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Исагогика

Свящ. Александр Мень

§16. Изложение теории четырех вариантов моисеева предания

В православной экзегетике еще нет единого общепризнанного взгляда на теорию четырех источников Пятикнижия. Однако после работ Б.А. Тураева и А.В. Карташева, отстаивавших эту теорию, не появилось ни одного серьезного труда, который бы опроверг их точку зрения. В библейской науке с середины ХХ века она получила окончательное признание, войдя в учебники и катехизисы.

Как уже говорилось, эта теория не посягает на каноничность и боговдохновенность Пятикнижия; она касается только узкой историко-исагогической сферы.

В данном параграфе теория будет изложена в том виде, в каком она принята в современной библеистике — как православной, так и в католической и протестантской (исключение составляют баптисты-фундаменталисты).

1. Характер четырех традиций и время их записи. Признавая наличие четырех священных традиций, легших в основу Пятикнижия, экзегеты подчеркивают, что сходство и религиозное единство их обусловлены тем, что они восходят к Моисею (частично в письменной, частично в устной форме). В эпоху царей с развитием израильской культуры появилась необходимость собрать Моисеево Предание воедино. Самой ранней попыткой такого рода считается Св. История Ягвиста.

СКАЗАНИЕ ЯГВИСТА. Боговдохновенный автор, известный под этим условным именем, жил, как полагают, в Иерусалиме. Его внимание к колену Иудину и подчеркивание единства народа («весь Израиль») указывают на время расцвета единого царства при Давиде и Соломоне (Х в. до Р.Х.). Быть может, он был одним из тех книжников-писцов, которые трудились при дворе Соломона (3 Цар 4, 3). По своему литературному жанру (см. § 9) Ягвистический раздел сказаний принадлежит к прозаическому эпосу (с вкраплением стихотворных частей). Язык его живой, наглядно-образный. Возвещая тайну близости Бога к человеку, св. писатель часто прибегает к антропоморфизмам. Ему чуждо абстрактное мышление, его картины, насыщенные смыслом, доступны и мудрецу и ребенку. При этом кругозор его широк. «Он с любовью и терпимостью, — пишет Б.А. Тураев, — собирает сказания, будь то вавилонского или халдейского происхождения. Он художник слова, обладающий тонким психологическим чутьем, он интересуется величайшими проблемами бытия и религии. Это — высокоодаренный иудей не из среды духовенства, вероятно, из круга древних пророков, полный глубоких мыслей и исканий, монотеистического и универсального миросозерцания» (ИДВ, т. II, с.28).

Повествование Ягвиста охватывает историю от создания человека до смерти Моисея. Богословие его тесно связано с важнейшими библейскими темами: Откровением, Заветом и Обетованием.

СКАЗАНИЕ ЭЛОХИСТА. После распада Соломонова царства (922) в Северном царстве (Израиле, или Ефреме) возникла потребность в собственной интерпретации Моисеева Предания. Она и была, как считают библеисты, осуществлена неведомым североизраильским мудрецом (ок. IХ-VIII вв.). Свое сказание этот мудрец (именуемый условно Элохистом) начинает с Авраама и завершает смертью Моисея. Это уже «представитель более развитой духовной эпохи, менее терпимой и оригинальной, уступающий Ягвисту и в художественности, и в стиле» (Б.А. Тураев). Элохист избегает антропоморфизмов, Авраама он называет пророком (Быт 20,7); явления Бога в его рассказах происходят чаще всего во сне или в видениях. Он подчеркивает, что имя Ягве было открыто только при Моисее (Исх 3). Как северянин Элохист уделяет большое внимание героям северных колен: Иосифу и Иисусу Навину. После падения Северного царства Моисеево сказание в элохистическом варианте было, вероятно, доставлено в Иерусалим (ок. 721) и одним из книжников соединено с Ягвистом в единое целое.

СВЯЩЕННИЧЕСКАЯ ТРАДИЦИЯ. В третьем варианте Моисеева Предания Бог, как и во втором, именуется Элохимом. Но по стилю, языку и задачам эта традиция резко отличается от первых двух. Ее строгое, лаконичное повествование начинается с Шестоднева (Быт 1) и доводится до смерти Моисея. Первобытная история и история патриархов изложена в основном с помощью тольдот, родословных, которые являются как бы исторической схемой, костяком сказания. Все указывает на то, что составитель принадлежит к священнической среде: он больше всего уделяет внимания церковному строю Израиля, обрядам и богослужению, задача которых — отделить «народ святой», т.е. посвященный Богу, от языческого мира. Время, когда создавалась священническая история, установить трудно. С одной стороны, пророк Иезекииль (VI в.) полностью ее еще не знает, но с другой — в ней немало частей, безусловно, очень древних. Во всяком случае, окончательно сформировалась третья Св. История не позже эпохи Плена. Есть предположение, что она вообще не существовала в виде отдельной книги, а была сразу включена в качестве дополнения в две первые Св. Истории.

ВТОРОЗАКОННИЧЕСКАЯ СВ. ИСТОРИЯ. Четвертая традиция, прослеживаемая в Пятикнижии, по стилю напоминает речения пророков, в частности Иеремии. Свое название она получила от пятой книги Торы. Язык автора возвышенный, эмоциональный, он звучит как пламенная проповедь. Начинается история завещанием Моисея, который вспоминает о событиях странствия в пустыне, а кончается рассказом о смерти пророка. Большинство библеистов считают, что эта история была прологом более обширного произведения священной письменности, именуемого Древними Пророками или Историческими книгами (Ис Нав, Суд, Цар). Закончен труд был во время Плена, но в него вошли тексты, написанные гораздо раньше (начиная с ХII в. до Р.Х.).

2. Законодательные части Пятикнижия. Каждой из четырех традиций принадлежит один из законоположительных текстов Торы. Они, скорее всего, являются вставками в текст сказаний и предшествуют им по времени. Поскольку Моисей был не только пророком и вождем, но в первую очередь законодателем, то заповеди и законы должны быть наиболее древней частью Пятикнижия.

  Традиции Пятикнижия Соответствующие им
законы и уставы
Ягвистическая Ритуальный Декалог (Исх 34)
Элохистическая Декалог, или Десять Заповедей
(Исх 20,2-17)
Книга Завета (Исх 20, 22 — 23 , 33)
Священническая Левит и уставы Чисел
(Числ 5-10 18-19) в Ханаан
Второзаконническая Законодательная часть Второзакония со включением Декалога в несколько измененном виде

Но какой из текстов принадлежит непосредственно Моисею?

Большинство экзегетов единодушны в том, что Моисею принадлежат Декалог, а также Книга Завета. Последняя, впрочем, содержит дополнения, внесенные при переходе к оседло-земледельческому образу жизни, поэтому ее можно считать Законом Моисеевым, расширенным во дни Иисуса Навина и Судей. К тому же времени относится и ритуальный кодекс (Исх 34).

Сложнее обстоит дело с обрядовыми уставами Левита. Хотя в них есть черты глубокой, домоисеевой древности, но в целом они явно имеют в виду не просто патриархальный быт кочевников, а более развитую эпоху с постоянными святилищами, многочисленным клиром и обилием дорогих материалов для культа.

И, наконец, заповеди Второзакония, которое предписывает совершать служение только в одном месте, становятся известными в Иерусалиме лишь после 621 года, когда царь Иосия (640-609) нашел в Храме «Книгу Торы», содержащую это предписание. По мнению бл. Иеронима, это было Второзаконие (вернее, его законодательная часть). В настоящее время признано, что книга хранилась в среде левитов Северного царства и была принесена в Иудею после падения этого царства.

