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Исагогика

Свящ. Александр Мень

§16. Изложение теории четырех вариантов моисеева предания

В православной экзегетике еще нет единого общепризнанного взгляда на теорию четырех источников Пятикнижия. Однако после работ Б.А. Тураева и А.В. Карташева, отстаивавших эту теорию, не появилось ни одного серьезного труда, который бы опроверг их точку зрения. В библейской науке с середины ХХ века она получила окончательное признание, войдя в учебники и катехизисы.

Как уже говорилось, эта теория не посягает на каноничность и боговдохновенность Пятикнижия; она касается только узкой историко-исагогической сферы.

В данном параграфе теория будет изложена в том виде, в каком она принята в современной библеистике — как православной, так и в католической и протестантской (исключение составляют баптисты-фундаменталисты).

1. Характер четырех традиций и время их записи. Признавая наличие четырех священных традиций, легших в основу Пятикнижия, экзегеты подчеркивают, что сходство и религиозное единство их обусловлены тем, что они восходят к Моисею (частично в письменной, частично в устной форме). В эпоху царей с развитием израильской культуры появилась необходимость собрать Моисеево Предание воедино. Самой ранней попыткой такого рода считается Св. История Ягвиста.

СКАЗАНИЕ ЯГВИСТА. Боговдохновенный автор, известный под этим условным именем, жил, как полагают, в Иерусалиме. Его внимание к колену Иудину и подчеркивание единства народа («весь Израиль») указывают на время расцвета единого царства при Давиде и Соломоне (Х в. до Р.Х.). Быть может, он был одним из тех книжников-писцов, которые трудились при дворе Соломона (3 Цар 4, 3). По своему литературному жанру (см. § 9) Ягвистический раздел сказаний принадлежит к прозаическому эпосу (с вкраплением стихотворных частей). Язык его живой, наглядно-образный. Возвещая тайну близости Бога к человеку, св. писатель часто прибегает к антропоморфизмам. Ему чуждо абстрактное мышление, его картины, насыщенные смыслом, доступны и мудрецу и ребенку. При этом кругозор его широк. «Он с любовью и терпимостью, — пишет Б.А. Тураев, — собирает сказания, будь то вавилонского или халдейского происхождения. Он художник слова, обладающий тонким психологическим чутьем, он интересуется величайшими проблемами бытия и религии. Это — высокоодаренный иудей не из среды духовенства, вероятно, из круга древних пророков, полный глубоких мыслей и исканий, монотеистического и универсального миросозерцания» (ИДВ, т. II, с.28).

Повествование Ягвиста охватывает историю от создания человека до смерти Моисея. Богословие его тесно связано с важнейшими библейскими темами: Откровением, Заветом и Обетованием.

СКАЗАНИЕ ЭЛОХИСТА. После распада Соломонова царства (922) в Северном царстве (Израиле, или Ефреме) возникла потребность в собственной интерпретации Моисеева Предания. Она и была, как считают библеисты, осуществлена неведомым североизраильским мудрецом (ок. IХ-VIII вв.). Свое сказание этот мудрец (именуемый условно Элохистом) начинает с Авраама и завершает смертью Моисея. Это уже «представитель более развитой духовной эпохи, менее терпимой и оригинальной, уступающий Ягвисту и в художественности, и в стиле» (Б.А. Тураев). Элохист избегает антропоморфизмов, Авраама он называет пророком (Быт 20,7); явления Бога в его рассказах происходят чаще всего во сне или в видениях. Он подчеркивает, что имя Ягве было открыто только при Моисее (Исх 3). Как северянин Элохист уделяет большое внимание героям северных колен: Иосифу и Иисусу Навину. После падения Северного царства Моисеево сказание в элохистическом варианте было, вероятно, доставлено в Иерусалим (ок. 721) и одним из книжников соединено с Ягвистом в единое целое.

