LORD, the plague has begun!”
47
Then Aaron took it as Moses had spoken, and ran into the midst of the assembly, for behold, the plague had begun among the people. So he put on the incense and made atonement for the people.
48
He took his stand between the dead and the living, so that the plague was checked.
49
But those who died by the plague were 14,700, besides those who died on account of Korah.
50
Then Aaron returned to Moses at the doorway of the tent of meeting, for the plague had been checked.
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Now the people became like those who complain of adversity in the hearing of the LORD; and when the LORD heard it, His anger was kindled, and the fire of the LORD burned among them and consumed some of the outskirts of the camp.
2
The people therefore cried out to Moses, and Moses prayed to the LORD and the fire died out.
3
So the name of that place was called Taberah, because the fire of the LORD burned among them.
4
The rabble who were among them had greedy desires; and also the sons of Israel wept again and said, “Who will give us meat to eat?
5
We remember the fish which we used to eat free in Egypt, the cucumbers and the melons and the leeks and the onions and the garlic,
6
but now our appetite is gone. There is nothing at all to look at except this manna.”
7
Now the manna was like coriander seed, and its appearance like that of bdellium.
8
The people would go about and gather it and grind it between two millstones or beat it in the mortar, and boil it in the pot and make cakes with it; and its taste was as the taste of cakes baked with oil.
9
When the dew fell on the camp at night, the manna would fall with it.
10
Now Moses heard the people weeping throughout their families, each man at the doorway of his tent; and the anger of the LORD was kindled greatly, and Moses was displeased.
11
So Moses said to the LORD, “Why have You been so hard on Your servant? And why have I not found favor in Your sight, that You have laid the burden of all this people on me?
12
Was it I who conceived all this people? Was it I who brought them forth, that You should say to me, ‘Carry them in your bosom as a nurse carries a nursing infant, to the land which You swore to their fathers’?
13
Where am I to get meat to give to all this people? For they weep before me, saying, ‘Give us meat that we may eat!’
14
I alone am not able to carry all this people, because it is too burdensome for me.
15
So if You are going to deal thus with me, please kill me at once, if I have found favor in Your sight, and do not let me see my wretchedness.”
16
The LORD therefore said to Moses, “Gather for Me seventy men from the elders of Israel, whom you know to be the elders of the people and their officers and bring them to the tent of meeting, and let them take their stand there with you.
17
Then I will come down and speak with you there, and I will take of the Spirit who is upon you, and will put Him upon them; and they shall bear the burden of the people with you, so that you will not bear it all alone.
18
Say to the people, ‘Consecrate yourselves for tomorrow, and you shall eat meat; for you have wept in the ears of the LORD, saying, “Oh that someone would give us meat to eat! For we were well-off in Egypt.” Therefore the LORD will give you meat and you shall eat.
19
You shall eat, not one day, nor two days, nor five days, nor ten days, nor twenty days,
20
but a whole month, until it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you; because you have rejected the LORD who is among you and have wept before Him, saying, “Why did we ever leave Egypt?”’”
21
But Moses said, “The people, among whom I am, are 600,000 on foot; yet You have said, ‘I will give them meat, so that they may eat for a whole month.’
22
Should flocks and herds be slaughtered for them, to be sufficient for them? Or should all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them, to be sufficient for them?”
23
The LORD said to Moses, “Is the LORD’S power limited? Now you shall see whether My word will come true for you or not.”
24
So Moses went out and told the people the words of the LORD. Also, he gathered seventy men of the elders of the people, and stationed them around the tent.
25
Then the LORD came down in the cloud and spoke to him; and He took of the Spirit who was upon him and placed Him upon the seventy elders. And when the Spirit rested upon them, they prophesied. But they did not do it again.
26
But two men had remained in the camp; the name of one was Eldad and the name of the other Medad. And the Spirit rested upon them (now they were among those who had been registered, but had not gone out to the tent), and they prophesied in the camp.
27
So a young man ran and told Moses and said, “Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp.”
28
Then Joshua the son of Nun, the attendant of Moses from his youth, said, “Moses, my lord, restrain them.”
29
But Moses said to him, “Are you jealous for my sake? Would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His Spirit upon them!”