До торжественной кодификации «Книги Торы» при Иосии мы не находим в истории Израиля следов того, что он имел какой-либо общепризнанный свод обрядовых законов. Приведем несколько примеров.

Вопреки запрету Втор, народ приносит жертвы в самых различных местах и святилищах (Силом, Хеврон и т.д.), жертвы приносят не священники (как в Лев), а судьи, цари, главы семей (Суд 6:19; Суд 13:19; 2 Цар 6:17). Писания пророков свидетельствуют о том, что в пустыне (при Моисее) служение было лишено той пышности и великолепия, как описано в Лев. Оно соответствовало образу жизни кочевников, не засевавших полей и не насаждавших садов и виноградников. У прор. Амоса (VIII в. до Р.Х.) Бог спрашивает: «Приносили ли вы Мне жертвы и хлебные дары в пустыне в течение сорока лет, дом Израилев?» (Ам 5:25). Прор. Михей (VIII в.) утверждает, что Богу нельзя угодить жертвами. «О человек, сказано тебе, что добро и чего требует от тебя Господь: действовать справедливо, любить дела милосердия и смиренномудренно ходить перед Богом твоим» (Мих 6:8). А у прор. Иеремии (VII в.) Бог говорит: «Отцам вашим Я не говорил и не давал им заповеди в тот день, в который Я вывел их из земли Египетской, о всесожжении и жертве. Но такую заповедь дал им: слушайтесь гласа Моего, и Я буду вашим Богом, и вы будете Моим народом» (Иер 7:21).

Из этого явствует, что: 1) в эпоху Судей и царей сложные ритуальные законы не были известны всему Израилю как обязательные, 2) основой Торы Моисеевой являлся этический монотеизм, его религиозно-нравственные заповеди. Именно поэтому Христос-Спаситель назвал исповедание веры в единого Бога, а также любовь к Богу и ближнему важнейшими заповедями Закона (Мк 12:29-33). Отсюда понятна мысль свт. Иринея Лионского: «Так как в том и другом Завете правила совершенной жизни одни и те же, то они указывают на одного Бога, Который, хотя предписал и особенные приличные тому и другому заповеди, но главнейшие и важнейшие, без которых невозможно спасение, дал одни и те же в обоих Заветах» (Против ересей, IV,12,3).

Но в истории Св. Писания нет ничего случайного. Если в Закон Моисеев были внесены преходящие культовые и правовые элементы, это должно было иметь промыслительное значение. По мнению св. Отцов, цель этих дополнений была воспитательной: наполнить религиозным содержанием и обрядами всю жизнь народа Божия, так как он был еще не готов усвоить духовную истину в ее чистоте. На это указывает свт. Ириней: «Если в Новом Завете апостолы, как оказывается, дают некоторые заповеди из снисхождения, по причине невоздержания некоторых, чтобы такие люди, ожесточившись, не отчаялись совсем в своем спасении и не сделались отступниками от Бога, то не должно удивляться, если в Ветхом Завете Бог допустил нечто такое для пользы народа и посредством вышеупомянутых обрядов привлекал к тому, чтобы они через них получили спасение» (Против ересей, IV,15,2). Точно также Тертуллиан говорит: «Бог предлагал посредством тягостных и многообразных церемоний покорить Себе умы грубые и непокорные. Он хотел посредством религиозных обрядов, столь различных и частых, удерживать их беспрерывно в Своем присутствии и приучать размышлять денно и нощно о божественном законе» (Против Маркиона, 2, 19). Согласно св. Иоанну Златоусту, «Бог для спасения заблуждающихся изменением допустил в служение Себе то, что наблюдали язычники при служении демонам, дабы, понемногу отвлекая от языческих привычек, привести евреев к высокому любомудрию» (Бес. 5 на Мф 6). И действительно, соблазн ханаанских обрядов был ослаблен тем, что боготкровенная религия была тоже облечена в торжественные культовые формы, доступные народу.

3. Кодификация* Кодификация означает собрание законов в систему и объявление их действующим церковным или гражданским правом. Моисеева законодательства. Ветхозаветный период знает три торжественные кодификации Моисеева законодательства:

  • Первая совершилась у Синая, когда народ получил Декалог на скрижалях и устные наставления от Господа через Моисея (Исх 19-20).
  • Вторая произошла в 621 году при царе Иосии. Сам царь при чтении Книги закона «разодрал одежды свои» в знак покаяния (4 Цар 22,11), а весь народ «вступил в завет», т.е. торжественно обещал соблюдать заповеданное.
  • Третья — и окончательная — относится к середине V века до Р.Х., когда священник Ездра принес из Вавилона все Пятикнижие в его нынешнем объеме и прочел его перед собранием жителей Иерусалима. Давая обет соблюдать Закон Моисеев, народ каялся и постился (Неем 8:1; Неем 9:1).

Итак, общецерковное принятие таких частей Закона как Книга Завета, Левит и законодательные части Чисел, произошло только после Плена. Этим объясняется отсутствие у пророков и в исторических книгах ссылок на многие ритуальные обычаи Пятикнижия.

4. Древность Моисеева Предания. Основной ошибкой гипотезы Велльгаузена (см. §11) была мысль, будто каждая из четырех Св. Историй целиком создана теми, кто ее впервые записал. Этим ставилась под сомнение достоверность рассказов не только о патриархах, но и о самом Моисее. Утверждали даже, что Моисей есть вымышленная, мифическая фигура. Но последними достижениями археологии этот взгляд был опровергнут. Выяснилось, что быт Авраама, Исаака и Иакова — как он описан в Бытии — вполне соответствует древневосточным обычаям и праву, которые царили в начале второго тысячелетия, а к Х веку (предполагаемая дата Ягвиста) утратили свое значение. Обнаружилось, что предание об Иосифе, исходе и Моисее хорошо согласуется с данными египтологии. В Книге Завета и других законодательных частях Пятикнижия есть немало законов, сходных с судебниками и кодексами древности (напр., кодексом Хаммурапи, написанным ок. 1700 г., см. ниже §23). Историческая среда домоисеевых и Моисеевых времен описана с такой достоверностью, что исключает мысль, будто сказания Пятикнижия изобретены авторами Х или VIII веков. Иными словами, Моисеевы книги есть запись очень древнего подлинного Предания.

5. Закон и законничество. Ветхозаветная Церковь не знала разделения на Божие и мирское. Жизнь человека во всех ее проявлениях должна была проходить перед лицом Господним. Поэтому Пятикнижие наряду с религиозно-нравственными заповедями включает гражданское и уголовное право. Вся совокупность законодательства исходила от Бога и освящалась по традиции авторитетом Моисея. Именно Моисей как создатель ветхозаветной Церкви поставил перед ней задачу служить Богу и принадлежать только Ему. Именно через него Бог открыл людям, что соблюдение нравственных принципов есть важнейшая обязанность верующего. Постепенное обогащение и расширение Моисеева закона захватывало все новые и новые области человеческого общежития, труда, брачных и социальных отношений. «Жизнь по Закону» не означала просто механического выполнения некой суммы предписаний, а приводила каждый шаг человека в соответствие с волей Божией. Эта духовная глубина «религии Торы» отражена в Псалтири, особенно в Пс 118, читаемом Церковью на заупокойной службе.

Но стремление верующих подчинить каждую деталь жизни правилам закона было чревато и опасностями. Постепенно оно стало превращаться в мертвящее уставное благочестие, сложную казуистическую мораль, религиозный формализм и обрядоверие. В этом — исток законничества, которое позднее оказалось преградой для благовестия Христовой свободы. Убеждение, что человек собственными силами может достичь праведности, создало тот тип «лицемера», который был сурово осужден Христом Спасителем.