СВЯЩЕННИЧЕСКАЯ ТРАДИЦИЯ. В третьем варианте Моисеева Предания Бог, как и во втором, именуется Элохимом. Но по стилю, языку и задачам эта традиция резко отличается от первых двух. Ее строгое, лаконичное повествование начинается с Шестоднева (Быт 1) и доводится до смерти Моисея. Первобытная история и история патриархов изложена в основном с помощью тольдот, родословных, которые являются как бы исторической схемой, костяком сказания. Все указывает на то, что составитель принадлежит к священнической среде: он больше всего уделяет внимания церковному строю Израиля, обрядам и богослужению, задача которых — отделить «народ святой», т.е. посвященный Богу, от языческого мира. Время, когда создавалась священническая история, установить трудно. С одной стороны, пророк Иезекииль (VI в.) полностью ее еще не знает, но с другой — в ней немало частей, безусловно, очень древних. Во всяком случае, окончательно сформировалась третья Св. История не позже эпохи Плена. Есть предположение, что она вообще не существовала в виде отдельной книги, а была сразу включена в качестве дополнения в две первые Св. Истории.

ВТОРОЗАКОННИЧЕСКАЯ СВ. ИСТОРИЯ. Четвертая традиция, прослеживаемая в Пятикнижии, по стилю напоминает речения пророков, в частности Иеремии. Свое название она получила от пятой книги Торы. Язык автора возвышенный, эмоциональный, он звучит как пламенная проповедь. Начинается история завещанием Моисея, который вспоминает о событиях странствия в пустыне, а кончается рассказом о смерти пророка. Большинство библеистов считают, что эта история была прологом более обширного произведения священной письменности, именуемого Древними Пророками или Историческими книгами (Ис Нав, Суд, Цар). Закончен труд был во время Плена, но в него вошли тексты, написанные гораздо раньше (начиная с ХII в. до Р.Х.).

2. Законодательные части Пятикнижия. Каждой из четырех традиций принадлежит один из законоположительных текстов Торы. Они, скорее всего, являются вставками в текст сказаний и предшествуют им по времени. Поскольку Моисей был не только пророком и вождем, но в первую очередь законодателем, то заповеди и законы должны быть наиболее древней частью Пятикнижия.

  Традиции Пятикнижия Соответствующие им
законы и уставы
Ягвистическая Ритуальный Декалог (Исх 34)
Элохистическая Декалог, или Десять Заповедей
(Исх 20,2-17)
Книга Завета (Исх 20, 22 — 23 , 33)
Священническая Левит и уставы Чисел
(Числ 5-10 18-19) в Ханаан
Второзаконническая Законодательная часть Второзакония со включением Декалога в несколько измененном виде

Но какой из текстов принадлежит непосредственно Моисею?

Большинство экзегетов единодушны в том, что Моисею принадлежат Декалог, а также Книга Завета. Последняя, впрочем, содержит дополнения, внесенные при переходе к оседло-земледельческому образу жизни, поэтому ее можно считать Законом Моисеевым, расширенным во дни Иисуса Навина и Судей. К тому же времени относится и ритуальный кодекс (Исх 34).

Сложнее обстоит дело с обрядовыми уставами Левита. Хотя в них есть черты глубокой, домоисеевой древности, но в целом они явно имеют в виду не просто патриархальный быт кочевников, а более развитую эпоху с постоянными святилищами, многочисленным клиром и обилием дорогих материалов для культа.

И, наконец, заповеди Второзакония, которое предписывает совершать служение только в одном месте, становятся известными в Иерусалиме лишь после 621 года, когда царь Иосия (640-609) нашел в Храме «Книгу Торы», содержащую это предписание. По мнению бл. Иеронима, это было Второзаконие (вернее, его законодательная часть). В настоящее время признано, что книга хранилась в среде левитов Северного царства и была принесена в Иудею после падения этого царства.

До торжественной кодификации «Книги Торы» при Иосии мы не находим в истории Израиля следов того, что он имел какой-либо общепризнанный свод обрядовых законов. Приведем несколько примеров.

Вопреки запрету Втор, народ приносит жертвы в самых различных местах и святилищах (Силом, Хеврон и т.д.), жертвы приносят не священники (как в Лев), а судьи, цари, главы семей (Суд 6:19; Суд 13:19; 2 Цар 6:17). Писания пророков свидетельствуют о том, что в пустыне (при Моисее) служение было лишено той пышности и великолепия, как описано в Лев. Оно соответствовало образу жизни кочевников, не засевавших полей и не насаждавших садов и виноградников. У прор. Амоса (VIII в. до Р.Х.) Бог спрашивает: «Приносили ли вы Мне жертвы и хлебные дары в пустыне в течение сорока лет, дом Израилев?» (Ам 5:25). Прор. Михей (VIII в.) утверждает, что Богу нельзя угодить жертвами. «О человек, сказано тебе, что добро и чего требует от тебя Господь: действовать справедливо, любить дела милосердия и смиренномудренно ходить перед Богом твоим» (Мих 6:8). А у прор. Иеремии (VII в.) Бог говорит: «Отцам вашим Я не говорил и не давал им заповеди в тот день, в который Я вывел их из земли Египетской, о всесожжении и жертве. Но такую заповедь дал им: слушайтесь гласа Моего, и Я буду вашим Богом, и вы будете Моим народом» (Иер 7:21).