30
Then Moses returned to the camp, both he and the elders of Israel.
31
Now there went forth a wind from the LORD and it brought quail from the sea, and let them fall beside the camp, about a day’s journey on this side and a day’s journey on the other side, all around the camp and about two cubits deep on the surface of the ground.
32
The people spent all day and all night and all the next day, and gathered the quail (he who gathered least gathered ten homers) and they spread them out for themselves all around the camp.
33
While the meat was still between their teeth, before it was chewed, the anger of the LORD was kindled against the people, and the LORD struck the people with a very severe plague.
34
So the name of that place was called Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people who had been greedy.
35
From Kibroth-hattaavah the people set out for Hazeroth, and they remained at Hazeroth.
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Then the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came to the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people stayed at Kadesh. Now Miriam died there and was buried there.
2
There was no water for the congregation, and they assembled themselves against Moses and Aaron.
3
The people thus contended with Moses and spoke, saying, “If only we had perished when our brothers perished before the LORD!
4
Why then have you brought the LORD’S assembly into this wilderness, for us and our beasts to die here?
5
Why have you made us come up from Egypt, to bring us in to this wretched place? It is not a place of grain or figs or vines or pomegranates, nor is there water to drink.”
6
Then Moses and Aaron came in from the presence of the assembly to the doorway of the tent of meeting and fell on their faces. Then the glory of the LORD appeared to them;
7
and the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
8
“Take the rod; and you and your brother Aaron assemble the congregation and speak to the rock before their eyes, that it may yield its water. You shall thus bring forth water for them out of the rock and let the congregation and their beasts drink.”
9
So Moses took the rod from before the LORD, just as He had commanded him;
10
and Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly before the rock. And he said to them, “Listen now, you rebels; shall we bring forth water for you out of this rock?”
11
Then Moses lifted up his hand and struck the rock twice with his rod; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation and their beasts drank.
12
But the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Because you have not believed Me, to treat Me as holy in the sight of the sons of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.”
13
Those were the waters of Meribah, because the sons of Israel contended with the LORD, and He proved Himself holy among them.
14
From Kadesh Moses then sent messengers to the king of Edom: “Thus your brother Israel has said, ‘You know all the hardship that has befallen us;
15
that our fathers went down to Egypt, and we stayed in Egypt a long time, and the Egyptians treated us and our fathers badly.
16
But when we cried out to the LORD, He heard our voice and sent an angel and brought us out from Egypt; now behold, we are at Kadesh, a town on the edge of your territory.
17
Please let us pass through your land. We will not pass through field or through vineyard; we will not even drink water from a well. We will go along the king’s highway, not turning to the right or left, until we pass through your territory.’”
18
Edom, however, said to him, “You shall not pass through us, or I will come out with the sword against you.”
19
Again, the sons of Israel said to him, “We will go up by the highway, and if I and my livestock do drink any of your water, then I will pay its price. Let me only pass through on my feet, nothing else.”
20
But he said, “You shall not pass through.” And Edom came out against him with a heavy force and with a strong hand.
21
Thus Edom refused to allow Israel to pass through his territory; so Israel turned away from him.
22
Now when they set out from Kadesh, the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came to Mount Hor.
23
Then the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron at Mount Hor by the border of the land of Edom, saying,
24
“Aaron will be gathered to his people; for he shall not enter the land which I have given to the sons of Israel, because you rebelled against My command at the waters of Meribah.
25
Take Aaron and his son Eleazar and bring them up to Mount Hor;
26
and strip Aaron of his garments and put them on his son Eleazar. So Aaron will be gathered to his people, and will die there.”
27
So Moses did just as the LORD had commanded, and they went up to Mount Hor in the sight of all the congregation.
28
After Moses had stripped Aaron of his garments and put them on his son Eleazar, Aaron died there on the mountain top. Then Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain.
29
When all the congregation saw that Aaron had died, all the house of Israel wept for Aaron thirty days.
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1
Now the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad had an exceedingly large number of livestock. So when they saw the land of Jazer and the land of Gilead, that it was indeed a place suitable for livestock,
2
the sons of Gad and the sons of Reuben came and spoke to Moses and to Eleazar the priest and to the leaders of the congregation, saying,
3
“Ataroth, Dibon, Jazer, Nimrah, Heshbon, Elealeh, Sebam, Nebo and Beon,
4
the land which the LORD conquered before the congregation of Israel, is a land for livestock, and your servants have livestock.”