Вопросы для повторения
  1. Охарактеризуйте так наз. Ягвистический источник. Когда предположительно он был записан?
  2. Охарактеризуйте Св. Историю Элохиста.
  3. Что такое Священническая традиция?
  4. Что такое Второзаконническая Св. История?
  5. Какие основные законодательные тексты соответствуют четырем источникам Пятикнижия?
  6. Когда эти тексты были записаны?
  7. Для чего были даны обрядовые законы?
  8. Когда были кодифицированы законы Пятикнижия и когда все оно было признано Св. Писанием?
  9. Чем доказывается древность и достоверность Моисеева Предания?
  10. В чем сущность Закона и чем «религия Закона» отличается от «законничества»?

Отрывки к тексту:
Ki1 4:3
Gen 20:7
Exo 3
Exo 34
Exo 20
Exo 22
Exo 23
Exo 33
Lev 5-10
Lev 18-19
Jdg 6:19
Jdg 13:19
Sa2 6:17
Amo 5:25
Mic 6:8
Jer 7:21
Mar 12:29-33
Neh 8:1
Neh 9:1
Psa 118
3
Elihoreph and Ahijah, sons of Shisha-secretaries; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud-recorder;
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Now return the man's wife, for he is a prophet, and he will pray for you and you will live. But if you do not return her, you may be sure that you and all yours will die."
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Now Moses was tending the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the desert and came to Horeb, the mountain of God.
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There the angel of the LORD appeared to him in flames of fire from within a bush. Moses saw that though the bush was on fire it did not burn up.
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So Moses thought, "I will go over and see this strange sight-why the bush does not burn up."
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When the LORD saw that he had gone over to look, God called to him from within the bush, "Moses! Moses!" And Moses said, "Here I am."
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"Do not come any closer," God said. "Take off your sandals, for the place where you are standing is holy ground."
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Then he said, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob." At this, Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look at God.
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The LORD said, "I have indeed seen the misery of my people in Egypt. I have heard them crying out because of their slave drivers, and I am concerned about their suffering.
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So I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey-the home of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.
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And now the cry of the Israelites has reached me, and I have seen the way the Egyptians are oppressing them.
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So now, go. I am sending you to Pharaoh to bring my people the Israelites out of Egypt."
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But Moses said to God, "Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites out of Egypt?"
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And God said, "I will be with you. And this will be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will worship God on this mountain."
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Moses said to God, "Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, 'What is his name?' Then what shall I tell them?"
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God said to Moses, "I am who I am . This is what you are to say to the Israelites: 'I AM has sent me to you.' "
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God also said to Moses, "Say to the Israelites, 'The LORD , the God of your fathers-the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob-has sent me to you.' This is my name forever, the name by which I am to be remembered from generation to generation.
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"Go, assemble the elders of Israel and say to them, 'The LORD , the God of your fathers-the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob-appeared to me and said: I have watched over you and have seen what has been done to you in Egypt.
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And I have promised to bring you up out of your misery in Egypt into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites-a land flowing with milk and honey.'
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"The elders of Israel will listen to you. Then you and the elders are to go to the king of Egypt and say to him, 'The LORD , the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Let us take a three-day journey into the desert to offer sacrifices to the LORD our God.'
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But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless a mighty hand compels him.
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So I will stretch out my hand and strike the Egyptians with all the wonders that I will perform among them. After that, he will let you go.
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"And I will make the Egyptians favorably disposed toward this people, so that when you leave you will not go empty-handed.
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Every woman is to ask her neighbor and any woman living in her house for articles of silver and gold and for clothing, which you will put on your sons and daughters. And so you will plunder the Egyptians."
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The LORD said to Moses, "Chisel out two stone tablets like the first ones, and I will write on them the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke.
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Be ready in the morning, and then come up on Mount Sinai. Present yourself to me there on top of the mountain.
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No one is to come with you or be seen anywhere on the mountain; not even the flocks and herds may graze in front of the mountain."
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So Moses chiseled out two stone tablets like the first ones and went up Mount Sinai early in the morning, as the LORD had commanded him; and he carried the two stone tablets in his hands.
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Then the LORD came down in the cloud and stood there with him and proclaimed his name, the LORD .
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And he passed in front of Moses, proclaiming, "The LORD , the LORD , the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness,
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maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children and their children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation."
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Moses bowed to the ground at once and worshiped.
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"O Lord, if I have found favor in your eyes," he said, "then let the Lord go with us. Although this is a stiff-necked people, forgive our wickedness and our sin, and take us as your inheritance."
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Then the LORD said: "I am making a covenant with you. Before all your people I will do wonders never before done in any nation in all the world. The people you live among will see how awesome is the work that I, the LORD , will do for you.
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Obey what I command you today. I will drive out before you the Amorites, Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.
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Be careful not to make a treaty with those who live in the land where you are going, or they will be a snare among you.
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Break down their altars, smash their sacred stones and cut down their Asherah poles.
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Do not worship any other god, for the LORD , whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.
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"Be careful not to make a treaty with those who live in the land; for when they prostitute themselves to their gods and sacrifice to them, they will invite you and you will eat their sacrifices.
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And when you choose some of their daughters as wives for your sons and those daughters prostitute themselves to their gods, they will lead your sons to do the same.
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"Do not make cast idols.
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"Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread. For seven days eat bread made without yeast, as I commanded you. Do this at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in that month you came out of Egypt.
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"The first offspring of every womb belongs to me, including all the firstborn males of your livestock, whether from herd or flock.
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Redeem the firstborn donkey with a lamb, but if you do not redeem it, break its neck. Redeem all your firstborn sons. "No one is to appear before me empty-handed.
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"Six days you shall labor, but on the seventh day you shall rest; even during the plowing season and harvest you must rest.
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"Celebrate the Feast of Weeks with the firstfruits of the wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year.
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Three times a year all your men are to appear before the Sovereign LORD , the God of Israel.
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I will drive out nations before you and enlarge your territory, and no one will covet your land when you go up three times each year to appear before the LORD your God.
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"Do not offer the blood of a sacrifice to me along with anything containing yeast, and do not let any of the sacrifice from the Passover Feast remain until morning.
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"Bring the best of the firstfruits of your soil to the house of the LORD your God. "Do not cook a young goat in its mother's milk."
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Then the LORD said to Moses, "Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel."
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Moses was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights without eating bread or drinking water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant-the Ten Commandments.
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When Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two tablets of the Testimony in his hands, he was not aware that his face was radiant because he had spoken with the LORD .
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When Aaron and all the Israelites saw Moses, his face was radiant, and they were afraid to come near him.
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But Moses called to them; so Aaron and all the leaders of the community came back to him, and he spoke to them.