Из этого явствует, что: 1) в эпоху Судей и царей сложные ритуальные законы не были известны всему Израилю как обязательные, 2) основой Торы Моисеевой являлся этический монотеизм, его религиозно-нравственные заповеди. Именно поэтому Христос-Спаситель назвал исповедание веры в единого Бога, а также любовь к Богу и ближнему важнейшими заповедями Закона (Мк 12:29-33). Отсюда понятна мысль свт. Иринея Лионского: «Так как в том и другом Завете правила совершенной жизни одни и те же, то они указывают на одного Бога, Который, хотя предписал и особенные приличные тому и другому заповеди, но главнейшие и важнейшие, без которых невозможно спасение, дал одни и те же в обоих Заветах» (Против ересей, IV,12,3).

Но в истории Св. Писания нет ничего случайного. Если в Закон Моисеев были внесены преходящие культовые и правовые элементы, это должно было иметь промыслительное значение. По мнению св. Отцов, цель этих дополнений была воспитательной: наполнить религиозным содержанием и обрядами всю жизнь народа Божия, так как он был еще не готов усвоить духовную истину в ее чистоте. На это указывает свт. Ириней: «Если в Новом Завете апостолы, как оказывается, дают некоторые заповеди из снисхождения, по причине невоздержания некоторых, чтобы такие люди, ожесточившись, не отчаялись совсем в своем спасении и не сделались отступниками от Бога, то не должно удивляться, если в Ветхом Завете Бог допустил нечто такое для пользы народа и посредством вышеупомянутых обрядов привлекал к тому, чтобы они через них получили спасение» (Против ересей, IV,15,2). Точно также Тертуллиан говорит: «Бог предлагал посредством тягостных и многообразных церемоний покорить Себе умы грубые и непокорные. Он хотел посредством религиозных обрядов, столь различных и частых, удерживать их беспрерывно в Своем присутствии и приучать размышлять денно и нощно о божественном законе» (Против Маркиона, 2, 19). Согласно св. Иоанну Златоусту, «Бог для спасения заблуждающихся изменением допустил в служение Себе то, что наблюдали язычники при служении демонам, дабы, понемногу отвлекая от языческих привычек, привести евреев к высокому любомудрию» (Бес. 5 на Мф 6). И действительно, соблазн ханаанских обрядов был ослаблен тем, что боготкровенная религия была тоже облечена в торжественные культовые формы, доступные народу.

3. Кодификация* Кодификация означает собрание законов в систему и объявление их действующим церковным или гражданским правом. Моисеева законодательства. Ветхозаветный период знает три торжественные кодификации Моисеева законодательства:

  • Первая совершилась у Синая, когда народ получил Декалог на скрижалях и устные наставления от Господа через Моисея (Исх 19-20).
  • Вторая произошла в 621 году при царе Иосии. Сам царь при чтении Книги закона «разодрал одежды свои» в знак покаяния (4 Цар 22,11), а весь народ «вступил в завет», т.е. торжественно обещал соблюдать заповеданное.
  • Третья — и окончательная — относится к середине V века до Р.Х., когда священник Ездра принес из Вавилона все Пятикнижие в его нынешнем объеме и прочел его перед собранием жителей Иерусалима. Давая обет соблюдать Закон Моисеев, народ каялся и постился (Неем 8:1; Неем 9:1).

Итак, общецерковное принятие таких частей Закона как Книга Завета, Левит и законодательные части Чисел, произошло только после Плена. Этим объясняется отсутствие у пророков и в исторических книгах ссылок на многие ритуальные обычаи Пятикнижия.