5
They said, “If we have found favor in your sight, let this land be given to your servants as a possession; do not take us across the Jordan.”
6
But Moses said to the sons of Gad and to the sons of Reuben, “Shall your brothers go to war while you yourselves sit here?
7
Now why are you discouraging the sons of Israel from crossing over into the land which the LORD has given them?
8
This is what your fathers did when I sent them from Kadesh-barnea to see the land.
9
For when they went up to the valley of Eshcol and saw the land, they discouraged the sons of Israel so that they did not go into the land which the LORD had given them.
10
So the LORD’S anger burned in that day, and He swore, saying,
11
‘None of the men who came up from Egypt, from twenty years old and upward, shall see the land which I swore to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob; for they did not follow Me fully,
12
except Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite and Joshua the son of Nun, for they have followed the LORD fully.’
13
So the LORD’S anger burned against Israel, and He made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until the entire generation of those who had done evil in the sight of the LORD was destroyed.
14
Now behold, you have risen up in your fathers’ place, a brood of sinful men, to add still more to the burning anger of the LORD against Israel.
15
For if you turn away from following Him, He will once more abandon them in the wilderness, and you will destroy all these people.”
16
Then they came near to him and said, “We will build here sheepfolds for our livestock and cities for our little ones;
17
but we ourselves will be armed ready to go before the sons of Israel, until we have brought them to their place, while our little ones live in the fortified cities because of the inhabitants of the land.
18
We will not return to our homes until every one of the sons of Israel has possessed his inheritance.
19
For we will not have an inheritance with them on the other side of the Jordan and beyond, because our inheritance has fallen to us on this side of the Jordan toward the east.”
20
So Moses said to them, “If you will do this, if you will arm yourselves before the LORD for the war,
21
and all of you armed men cross over the Jordan before the LORD until He has driven His enemies out from before Him,
22
and the land is subdued before the LORD, then afterward you shall return and be free of obligation toward the LORD and toward Israel, and this land shall be yours for a possession before the LORD.
23
But if you will not do so, behold, you have sinned against the LORD, and be sure your sin will find you out.
24
Build yourselves cities for your little ones, and sheepfolds for your sheep, and do what you have promised.”
25
The sons of Gad and the sons of Reuben spoke to Moses, saying, “Your servants will do just as my lord commands.
26
Our little ones, our wives, our livestock and all our cattle shall remain there in the cities of Gilead;
27
while your servants, everyone who is armed for war, will cross over in the presence of the LORD to battle, just as my lord says.”
28
So Moses gave command concerning them to Eleazar the priest, and to Joshua the son of Nun, and to the heads of the fathers’ households of the tribes of the sons of Israel.
29
Moses said to them, “If the sons of Gad and the sons of Reuben, everyone who is armed for battle, will cross with you over the Jordan in the presence of the LORD, and the land is subdued before you, then you shall give them the land of Gilead for a possession;
30
but if they will not cross over with you armed, they shall have possessions among you in the land of Canaan.”
31
The sons of Gad and the sons of Reuben answered, saying, “As the LORD has said to your servants, so we will do.
32
We ourselves will cross over armed in the presence of the LORD into the land of Canaan, and the possession of our inheritance shall remain with us across the Jordan.”
33
So Moses gave to them, to the sons of Gad and to the sons of Reuben and to the half-tribe of Joseph’s son Manasseh, the kingdom of Sihon, king of the Amorites and the kingdom of Og, the king of Bashan, the land with its cities with their territories, the cities of the surrounding land.
34
The sons of Gad built Dibon and Ataroth and Aroer,
35
and Atroth-shophan and Jazer and Jogbehah,
36
and Beth-nimrah and Beth-haran as fortified cities, and sheepfolds for sheep.
37
The sons of Reuben built Heshbon and Elealeh and Kiriathaim,
38
and Nebo and Baal-meon—their names being changed—and Sibmah, and they gave other names to the cities which they built.