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Afterward all the Israelites came near him, and he gave them all the commands the LORD had given him on Mount Sinai.
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When Moses finished speaking to them, he put a veil over his face.
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But whenever he entered the LORD's presence to speak with him, he removed the veil until he came out. And when he came out and told the Israelites what he had been commanded,
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they saw that his face was radiant. Then Moses would put the veil back over his face until he went in to speak with the LORD .
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And God spoke all these words:
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"I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.
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"You shall have no other gods before me.
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"You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.
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You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me,
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but showing love to a thousand {generations} of those who love me and keep my commandments.
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"You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.
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"Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.
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Six days you shall labor and do all your work,
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but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates.
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For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.
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"Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.
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"You shall not murder.
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"You shall not commit adultery.
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"You shall not steal.
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"You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.
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"You shall not covet your neighbor's house. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor."
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When the people saw the thunder and lightning and heard the trumpet and saw the mountain in smoke, they trembled with fear. They stayed at a distance
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and said to Moses, "Speak to us yourself and we will listen. But do not have God speak to us or we will die."
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Moses said to the people, "Do not be afraid. God has come to test you, so that the fear of God will be with you to keep you from sinning."
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The people remained at a distance, while Moses approached the thick darkness where God was.
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Then the LORD said to Moses, "Tell the Israelites this: 'You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven:
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Do not make any gods to be alongside me; do not make for yourselves gods of silver or gods of gold.
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" 'Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, your sheep and goats and your cattle. Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you.
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If you make an altar of stones for me, do not build it with dressed stones, for you will defile it if you use a tool on it.
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And do not go up to my altar on steps, lest your nakedness be exposed on it.'
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"If a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he must pay back five head of cattle for the ox and four sheep for the sheep.
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"If a thief is caught breaking in and is struck so that he dies, the defender is not guilty of bloodshed;
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but if it happens after sunrise, he is guilty of bloodshed. "A thief must certainly make restitution, but if he has nothing, he must be sold to pay for his theft.
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"If the stolen animal is found alive in his possession-whether ox or donkey or sheep-he must pay back double.
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"If a man grazes his livestock in a field or vineyard and lets them stray and they graze in another man's field, he must make restitution from the best of his own field or vineyard.
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"If a fire breaks out and spreads into thornbushes so that it burns shocks of grain or standing grain or the whole field, the one who started the fire must make restitution.
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"If a man gives his neighbor silver or goods for safekeeping and they are stolen from the neighbor's house, the thief, if he is caught, must pay back double.
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But if the thief is not found, the owner of the house must appear before the judges to determine whether he has laid his hands on the other man's property.
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In all cases of illegal possession of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any other lost property about which somebody says, 'This is mine,' both parties are to bring their cases before the judges. The one whom the judges declare guilty must pay back double to his neighbor.
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"If a man gives a donkey, an ox, a sheep or any other animal to his neighbor for safekeeping and it dies or is injured or is taken away while no one is looking,
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the issue between them will be settled by the taking of an oath before the LORD that the neighbor did not lay hands on the other person's property. The owner is to accept this, and no restitution is required.
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But if the animal was stolen from the neighbor, he must make restitution to the owner.
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If it was torn to pieces by a wild animal, he shall bring in the remains as evidence and he will not be required to pay for the torn animal.
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"If a man borrows an animal from his neighbor and it is injured or dies while the owner is not present, he must make restitution.
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But if the owner is with the animal, the borrower will not have to pay. If the animal was hired, the money paid for the hire covers the loss.
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"If a man seduces a virgin who is not pledged to be married and sleeps with her, he must pay the bride-price, and she shall be his wife.
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If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he must still pay the bride-price for virgins.
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"Do not allow a sorceress to live.
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"Anyone who has sexual relations with an animal must be put to death.
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"Whoever sacrifices to any god other than the LORD must be destroyed.
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"Do not mistreat an alien or oppress him, for you were aliens in Egypt.
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"Do not take advantage of a widow or an orphan.
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If you do and they cry out to me, I will certainly hear their cry.
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My anger will be aroused, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows and your children fatherless.
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"If you lend money to one of my people among you who is needy, do not be like a moneylender; charge him no interest.
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If you take your neighbor's cloak as a pledge, return it to him by sunset,
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because his cloak is the only covering he has for his body. What else will he sleep in? When he cries out to me, I will hear, for I am compassionate.
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"Do not blaspheme God or curse the ruler of your people.
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"Do not hold back offerings from your granaries or your vats. "You must give me the firstborn of your sons.
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Do the same with your cattle and your sheep. Let them stay with their mothers for seven days, but give them to me on the eighth day.
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"You are to be my holy people. So do not eat the meat of an animal torn by wild beasts; throw it to the dogs.
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"Do not spread false reports. Do not help a wicked man by being a malicious witness.
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"Do not follow the crowd in doing wrong. When you give testimony in a lawsuit, do not pervert justice by siding with the crowd,
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and do not show favoritism to a poor man in his lawsuit.
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"If you come across your enemy's ox or donkey wandering off, be sure to take it back to him.
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If you see the donkey of someone who hates you fallen down under its load, do not leave it there; be sure you help him with it.
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"Do not deny justice to your poor people in their lawsuits.
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Have nothing to do with a false charge and do not put an innocent or honest person to death, for I will not acquit the guilty.
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"Do not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds those who see and twists the words of the righteous.
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"Do not oppress an alien; you yourselves know how it feels to be aliens, because you were aliens in Egypt.
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"For six years you are to sow your fields and harvest the crops,
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but during the seventh year let the land lie unplowed and unused. Then the poor among your people may get food from it, and the wild animals may eat what they leave. Do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove.
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"Six days do your work, but on the seventh day do not work, so that your ox and your donkey may rest and the slave born in your household, and the alien as well, may be refreshed.
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"Be careful to do everything I have said to you. Do not invoke the names of other gods; do not let them be heard on your lips.