4. Древность Моисеева Предания. Основной ошибкой гипотезы Велльгаузена (см. §11) была мысль, будто каждая из четырех Св. Историй целиком создана теми, кто ее впервые записал. Этим ставилась под сомнение достоверность рассказов не только о патриархах, но и о самом Моисее. Утверждали даже, что Моисей есть вымышленная, мифическая фигура. Но последними достижениями археологии этот взгляд был опровергнут. Выяснилось, что быт Авраама, Исаака и Иакова — как он описан в Бытии — вполне соответствует древневосточным обычаям и праву, которые царили в начале второго тысячелетия, а к Х веку (предполагаемая дата Ягвиста) утратили свое значение. Обнаружилось, что предание об Иосифе, исходе и Моисее хорошо согласуется с данными египтологии. В Книге Завета и других законодательных частях Пятикнижия есть немало законов, сходных с судебниками и кодексами древности (напр., кодексом Хаммурапи, написанным ок. 1700 г., см. ниже §23). Историческая среда домоисеевых и Моисеевых времен описана с такой достоверностью, что исключает мысль, будто сказания Пятикнижия изобретены авторами Х или VIII веков. Иными словами, Моисеевы книги есть запись очень древнего подлинного Предания.

5. Закон и законничество. Ветхозаветная Церковь не знала разделения на Божие и мирское. Жизнь человека во всех ее проявлениях должна была проходить перед лицом Господним. Поэтому Пятикнижие наряду с религиозно-нравственными заповедями включает гражданское и уголовное право. Вся совокупность законодательства исходила от Бога и освящалась по традиции авторитетом Моисея. Именно Моисей как создатель ветхозаветной Церкви поставил перед ней задачу служить Богу и принадлежать только Ему. Именно через него Бог открыл людям, что соблюдение нравственных принципов есть важнейшая обязанность верующего. Постепенное обогащение и расширение Моисеева закона захватывало все новые и новые области человеческого общежития, труда, брачных и социальных отношений. «Жизнь по Закону» не означала просто механического выполнения некой суммы предписаний, а приводила каждый шаг человека в соответствие с волей Божией. Эта духовная глубина «религии Торы» отражена в Псалтири, особенно в Пс 118, читаемом Церковью на заупокойной службе.

Но стремление верующих подчинить каждую деталь жизни правилам закона было чревато и опасностями. Постепенно оно стало превращаться в мертвящее уставное благочестие, сложную казуистическую мораль, религиозный формализм и обрядоверие. В этом — исток законничества, которое позднее оказалось преградой для благовестия Христовой свободы. Убеждение, что человек собственными силами может достичь праведности, создало тот тип «лицемера», который был сурово осужден Христом Спасителем.

Вопросы для повторения
  1. Охарактеризуйте так наз. Ягвистический источник. Когда предположительно он был записан?
  2. Охарактеризуйте Св. Историю Элохиста.
  3. Что такое Священническая традиция?
  4. Что такое Второзаконническая Св. История?
  5. Какие основные законодательные тексты соответствуют четырем источникам Пятикнижия?
  6. Когда эти тексты были записаны?
  7. Для чего были даны обрядовые законы?
  8. Когда были кодифицированы законы Пятикнижия и когда все оно было признано Св. Писанием?
  9. Чем доказывается древность и достоверность Моисеева Предания?
  10. В чем сущность Закона и чем «религия Закона» отличается от «законничества»?