39
The sons of Machir the son of Manasseh went to Gilead and took it, and dispossessed the Amorites who were in it.
40
So Moses gave Gilead to Machir the son of Manasseh, and he lived in it.
41
Jair the son of Manasseh went and took its towns, and called them Havvoth-jair.
42
Nobah went and took Kenath and its villages, and called it Nobah after his own name.
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1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses saying,
2
“Send out for yourself men so that they may spy out the land of Canaan, which I am going to give to the sons of Israel; you shall send a man from each of their fathers’ tribes, every one a leader among them.”
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So Moses sent them from the wilderness of Paran at the command of the LORD, all of them men who were heads of the sons of Israel.
4
These then were their names: from the tribe of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur;
5
from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori;
6
from the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh;
7
from the tribe of Issachar, Igal the son of Joseph;
8
from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Nun;
9
from the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son of Raphu;
10
from the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel the son of Sodi;
11
from the tribe of Joseph, from the tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi the son of Susi;
12
from the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of Gemalli;
13
from the tribe of Asher, Sethur the son of Michael;
14
from the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi the son of Vophsi;
15
from the tribe of Gad, Geuel the son of Machi.
16
These are the names of the men whom Moses sent to spy out the land; but Moses called Hoshea the son of Nun, Joshua.
17
When Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, he said to them, “Go up there into the Negev; then go up into the hill country.
18
See what the land is like, and whether the people who live in it are strong or weak, whether they are few or many.
19
How is the land in which they live, is it good or bad? And how are the cities in which they live, are they like open camps or with fortifications?
20
How is the land, is it fat or lean? Are there trees in it or not? Make an effort then to get some of the fruit of the land.” Now the time was the time of the first ripe grapes.
21
So they went up and spied out the land from the wilderness of Zin as far as Rehob, at Lebo-hamath.
22
When they had gone up into the Negev, they came to Hebron where Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai, the descendants of Anak were. (Now Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.)
23
Then they came to the valley of Eshcol and from there cut down a branch with a single cluster of grapes; and they carried it on a pole between two men, with some of the pomegranates and the figs.
24
That place was called the valley of Eshcol, because of the cluster which the sons of Israel cut down from there.
25
When they returned from spying out the land, at the end of forty days,
26
they proceeded to come to Moses and Aaron and to all the congregation of the sons of Israel in the wilderness of Paran, at Kadesh; and they brought back word to them and to all the congregation and showed them the fruit of the land.
27
Thus they told him, and said, “We went in to the land where you sent us; and it certainly does flow with milk and honey, and this is its fruit.
28
Nevertheless, the people who live in the land are strong, and the cities are fortified and very large; and moreover, we saw the descendants of Anak there.
29
Amalek is living in the land of the Negev and the Hittites and the Jebusites and the Amorites are living in the hill country, and the Canaanites are living by the sea and by the side of the Jordan.”
30
Then Caleb quieted the people before Moses and said, “We should by all means go up and take possession of it, for we will surely overcome it.”
31
But the men who had gone up with him said, “We are not able to go up against the people, for they are too strong for us.”
32
So they gave out to the sons of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we have gone, in spying it out, is a land that devours its inhabitants; and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size.
33
There also we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak are part of the Nephilim); and we became like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight.”
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1
Then all the congregation lifted up their voices and cried, and the people wept that night.
2
All the sons of Israel grumbled against Moses and Aaron; and the whole congregation said to them, “Would that we had died in the land of Egypt! Or would that we had died in this wilderness!
3
Why is the LORD bringing us into this land, to fall by the sword? Our wives and our little ones will become plunder; would it not be better for us to return to Egypt?”
4
So they said to one another, “Let us appoint a leader and return to Egypt.”
5
Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces in the presence of all the assembly of the congregation of the sons of Israel.
6
Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, of those who had spied out the land, tore their clothes;
7
and they spoke to all the congregation of the sons of Israel, saying, “The land which we passed through to spy out is an exceedingly good land.
8
If the LORD is pleased with us, then He will bring us into this land and give it to us—a land which flows with milk and honey.
9
Only do not rebel against the LORD; and do not fear the people of the land, for they will be our prey. Their protection has been removed from them, and the LORD is with us; do not fear them.”