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"Three times a year you are to celebrate a festival to me.
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"Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days eat bread made without yeast, as I commanded you. Do this at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in that month you came out of Egypt. "No one is to appear before me empty-handed.
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"Celebrate the Feast of Harvest with the firstfruits of the crops you sow in your field. "Celebrate the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in your crops from the field.
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"Three times a year all the men are to appear before the Sovereign LORD .
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"Do not offer the blood of a sacrifice to me along with anything containing yeast. "The fat of my festival offerings must not be kept until morning.
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"Bring the best of the firstfruits of your soil to the house of the LORD your God. "Do not cook a young goat in its mother's milk.
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"See, I am sending an angel ahead of you to guard you along the way and to bring you to the place I have prepared.
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Pay attention to him and listen to what he says. Do not rebel against him; he will not forgive your rebellion, since my Name is in him.
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If you listen carefully to what he says and do all that I say, I will be an enemy to your enemies and will oppose those who oppose you.
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My angel will go ahead of you and bring you into the land of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites, and I will wipe them out.
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Do not bow down before their gods or worship them or follow their practices. You must demolish them and break their sacred stones to pieces.
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Worship the LORD your God, and his blessing will be on your food and water. I will take away sickness from among you,
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and none will miscarry or be barren in your land. I will give you a full life span.
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"I will send my terror ahead of you and throw into confusion every nation you encounter. I will make all your enemies turn their backs and run.
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I will send the hornet ahead of you to drive the Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites out of your way.
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But I will not drive them out in a single year, because the land would become desolate and the wild animals too numerous for you.
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Little by little I will drive them out before you, until you have increased enough to take possession of the land.
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"I will establish your borders from the Red Sea to the Sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the River. I will hand over to you the people who live in the land and you will drive them out before you.
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Do not make a covenant with them or with their gods.
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Do not let them live in your land, or they will cause you to sin against me, because the worship of their gods will certainly be a snare to you."
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Then the LORD said to Moses, "Leave this place, you and the people you brought up out of Egypt, and go up to the land I promised on oath to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, saying, 'I will give it to your descendants.'
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I will send an angel before you and drive out the Canaanites, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.
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Go up to the land flowing with milk and honey. But I will not go with you, because you are a stiff-necked people and I might destroy you on the way."
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When the people heard these distressing words, they began to mourn and no one put on any ornaments.
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For the LORD had said to Moses, "Tell the Israelites, 'You are a stiff-necked people. If I were to go with you even for a moment, I might destroy you. Now take off your ornaments and I will decide what to do with you.' "
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So the Israelites stripped off their ornaments at Mount Horeb.
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Now Moses used to take a tent and pitch it outside the camp some distance away, calling it the "tent of meeting." Anyone inquiring of the LORD would go to the tent of meeting outside the camp.
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And whenever Moses went out to the tent, all the people rose and stood at the entrances to their tents, watching Moses until he entered the tent.
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As Moses went into the tent, the pillar of cloud would come down and stay at the entrance, while the LORD spoke with Moses.
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Whenever the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance to the tent, they all stood and worshiped, each at the entrance to his tent.
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The LORD would speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks with his friend. Then Moses would return to the camp, but his young aide Joshua son of Nun did not leave the tent.
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Moses said to the LORD , "You have been telling me, 'Lead these people,' but you have not let me know whom you will send with me. You have said, 'I know you by name and you have found favor with me.'
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If you are pleased with me, teach me your ways so I may know you and continue to find favor with you. Remember that this nation is your people."
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The LORD replied, "My Presence will go with you, and I will give you rest."
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Then Moses said to him, "If your Presence does not go with us, do not send us up from here.
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How will anyone know that you are pleased with me and with your people unless you go with us? What else will distinguish me and your people from all the other people on the face of the earth?"
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And the LORD said to Moses, "I will do the very thing you have asked, because I am pleased with you and I know you by name."
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Then Moses said, "Now show me your glory."
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And the LORD said, "I will cause all my goodness to pass in front of you, and I will proclaim my name, the LORD , in your presence. I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.
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But," he said, "you cannot see my face, for no one may see me and live."
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Then the LORD said, "There is a place near me where you may stand on a rock.
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When my glory passes by, I will put you in a cleft in the rock and cover you with my hand until I have passed by.
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Then I will remove my hand and you will see my back; but my face must not be seen."
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" 'If a person sins because he does not speak up when he hears a public charge to testify regarding something he has seen or learned about, he will be held responsible.
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" 'Or if a person touches anything ceremonially unclean-whether the carcasses of unclean wild animals or of unclean livestock or of unclean creatures that move along the ground-even though he is unaware of it, he has become unclean and is guilty.
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" 'Or if he touches human uncleanness-anything that would make him unclean-even though he is unaware of it, when he learns of it he will be guilty.
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" 'Or if a person thoughtlessly takes an oath to do anything, whether good or evil-in any matter one might carelessly swear about-even though he is unaware of it, in any case when he learns of it he will be guilty.
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" 'When anyone is guilty in any of these ways, he must confess in what way he has sinned
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and, as a penalty for the sin he has committed, he must bring to the LORD a female lamb or goat from the flock as a sin offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him for his sin.
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" 'If he cannot afford a lamb, he is to bring two doves or two young pigeons to the LORD as a penalty for his sin-one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering.
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He is to bring them to the priest, who shall first offer the one for the sin offering. He is to wring its head from its neck, not severing it completely,
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and is to sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering against the side of the altar; the rest of the blood must be drained out at the base of the altar. It is a sin offering.
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The priest shall then offer the other as a burnt offering in the prescribed way and make atonement for him for the sin he has committed, and he will be forgiven.
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" 'If, however, he cannot afford two doves or two young pigeons, he is to bring as an offering for his sin a tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering. He must not put oil or incense on it, because it is a sin offering.
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He is to bring it to the priest, who shall take a handful of it as a memorial portion and burn it on the altar on top of the offerings made to the LORD by fire. It is a sin offering.
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In this way the priest will make atonement for him for any of these sins he has committed, and he will be forgiven. The rest of the offering will belong to the priest, as in the case of the grain offering.' "
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The LORD said to Moses:
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"When a person commits a violation and sins unintentionally in regard to any of the LORD's holy things, he is to bring to the LORD as a penalty a ram from the flock, one without defect and of the proper value in silver, according to the sanctuary shekel. It is a guilt offering.
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He must make restitution for what he has failed to do in regard to the holy things, add a fifth of the value to that and give it all to the priest, who will make atonement for him with the ram as a guilt offering, and he will be forgiven.
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"If a person sins and does what is forbidden in any of the LORD's commands, even though he does not know it, he is guilty and will be held responsible.
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He is to bring to the priest as a guilt offering a ram from the flock, one without defect and of the proper value. In this way the priest will make atonement for him for the wrong he has committed unintentionally, and he will be forgiven.
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It is a guilt offering; he has been guilty of wrongdoing against the LORD ."
1
The LORD said to Moses:
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"If anyone sins and is unfaithful to the LORD by deceiving his neighbor about something entrusted to him or left in his care or stolen, or if he cheats him,
3
or if he finds lost property and lies about it, or if he swears falsely, or if he commits any such sin that people may do-
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when he thus sins and becomes guilty, he must return what he has stolen or taken by extortion, or what was entrusted to him, or the lost property he found,
5
or whatever it was he swore falsely about. He must make restitution in full, add a fifth of the value to it and give it all to the owner on the day he presents his guilt offering.
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And as a penalty he must bring to the priest, that is, to the LORD , his guilt offering, a ram from the flock, one without defect and of the proper value.
7
In this way the priest will make atonement for him before the LORD , and he will be forgiven for any of these things he did that made him guilty."
8
The LORD said to Moses:
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"Give Aaron and his sons this command: 'These are the regulations for the burnt offering: The burnt offering is to remain on the altar hearth throughout the night, till morning, and the fire must be kept burning on the altar.
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The priest shall then put on his linen clothes, with linen undergarments next to his body, and shall remove the ashes of the burnt offering that the fire has consumed on the altar and place them beside the altar.
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Then he is to take off these clothes and put on others, and carry the ashes outside the camp to a place that is ceremonially clean.
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The fire on the altar must be kept burning; it must not go out. Every morning the priest is to add firewood and arrange the burnt offering on the fire and burn the fat of the fellowship offerings on it.
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The fire must be kept burning on the altar continuously; it must not go out.
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" 'These are the regulations for the grain offering: Aaron's sons are to bring it before the LORD , in front of the altar.
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The priest is to take a handful of fine flour and oil, together with all the incense on the grain offering, and burn the memorial portion on the altar as an aroma pleasing to the LORD .
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Aaron and his sons shall eat the rest of it, but it is to be eaten without yeast in a holy place; they are to eat it in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting.
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It must not be baked with yeast; I have given it as their share of the offerings made to me by fire. Like the sin offering and the guilt offering, it is most holy.
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Any male descendant of Aaron may eat it. It is his regular share of the offerings made to the LORD by fire for the generations to come. Whatever touches them will become holy. ' "
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The LORD also said to Moses,
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"This is the offering Aaron and his sons are to bring to the LORD on the day he is anointed: a tenth of an ephah of fine flour as a regular grain offering, half of it in the morning and half in the evening.
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Prepare it with oil on a griddle; bring it well-mixed and present the grain offering broken in pieces as an aroma pleasing to the LORD .
22
The son who is to succeed him as anointed priest shall prepare it. It is the LORD's regular share and is to be burned completely.
23
Every grain offering of a priest shall be burned completely; it must not be eaten."
24
The LORD said to Moses,
25
"Say to Aaron and his sons: 'These are the regulations for the sin offering: The sin offering is to be slaughtered before the LORD in the place the burnt offering is slaughtered; it is most holy.
26
The priest who offers it shall eat it; it is to be eaten in a holy place, in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting.
27
Whatever touches any of the flesh will become holy, and if any of the blood is spattered on a garment, you must wash it in a holy place.
28
The clay pot the meat is cooked in must be broken; but if it is cooked in a bronze pot, the pot is to be scoured and rinsed with water.
29
Any male in a priest's family may eat it; it is most holy.
30
But any sin offering whose blood is brought into the Tent of Meeting to make atonement in the Holy Place must not be eaten; it must be burned.
1
" 'These are the regulations for the guilt offering, which is most holy:
2
The guilt offering is to be slaughtered in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered, and its blood is to be sprinkled against the altar on all sides.
3
All its fat shall be offered: the fat tail and the fat that covers the inner parts,
4
both kidneys with the fat on them near the loins, and the covering of the liver, which is to be removed with the kidneys.
5
The priest shall burn them on the altar as an offering made to the LORD by fire. It is a guilt offering.
6
Any male in a priest's family may eat it, but it must be eaten in a holy place; it is most holy.
7
" 'The same law applies to both the sin offering and the guilt offering: They belong to the priest who makes atonement with them.
8
The priest who offers a burnt offering for anyone may keep its hide for himself.
9
Every grain offering baked in an oven or cooked in a pan or on a griddle belongs to the priest who offers it,
10
and every grain offering, whether mixed with oil or dry, belongs equally to all the sons of Aaron.
11
" 'These are the regulations for the fellowship offering a person may present to the LORD :
12
" 'If he offers it as an expression of thankfulness, then along with this thank offering he is to offer cakes of bread made without yeast and mixed with oil, wafers made without yeast and spread with oil, and cakes of fine flour well-kneaded and mixed with oil.
13
Along with his fellowship offering of thanksgiving he is to present an offering with cakes of bread made with yeast.
14
He is to bring one of each kind as an offering, a contribution to the LORD ; it belongs to the priest who sprinkles the blood of the fellowship offerings.
15
The meat of his fellowship offering of thanksgiving must be eaten on the day it is offered; he must leave none of it till morning.
16
" 'If, however, his offering is the result of a vow or is a freewill offering, the sacrifice shall be eaten on the day he offers it, but anything left over may be eaten on the next day.
17
Any meat of the sacrifice left over till the third day must be burned up.
18
If any meat of the fellowship offering is eaten on the third day, it will not be accepted. It will not be credited to the one who offered it, for it is impure; the person who eats any of it will be held responsible.
19
" 'Meat that touches anything ceremonially unclean must not be eaten; it must be burned up. As for other meat, anyone ceremonially clean may eat it.
20
But if anyone who is unclean eats any meat of the fellowship offering belonging to the LORD , that person must be cut off from his people.
21
If anyone touches something unclean-whether human uncleanness or an unclean animal or any unclean, detestable thing-and then eats any of the meat of the fellowship offering belonging to the LORD , that person must be cut off from his people.' "
22
The LORD said to Moses,
23
"Say to the Israelites: 'Do not eat any of the fat of cattle, sheep or goats.
24
The fat of an animal found dead or torn by wild animals may be used for any other purpose, but you must not eat it.
25
Anyone who eats the fat of an animal from which an offering by fire may be made to the LORD must be cut off from his people.
26
And wherever you live, you must not eat the blood of any bird or animal.
27
If anyone eats blood, that person must be cut off from his people.' "
28
The LORD said to Moses,
29
"Say to the Israelites: 'Anyone who brings a fellowship offering to the LORD is to bring part of it as his sacrifice to the LORD .
30
With his own hands he is to bring the offering made to the LORD by fire; he is to bring the fat, together with the breast, and wave the breast before the LORD as a wave offering.
31
The priest shall burn the fat on the altar, but the breast belongs to Aaron and his sons.
32
You are to give the right thigh of your fellowship offerings to the priest as a contribution.
33
The son of Aaron who offers the blood and the fat of the fellowship offering shall have the right thigh as his share.
34
From the fellowship offerings of the Israelites, I have taken the breast that is waved and the thigh that is presented and have given them to Aaron the priest and his sons as their regular share from the Israelites.' "
35
This is the portion of the offerings made to the LORD by fire that were allotted to Aaron and his sons on the day they were presented to serve the LORD as priests.
36
On the day they were anointed, the LORD commanded that the Israelites give this to them as their regular share for the generations to come.
37
These, then, are the regulations for the burnt offering, the grain offering, the sin offering, the guilt offering, the ordination offering and the fellowship offering,
38
which the LORD gave Moses on Mount Sinai on the day he commanded the Israelites to bring their offerings to the LORD , in the Desert of Sinai.
1
The LORD said to Moses,
2
"Bring Aaron and his sons, their garments, the anointing oil, the bull for the sin offering, the two rams and the basket containing bread made without yeast,
3
and gather the entire assembly at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting."
4
Moses did as the LORD commanded him, and the assembly gathered at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.
5
Moses said to the assembly, "This is what the LORD has commanded to be done."
6
Then Moses brought Aaron and his sons forward and washed them with water.
7
He put the tunic on Aaron, tied the sash around him, clothed him with the robe and put the ephod on him. He also tied the ephod to him by its skillfully woven waistband; so it was fastened on him.