10
But all the congregation said to stone them with stones. Then the glory of the LORD appeared in the tent of meeting to all the sons of Israel.
11
The LORD said to Moses, “How long will this people spurn Me? And how long will they not believe in Me, despite all the signs which I have performed in their midst?
12
I will smite them with pestilence and dispossess them, and I will make you into a nation greater and mightier than they.”
13
But Moses said to the LORD, “Then the Egyptians will hear of it, for by Your strength You brought up this people from their midst,
14
and they will tell it to the inhabitants of this land. They have heard that You, O LORD, are in the midst of this people, for You, O LORD, are seen eye to eye, while Your cloud stands over them; and You go before them in a pillar of cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night.
15
Now if You slay this people as one man, then the nations who have heard of Your fame will say,
16
‘Because the LORD could not bring this people into the land which He promised them by oath, therefore He slaughtered them in the wilderness.’
17
But now, I pray, let the power of the Lord be great, just as You have declared,
18
‘The LORD is slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness, forgiving iniquity and transgression; but He will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generations.’
19
Pardon, I pray, the iniquity of this people according to the greatness of Your lovingkindness, just as You also have forgiven this people, from Egypt even until now.”
20
So the LORD said, “I have pardoned them according to your word;
21
but indeed, as I live, all the earth will be filled with the glory of the LORD.
22
Surely all the men who have seen My glory and My signs which I performed in Egypt and in the wilderness, yet have put Me to the test these ten times and have not listened to My voice,
23
shall by no means see the land which I swore to their fathers, nor shall any of those who spurned Me see it.
24
But My servant Caleb, because he has had a different spirit and has followed Me fully, I will bring into the land which he entered, and his descendants shall take possession of it.
25
Now the Amalekites and the Canaanites live in the valleys; turn tomorrow and set out to the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea.”
26
The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,
27
“How long shall I bear with this evil congregation who are grumbling against Me? I have heard the complaints of the sons of Israel, which they are making against Me.
28
Say to them, ‘As I live,’ says the LORD, ‘just as you have spoken in My hearing, so I will surely do to you;
29
your corpses will fall in this wilderness, even all your numbered men, according to your complete number from twenty years old and upward, who have grumbled against Me.
30
Surely you shall not come into the land in which I swore to settle you, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun.
31
Your children, however, whom you said would become a prey—I will bring them in, and they will know the land which you have rejected.
32
But as for you, your corpses will fall in this wilderness.
33
Your sons shall be shepherds for forty years in the wilderness, and they will suffer for your unfaithfulness, until your corpses lie in the wilderness.
34
According to the number of days which you spied out the land, forty days, for every day you shall bear your guilt a year, even forty years, and you will know My opposition.
35
I, the LORD, have spoken, surely this I will do to all this evil congregation who are gathered together against Me. In this wilderness they shall be destroyed, and there they will die.’”
36
As for the men whom Moses sent to spy out the land and who returned and made all the congregation grumble against him by bringing out a bad report concerning the land,
37
even those men who brought out the very bad report of the land died by a plague before the LORD.
38
But Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb the son of Jephunneh remained alive out of those men who went to spy out the land.
39
When Moses spoke these words to all the sons of Israel, the people mourned greatly.
40
In the morning, however, they rose up early and went up to the ridge of the hill country, saying, “Here we are; we have indeed sinned, but we will go up to the place which the LORD has promised.”
41
But Moses said, “Why then are you transgressing the commandment of the LORD, when it will not succeed?
42
Do not go up, or you will be struck down before your enemies, for the LORD is not among you.
43
For the Amalekites and the Canaanites will be there in front of you, and you will fall by the sword, inasmuch as you have turned back from following the LORD. And the LORD will not be with you.”
44
But they went up heedlessly to the ridge of the hill country; neither the ark of the covenant of the LORD nor Moses left the camp.
45
Then the Amalekites and the Canaanites who lived in that hill country came down, and struck them and beat them down as far as Hormah.
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1
Then it came about after the plague, that the LORD spoke to Moses and to Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, saying,
2
“Take a census of all the congregation of the sons of Israel from twenty years old and upward, by their fathers’ households, whoever is able to go out to war in Israel.”