8
He placed the breastpiece on him and put the Urim and Thummim in the breastpiece.
9
Then he placed the turban on Aaron's head and set the gold plate, the sacred diadem, on the front of it, as the LORD commanded Moses.
10
Then Moses took the anointing oil and anointed the tabernacle and everything in it, and so consecrated them.
11
He sprinkled some of the oil on the altar seven times, anointing the altar and all its utensils and the basin with its stand, to consecrate them.
12
He poured some of the anointing oil on Aaron's head and anointed him to consecrate him.
13
Then he brought Aaron's sons forward, put tunics on them, tied sashes around them and put headbands on them, as the LORD commanded Moses.
14
He then presented the bull for the sin offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on its head.
15
Moses slaughtered the bull and took some of the blood, and with his finger he put it on all the horns of the altar to purify the altar. He poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar. So he consecrated it to make atonement for it.
16
Moses also took all the fat around the inner parts, the covering of the liver, and both kidneys and their fat, and burned it on the altar.
17
But the bull with its hide and its flesh and its offal he burned up outside the camp, as the LORD commanded Moses.
18
He then presented the ram for the burnt offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on its head.
19
Then Moses slaughtered the ram and sprinkled the blood against the altar on all sides.
20
He cut the ram into pieces and burned the head, the pieces and the fat.
21
He washed the inner parts and the legs with water and burned the whole ram on the altar as a burnt offering, a pleasing aroma, an offering made to the LORD by fire, as the LORD commanded Moses.
22
He then presented the other ram, the ram for the ordination, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on its head.
23
Moses slaughtered the ram and took some of its blood and put it on the lobe of Aaron's right ear, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot.
24
Moses also brought Aaron's sons forward and put some of the blood on the lobes of their right ears, on the thumbs of their right hands and on the big toes of their right feet. Then he sprinkled blood against the altar on all sides.
25
He took the fat, the fat tail, all the fat around the inner parts, the covering of the liver, both kidneys and their fat and the right thigh.
26
Then from the basket of bread made without yeast, which was before the LORD , he took a cake of bread, and one made with oil, and a wafer; he put these on the fat portions and on the right thigh.
27
He put all these in the hands of Aaron and his sons and waved them before the LORD as a wave offering.
28
Then Moses took them from their hands and burned them on the altar on top of the burnt offering as an ordination offering, a pleasing aroma, an offering made to the LORD by fire.
29
He also took the breast-Moses' share of the ordination ram-and waved it before the LORD as a wave offering, as the LORD commanded Moses.
30
Then Moses took some of the anointing oil and some of the blood from the altar and sprinkled them on Aaron and his garments and on his sons and their garments. So he consecrated Aaron and his garments and his sons and their garments.
31
Moses then said to Aaron and his sons, "Cook the meat at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting and eat it there with the bread from the basket of ordination offerings, as I commanded, saying, 'Aaron and his sons are to eat it.'
32
Then burn up the rest of the meat and the bread.
33
Do not leave the entrance to the Tent of Meeting for seven days, until the days of your ordination are completed, for your ordination will last seven days.
34
What has been done today was commanded by the LORD to make atonement for you.
35
You must stay at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting day and night for seven days and do what the LORD requires, so you will not die; for that is what I have been commanded."
36
So Aaron and his sons did everything the LORD commanded through Moses.
1
On the eighth day Moses summoned Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel.
2
He said to Aaron, "Take a bull calf for your sin offering and a ram for your burnt offering, both without defect, and present them before the LORD .
3
Then say to the Israelites: 'Take a male goat for a sin offering, a calf and a lamb-both a year old and without defect-for a burnt offering,
4
and an ox and a ram for a fellowship offering to sacrifice before the LORD , together with a grain offering mixed with oil. For today the LORD will appear to you.' "
5
They took the things Moses commanded to the front of the Tent of Meeting, and the entire assembly came near and stood before the LORD .
6
Then Moses said, "This is what the LORD has commanded you to do, so that the glory of the LORD may appear to you."
7
Moses said to Aaron, "Come to the altar and sacrifice your sin offering and your burnt offering and make atonement for yourself and the people; sacrifice the offering that is for the people and make atonement for them, as the LORD has commanded."
8
So Aaron came to the altar and slaughtered the calf as a sin offering for himself.
9
His sons brought the blood to him, and he dipped his finger into the blood and put it on the horns of the altar; the rest of the blood he poured out at the base of the altar.
10
On the altar he burned the fat, the kidneys and the covering of the liver from the sin offering, as the LORD commanded Moses;
11
the flesh and the hide he burned up outside the camp.
12
Then he slaughtered the burnt offering. His sons handed him the blood, and he sprinkled it against the altar on all sides.
13
They handed him the burnt offering piece by piece, including the head, and he burned them on the altar.
14
He washed the inner parts and the legs and burned them on top of the burnt offering on the altar.
15
Aaron then brought the offering that was for the people. He took the goat for the people's sin offering and slaughtered it and offered it for a sin offering as he did with the first one.
16
He brought the burnt offering and offered it in the prescribed way.
17
He also brought the grain offering, took a handful of it and burned it on the altar in addition to the morning's burnt offering.
18
He slaughtered the ox and the ram as the fellowship offering for the people. His sons handed him the blood, and he sprinkled it against the altar on all sides.
19
But the fat portions of the ox and the ram-the fat tail, the layer of fat, the kidneys and the covering of the liver-
20
these they laid on the breasts, and then Aaron burned the fat on the altar.
21
Aaron waved the breasts and the right thigh before the LORD as a wave offering, as Moses commanded.
22
Then Aaron lifted his hands toward the people and blessed them. And having sacrificed the sin offering, the burnt offering and the fellowship offering, he stepped down.
23
Moses and Aaron then went into the Tent of Meeting. When they came out, they blessed the people; and the glory of the LORD appeared to all the people.
24
Fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed the burnt offering and the fat portions on the altar. And when all the people saw it, they shouted for joy and fell facedown.
1
Aaron's sons Nadab and Abihu took their censers, put fire in them and added incense; and they offered unauthorized fire before the LORD , contrary to his command.
2
So fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed them, and they died before the LORD .
3
Moses then said to Aaron, "This is what the LORD spoke of when he said: " 'Among those who approach me I will show myself holy; in the sight of all the people I will be honored.' " Aaron remained silent.
4
Moses summoned Mishael and Elzaphan, sons of Aaron's uncle Uzziel, and said to them, "Come here; carry your cousins outside the camp, away from the front of the sanctuary."
5
So they came and carried them, still in their tunics, outside the camp, as Moses ordered.
6
Then Moses said to Aaron and his sons Eleazar and Ithamar, "Do not let your hair become unkempt, and do not tear your clothes, or you will die and the LORD will be angry with the whole community. But your relatives, all the house of Israel, may mourn for those the LORD has destroyed by fire.
7
Do not leave the entrance to the Tent of Meeting or you will die, because the LORD's anointing oil is on you." So they did as Moses said.
8
Then the LORD said to Aaron,
9
"You and your sons are not to drink wine or other fermented drink whenever you go into the Tent of Meeting, or you will die. This is a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.
10
You must distinguish between the holy and the common, between the unclean and the clean,
11
and you must teach the Israelites all the decrees the LORD has given them through Moses."
12
Moses said to Aaron and his remaining sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, "Take the grain offering left over from the offerings made to the LORD by fire and eat it prepared without yeast beside the altar, for it is most holy.
13
Eat it in a holy place, because it is your share and your sons' share of the offerings made to the LORD by fire; for so I have been commanded.
14
But you and your sons and your daughters may eat the breast that was waved and the thigh that was presented. Eat them in a ceremonially clean place; they have been given to you and your children as your share of the Israelites' fellowship offerings.
15
The thigh that was presented and the breast that was waved must be brought with the fat portions of the offerings made by fire, to be waved before the LORD as a wave offering. This will be the regular share for you and your children, as the LORD has commanded."
16
When Moses inquired about the goat of the sin offering and found that it had been burned up, he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's remaining sons, and asked,
17
"Why didn't you eat the sin offering in the sanctuary area? It is most holy; it was given to you to take away the guilt of the community by making atonement for them before the LORD .
18
Since its blood was not taken into the Holy Place, you should have eaten the goat in the sanctuary area, as I commanded."
19
Aaron replied to Moses, "Today they sacrificed their sin offering and their burnt offering before the LORD , but such things as this have happened to me. Would the LORD have been pleased if I had eaten the sin offering today?"
20
When Moses heard this, he was satisfied.
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The LORD said to Moses,
2
"Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'I am the LORD your God.
3
You must not do as they do in Egypt, where you used to live, and you must not do as they do in the land of Canaan, where I am bringing you. Do not follow their practices.
4
You must obey my laws and be careful to follow my decrees. I am the LORD your God.
5
Keep my decrees and laws, for the man who obeys them will live by them. I am the LORD .
6
" 'No one is to approach any close relative to have sexual relations. I am the LORD .
7
" 'Do not dishonor your father by having sexual relations with your mother. She is your mother; do not have relations with her.
8
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your father's wife; that would dishonor your father.
9
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your sister, either your father's daughter or your mother's daughter, whether she was born in the same home or elsewhere.
10
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your son's daughter or your daughter's daughter; that would dishonor you.
11
" 'Do not have sexual relations with the daughter of your father's wife, born to your father; she is your sister.
12
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your father's sister; she is your father's close relative.
13
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your mother's sister, because she is your mother's close relative.
14
" 'Do not dishonor your father's brother by approaching his wife to have sexual relations; she is your aunt.
15
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your daughter-in-law. She is your son's wife; do not have relations with her.
16
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your brother's wife; that would dishonor your brother.
17
" 'Do not have sexual relations with both a woman and her daughter. Do not have sexual relations with either her son's daughter or her daughter's daughter; they are her close relatives. That is wickedness.
18
" 'Do not take your wife's sister as a rival wife and have sexual relations with her while your wife is living.
19
" 'Do not approach a woman to have sexual relations during the uncleanness of her monthly period.
20
" 'Do not have sexual relations with your neighbor's wife and defile yourself with her.
21
" 'Do not give any of your children to be sacrificed to Molech, for you must not profane the name of your God. I am the LORD .
22
" 'Do not lie with a man as one lies with a woman; that is detestable.
23
" 'Do not have sexual relations with an animal and defile yourself with it. A woman must not present herself to an animal to have sexual relations with it; that is a perversion.
24
" 'Do not defile yourselves in any of these ways, because this is how the nations that I am going to drive out before you became defiled.
25
Even the land was defiled; so I punished it for its sin, and the land vomited out its inhabitants.
26
But you must keep my decrees and my laws. The native-born and the aliens living among you must not do any of these detestable things,
27
for all these things were done by the people who lived in the land before you, and the land became defiled.
28
And if you defile the land, it will vomit you out as it vomited out the nations that were before you.
29
" 'Everyone who does any of these detestable things-such persons must be cut off from their people.
30
Keep my requirements and do not follow any of the detestable customs that were practiced before you came and do not defile yourselves with them. I am the LORD your God.' "
1
The LORD said to Moses,
2
"Speak to the entire assembly of Israel and say to them: 'Be holy because I, the LORD your God, am holy.
3
" 'Each of you must respect his mother and father, and you must observe my Sabbaths. I am the LORD your God.
4
" 'Do not turn to idols or make gods of cast metal for yourselves. I am the LORD your God.
5
" 'When you sacrifice a fellowship offering to the LORD , sacrifice it in such a way that it will be accepted on your behalf.
6
It shall be eaten on the day you sacrifice it or on the next day; anything left over until the third day must be burned up.
7
If any of it is eaten on the third day, it is impure and will not be accepted.
8
Whoever eats it will be held responsible because he has desecrated what is holy to the LORD ; that person must be cut off from his people.
9
" 'When you reap the harvest of your land, do not reap to the very edges of your field or gather the gleanings of your harvest.
10
Do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen. Leave them for the poor and the alien. I am the LORD your God.
11
" 'Do not steal. " 'Do not lie. " 'Do not deceive one another.
12
" 'Do not swear falsely by my name and so profane the name of your God. I am the LORD .
13
" 'Do not defraud your neighbor or rob him. " 'Do not hold back the wages of a hired man overnight.
14
" 'Do not curse the deaf or put a stumbling block in front of the blind, but fear your God. I am the LORD .
15
" 'Do not pervert justice; do not show partiality to the poor or favoritism to the great, but judge your neighbor fairly.
16
" 'Do not go about spreading slander among your people. " 'Do not do anything that endangers your neighbor's life. I am the LORD .
17
" 'Do not hate your brother in your heart. Rebuke your neighbor frankly so you will not share in his guilt.
18
" 'Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the LORD .
19
" 'Keep my decrees. " 'Do not mate different kinds of animals. " 'Do not plant your field with two kinds of seed. " 'Do not wear clothing woven of two kinds of material.
20
" 'If a man sleeps with a woman who is a slave girl promised to another man but who has not been ransomed or given her freedom, there must be due punishment. Yet they are not to be put to death, because she had not been freed.
21
The man, however, must bring a ram to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting for a guilt offering to the LORD .
22
With the ram of the guilt offering the priest is to make atonement for him before the LORD for the sin he has committed, and his sin will be forgiven.
23
" 'When you enter the land and plant any kind of fruit tree, regard its fruit as forbidden. For three years you are to consider it forbidden ; it must not be eaten.
24
In the fourth year all its fruit will be holy, an offering of praise to the LORD .
25
But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit. In this way your harvest will be increased. I am the LORD your God.
26
" 'Do not eat any meat with the blood still in it. " 'Do not practice divination or sorcery.
27
" 'Do not cut the hair at the sides of your head or clip off the edges of your beard.
28
" 'Do not cut your bodies for the dead or put tattoo marks on yourselves. I am the LORD .
29
" 'Do not degrade your daughter by making her a prostitute, or the land will turn to prostitution and be filled with wickedness.
30
" 'Observe my Sabbaths and have reverence for my sanctuary. I am the LORD .
31
" 'Do not turn to mediums or seek out spiritists, for you will be defiled by them. I am the LORD your God.
32
" 'Rise in the presence of the aged, show respect for the elderly and revere your God. I am the LORD .
33
" 'When an alien lives with you in your land, do not mistreat him.
34
The alien living with you must be treated as one of your native-born. Love him as yourself, for you were aliens in Egypt. I am the LORD your God.
35
" 'Do not use dishonest standards when measuring length, weight or quantity.
36
Use honest scales and honest weights, an honest ephah and an honest hin. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt.
37
" 'Keep all my decrees and all my laws and follow them. I am the LORD .' "
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Gideon went in, prepared a young goat, and from an ephah of flour he made bread without yeast. Putting the meat in a basket and its broth in a pot, he brought them out and offered them to him under the oak.
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Then Manoah took a young goat, together with the grain offering, and sacrificed it on a rock to the LORD . And the LORD did an amazing thing while Manoah and his wife watched:
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They brought the ark of the LORD and set it in its place inside the tent that David had pitched for it, and David sacrificed burnt offerings and fellowship offerings before the LORD .
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"Did you bring me sacrifices and offerings forty years in the desert, O house of Israel?
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He has showed you, O man, what is good. And what does the LORD require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God.
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" 'This is what the LORD Almighty, the God of Israel, says: Go ahead, add your burnt offerings to your other sacrifices and eat the meat yourselves!
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"The most important one," answered Jesus, "is this: 'Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.
30
Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.'
31
The second is this: 'Love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no commandment greater than these."
32
"Well said, teacher," the man replied. "You are right in saying that God is one and there is no other but him.
33
To love him with all your heart, with all your understanding and with all your strength, and to love your neighbor as yourself is more important than all burnt offerings and sacrifices."
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all the people assembled as one man in the square before the Water Gate. They told Ezra the scribe to bring out the Book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded for Israel.
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On the twenty-fourth day of the same month, the Israelites gathered together, fasting and wearing sackcloth and having dust on their heads.
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Give thanks to the LORD , for he is good; his love endures forever.
2
Let Israel say: "His love endures forever."
3
Let the house of Aaron say: "His love endures forever."
4
Let those who fear the LORD say: "His love endures forever."
5
In my anguish I cried to the LORD , and he answered by setting me free.
6
The LORD is with me; I will not be afraid. What can man do to me?
7
The LORD is with me; he is my helper. I will look in triumph on my enemies.
8
It is better to take refuge in the LORD than to trust in man.
9
It is better to take refuge in the LORD than to trust in princes.
10
All the nations surrounded me, but in the name of the LORD I cut them off.
11
They surrounded me on every side, but in the name of the LORD I cut them off.
12
They swarmed around me like bees, but they died out as quickly as burning thorns; in the name of the LORD I cut them off.
13
I was pushed back and about to fall, but the LORD helped me.
14
The LORD is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation.
15
Shouts of joy and victory resound in the tents of the righteous: "The LORD's right hand has done mighty things!
16
The LORD's right hand is lifted high; the LORD's right hand has done mighty things!"
17
I will not die but live, and will proclaim what the LORD has done.
18
The LORD has chastened me severely, but he has not given me over to death.
19
Open for me the gates of righteousness; I will enter and give thanks to the LORD .
20
This is the gate of the LORD through which the righteous may enter.
21
I will give you thanks, for you answered me; you have become my salvation.
22
The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone;
23
the LORD has done this, and it is marvelous in our eyes.
24
This is the day the LORD has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it.
25
O LORD , save us; O LORD , grant us success.
26
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD . From the house of the LORD we bless you.
27
The LORD is God, and he has made his light shine upon us. With boughs in hand, join in the festal procession up to the horns of the altar.
28
You are my God, and I will give you thanks; you are my God, and I will exalt you.
29
Give thanks to the LORD , for he is good; his love endures forever.
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