3
So Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho, saying,
4
“Take a census of the people from twenty years old and upward, as the LORD has commanded Moses.” Now the sons of Israel who came out of the land of Egypt were:
5
Reuben, Israel’s firstborn, the sons of Reuben: of Hanoch, the family of the Hanochites; of Pallu, the family of the Palluites;
6
of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; of Carmi, the family of the Carmites.
7
These are the families of the Reubenites, and those who were numbered of them were 43,730.
8
The son of Pallu: Eliab.
9
The sons of Eliab: Nemuel and Dathan and Abiram. These are the Dathan and Abiram who were called by the congregation, who contended against Moses and against Aaron in the company of Korah, when they contended against the LORD,
10
and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up along with Korah, when that company died, when the fire devoured 250 men, so that they became a warning.
11
The sons of Korah, however, did not die.
12
The sons of Simeon according to their families: of Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites; of Jamin, the family of the Jaminites; of Jachin, the family of the Jachinites;
13
of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites; of Shaul, the family of the Shaulites.
14
These are the families of the Simeonites, 22,200.
15
The sons of Gad according to their families: of Zephon, the family of the Zephonites; of Haggi, the family of the Haggites; of Shuni, the family of the Shunites;
16
of Ozni, the family of the Oznites; of Eri, the family of the Erites;
17
of Arod, the family of the Arodites; of Areli, the family of the Arelites.
18
These are the families of the sons of Gad according to those who were numbered of them, 40,500.
19
The sons of Judah were Er and Onan, but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan.
20
The sons of Judah according to their families were: of Shelah, the family of the Shelanites; of Perez, the family of the Perezites; of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites.
21
The sons of Perez were: of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; of Hamul, the family of the Hamulites.
22
These are the families of Judah according to those who were numbered of them, 76,500.
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The sons of Issachar according to their families: of Tola, the family of the Tolaites; of Puvah, the family of the Punites;
24
of Jashub, the family of the Jashubites; of Shimron, the family of the Shimronites.
25
These are the families of Issachar according to those who were numbered of them, 64,300.
26
The sons of Zebulun according to their families: of Sered, the family of the Seredites; of Elon, the family of the Elonites; of Jahleel, the family of the Jahleelites.
27
These are the families of the Zebulunites according to those who were numbered of them, 60,500.
28
The sons of Joseph according to their families: Manasseh and Ephraim.
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The sons of Manasseh: of Machir, the family of the Machirites; and Machir became the father of Gilead: of Gilead, the family of the Gileadites.
30
These are the sons of Gilead: of Iezer, the family of the Iezerites; of Helek, the family of the Helekites;
31
and of Asriel, the family of the Asrielites; and of Shechem, the family of the Shechemites;
32
and of Shemida, the family of the Shemidaites; and of Hepher, the family of the Hepherites.
33
Now Zelophehad the son of Hepher had no sons, but only daughters; and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah and Tirzah.
34
These are the families of Manasseh; and those who were numbered of them were 52,700.
35
These are the sons of Ephraim according to their families: of Shuthelah, the family of the Shuthelahites; of Becher, the family of the Becherites; of Tahan, the family of the Tahanites.
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These are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran, the family of the Eranites.
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These are the families of the sons of Ephraim according to those who were numbered of them, 32,500. These are the sons of Joseph according to their families.
38
The sons of Benjamin according to their families: of Bela, the family of the Belaites; of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites; of Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites;
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of Shephupham, the family of the Shuphamites; of Hupham, the family of the Huphamites.
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The sons of Bela were Ard and Naaman: of Ard, the family of the Ardites; of Naaman, the family of the Naamites.
41
These are the sons of Benjamin according to their families; and those who were numbered of them were 45,600.
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These are the sons of Dan according to their families: of Shuham, the family of the Shuhamites. These are the families of Dan according to their families.
43
All the families of the Shuhamites, according to those who were numbered of them, were 64,400.
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The sons of Asher according to their families: of Imnah, the family of the Imnites; of Ishvi, the family of the Ishvites; of Beriah, the family of the Beriites.
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Of the sons of Beriah: of Heber, the family of the Heberites; of Malchiel, the family of the Malchielites.
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The name of the daughter of Asher was Serah.
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These are the families of the sons of Asher according to those who were numbered of them, 53,400.
48
The sons of Naphtali according to their families: of Jahzeel, the family of the Jahzeelites; of Guni, the family of the Gunites;
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of Jezer, the family of the Jezerites; of Shillem, the family of the Shillemites.
50
These are the families of Naphtali according to their families; and those who were numbered of them were 45,400.
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These are those who were numbered of the sons of Israel, 601,730.
52
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
53
“Among these the land shall be divided for an inheritance according to the number of names.
54
To the larger group you shall increase their inheritance, and to the smaller group you shall diminish their inheritance; each shall be given their inheritance according to those who were numbered of them.
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But the land shall be divided by lot. They shall receive their inheritance according to the names of the tribes of their fathers.
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According to the selection by lot, their inheritance shall be divided between the larger and the smaller groups.”
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These are those who were numbered of the Levites according to their families: of Gershon, the family of the Gershonites; of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites; of Merari, the family of the Merarites.
58
These are the families of Levi: the family of the Libnites, the family of the Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, the family of the Korahites. Kohath became the father of Amram.
59
The name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt; and she bore to Amram: Aaron and Moses and their sister Miriam.
60
To Aaron were born Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
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But Nadab and Abihu died when they offered strange fire before the LORD.
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Those who were numbered of them were 23,000, every male from a month old and upward, for they were not numbered among the sons of Israel since no inheritance was given to them among the sons of Israel.
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These are those who were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who numbered the sons of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho.
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But among these there was not a man of those who were numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest, who numbered the sons of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai.
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For the LORD had said of them, “They shall surely die in the wilderness.” And not a man was left of them, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun.
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And it came about in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,
2
that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar).
3
All these came as allies to the valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea).
4
Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer, but the thirteenth year they rebelled.
5
In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, came and defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim and the Zuzim in Ham and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim,
6
and the Horites in their Mount Seir, as far as El-paran, which is by the wilderness.
7
Then they turned back and came to En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh), and conquered all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, who lived in Hazazon-tamar.
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And the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) came out; and they arrayed for battle against them in the valley of Siddim,
9
against Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goiim and Amraphel king of Shinar and Arioch king of Ellasar—four kings against five.
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Now the valley of Siddim was full of tar pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fell into them. But those who survived fled to the hill country.
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Then they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food supply, and departed.
12
They also took Lot, Abram’s nephew, and his possessions and departed, for he was living in Sodom.
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Then a fugitive came and told Abram the Hebrew. Now he was living by the oaks of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol and brother of Aner, and these were allies with Abram.
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When Abram heard that his relative had been taken captive, he led out his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and went in pursuit as far as Dan.
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He divided his forces against them by night, he and his servants, and defeated them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus.
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He brought back all the goods, and also brought back his relative Lot with his possessions, and also the women, and the people.
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Then after his return from the defeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley).
18
And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest of God Most High.
19
He blessed him and said, “Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Possessor of heaven and earth;
20
And blessed be God Most High, Who has delivered your enemies into your hand.” He gave him a tenth of all.
21
The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give the people to me and take the goods for yourself.”
22
Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have sworn to the LORD God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth,
23
that I will not take a thread or a sandal thong or anything that is yours, for fear you would say, ‘I have made Abram rich.’
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I will take nothing except what the young men have eaten, and the share of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their share.”
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So Israel set out with all that he had, and came to Beersheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac.
2
God spoke to Israel in visions of the night and said, “Jacob, Jacob.” And he said, “Here I am.”
3
He said, “I am God, the God of your father; do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will make you a great nation there.
4
I will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also surely bring you up again; and Joseph will close your eyes.”
5
Then Jacob arose from Beersheba; and the sons of Israel carried their father Jacob and their little ones and their wives in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him.
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They took their livestock and their property, which they had acquired in the land of Canaan, and came to Egypt, Jacob and all his descendants with him:
7
his sons and his grandsons with him, his daughters and his granddaughters, and all his descendants he brought with him to Egypt.
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Now these are the names of the sons of Israel, Jacob and his sons, who went to Egypt: Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn.
9
The sons of Reuben: Hanoch and Pallu and Hezron and Carmi.
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The sons of Simeon: Jemuel and Jamin and Ohad and Jachin and Zohar and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman.
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The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
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The sons of Judah: Er and Onan and Shelah and Perez and Zerah (but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan). And the sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.
13
The sons of Issachar: Tola and Puvvah and Iob and Shimron.
14
The sons of Zebulun: Sered and Elon and Jahleel.
15
These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan-aram, with his daughter Dinah; all his sons and his daughters numbered thirty-three.
16
The sons of Gad: Ziphion and Haggi, Shuni and Ezbon, Eri and Arodi and Areli.
17
The sons of Asher: Imnah and Ishvah and Ishvi and Beriah and their sister Serah. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel.
18
These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Leah; and she bore to Jacob these sixteen persons.
19
The sons of Jacob’s wife Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin.
20
Now to Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, bore to him.
21
The sons of Benjamin: Bela and Becher and Ashbel, Gera and Naaman, Ehi and Rosh, Muppim and Huppim and Ard.
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These are the sons of Rachel, who were born to Jacob; there were fourteen persons in all.
23
The sons of Dan: Hushim.
24
The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel and Guni and Jezer and Shillem.
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These are the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Rachel, and she bore these to Jacob; there were seven persons in all.
26
All the persons belonging to Jacob, who came to Egypt, his direct descendants, not including the wives of Jacob’s sons, were sixty-six persons in all,
27
and the sons of Joseph, who were born to him in Egypt were two; all the persons of the house of Jacob, who came to Egypt, were seventy.
28
Now he sent Judah before him to Joseph, to point out the way before him to Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen.
29
Joseph prepared his chariot and went up to Goshen to meet his father Israel; as soon as he appeared before him, he fell on his neck and wept on his neck a long time.
30
Then Israel said to Joseph, “Now let me die, since I have seen your face, that you are still alive.”
31
Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s household, “I will go up and tell Pharaoh, and will say to him, ‘My brothers and my father’s household, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me;
32
and the men are shepherds, for they have been keepers of livestock; and they have brought their flocks and their herds and all that they have.’
33
When Pharaoh calls you and says, ‘What is your occupation?’
34
you shall say, ‘Your servants have been keepers of livestock from our youth even until now, both we and our fathers,’ that you may live in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is loathsome to the Egyptians.”
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While Israel remained at Shittim, the people began to play the harlot with the daughters of Moab.
2
For they invited the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate and bowed down to their gods.
3
So Israel joined themselves to Baal of Peor, and the LORD was angry against Israel.
4
The LORD said to Moses, “Take all the leaders of the people and execute them in broad daylight before the LORD, so that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.”
5
So Moses said to the judges of Israel, “Each of you slay his men who have joined themselves to Baal of Peor.”
6
Then behold, one of the sons of Israel came and brought to his relatives a Midianite woman, in the sight of Moses and in the sight of all the congregation of the sons of Israel, while they were weeping at the doorway of the tent of meeting.
7
When Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he arose from the midst of the congregation and took a spear in his hand,
8
and he went after the man of Israel into the tent and pierced both of them through, the man of Israel and the woman, through the body. So the plague on the sons of Israel was checked.
9
Those who died by the plague were 24,000.
10
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
11
“Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, has turned away My wrath from the sons of Israel in that he was jealous with My jealousy among them, so that I did not destroy the sons of Israel in My jealousy.
12
Therefore say, ‘Behold, I give him My covenant of peace;
13
and it shall be for him and his descendants after him, a covenant of a perpetual priesthood, because he was jealous for his God and made atonement for the sons of Israel.’”
14
Now the name of the slain man of Israel who was slain with the Midianite woman, was Zimri the son of Salu, a leader of a father’s household among the Simeonites.
15
The name of the Midianite woman who was slain was Cozbi the daughter of Zur, who was head of the people of a father’s household in Midian.
16
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
17
“Be hostile to the Midianites and strike them;
18
for they have been hostile to you with their tricks, with which they have deceived you in the affair of Peor and in the affair of Cozbi, the daughter of the leader of Midian, their sister who was slain on the day of the plague because of Peor.”
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