Отрывки к тексту:
Ki1 4:3
Gen 20:7
Exo 3
Exo 34
Exo 20
Exo 22
Exo 23
Exo 33
Lev 5-10
Lev 18-19
Jdg 6:19
Jdg 13:19
Sa2 6:17
Amo 5:25
Mic 6:8
Jer 7:21
Mar 12:29-33
Neh 8:1
Neh 9:1
Psa 118
3
Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha were secretaries; Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was the recorder;
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Now therefore, restore the man’s wife, for he is a prophet, and he will pray for you and you will live. But if you do not restore her, know that you shall surely die, you and all who are yours.”
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Now Moses was pasturing the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God.
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The angel of the LORD appeared to him in a blazing fire from the midst of a bush; and he looked, and behold, the bush was burning with fire, yet the bush was not consumed.
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So Moses said, “I must turn aside now and see this marvelous sight, why the bush is not burned up.”
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When the LORD saw that he turned aside to look, God called to him from the midst of the bush and said, “Moses, Moses!” And he said, “Here I am.”
5
Then He said, “Do not come near here; remove your sandals from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground.”
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He said also, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” Then Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.
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The LORD said, “I have surely seen the affliction of My people who are in Egypt, and have given heed to their cry because of their taskmasters, for I am aware of their sufferings.
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So I have come down to deliver them from the power of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and spacious land, to a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite.
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Now, behold, the cry of the sons of Israel has come to Me; furthermore, I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians are oppressing them.
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Therefore, come now, and I will send you to Pharaoh, so that you may bring My people, the sons of Israel, out of Egypt.”
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But Moses said to God, “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring the sons of Israel out of Egypt?”
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And He said, “Certainly I will be with you, and this shall be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall worship God at this mountain.”
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Then Moses said to God, “Behold, I am going to the sons of Israel, and I will say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you.’ Now they may say to me, ‘What is His name?’ What shall I say to them?”
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God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM”; and He said, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you.’”
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God, furthermore, said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is My name forever, and this is My memorial-name to all generations.
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Go and gather the elders of Israel together and say to them, ‘The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, “I am indeed concerned about you and what has been done to you in Egypt.
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So I said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite, to a land flowing with milk and honey.”’
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They will pay heed to what you say; and you with the elders of Israel will come to the king of Egypt and you will say to him, ‘The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. So now, please, let us go a three days’ journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.’
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But I know that the king of Egypt will not permit you to go, except under compulsion.
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So I will stretch out My hand and strike Egypt with all My miracles which I shall do in the midst of it; and after that he will let you go.
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I will grant this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians; and it shall be that when you go, you will not go empty-handed.
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But every woman shall ask of her neighbor and the woman who lives in her house, articles of silver and articles of gold, and clothing; and you will put them on your sons and daughters. Thus you will plunder the Egyptians.”
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Now the LORD said to Moses, “Cut out for yourself two stone tablets like the former ones, and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the former tablets which you shattered.
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So be ready by morning, and come up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and present yourself there to Me on the top of the mountain.
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No man is to come up with you, nor let any man be seen anywhere on the mountain; even the flocks and the herds may not graze in front of that mountain.”
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So he cut out two stone tablets like the former ones, and Moses rose up early in the morning and went up to Mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, and he took two stone tablets in his hand.
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The LORD descended in the cloud and stood there with him as he called upon the name of the LORD.
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Then the LORD passed by in front of him and proclaimed, “The LORD, the LORD God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in lovingkindness and truth;
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who keeps lovingkindness for thousands, who forgives iniquity, transgression and sin; yet He will by no means leave the guilty unpunished, visiting the iniquity of fathers on the children and on the grandchildren to the third and fourth generations.”
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Moses made haste to bow low toward the earth and worship.
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He said, “If now I have found favor in Your sight, O Lord, I pray, let the Lord go along in our midst, even though the people are so obstinate, and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us as Your own possession.”
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Then God said, “Behold, I am going to make a covenant. Before all your people I will perform miracles which have not been produced in all the earth nor among any of the nations; and all the people among whom you live will see the working of the LORD, for it is a fearful thing that I am going to perform with you.
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“Be sure to observe what I am commanding you this day: behold, I am going to drive out the Amorite before you, and the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.
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Watch yourself that you make no covenant with the inhabitants of the land into which you are going, or it will become a snare in your midst.
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But rather, you are to tear down their altars and smash their sacred pillars and cut down their Asherim
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—for you shall not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God—
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otherwise you might make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land and they would play the harlot with their gods and sacrifice to their gods, and someone might invite you to eat of his sacrifice,
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and you might take some of his daughters for your sons, and his daughters might play the harlot with their gods and cause your sons also to play the harlot with their gods.
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You shall make for yourself no molten gods.
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“You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread. For seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in the month of Abib you came out of Egypt.
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“The first offspring from every womb belongs to Me, and all your male livestock, the first offspring from cattle and sheep.
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You shall redeem with a lamb the first offspring from a donkey; and if you do not redeem it, then you shall break its neck. You shall redeem all the firstborn of your sons. None shall appear before Me empty-handed.
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“You shall work six days, but on the seventh day you shall rest; even during plowing time and harvest you shall rest.
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You shall celebrate the Feast of Weeks, that is, the first fruits of the wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year.
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Three times a year all your males are to appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel.
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For I will drive out nations before you and enlarge your borders, and no man shall covet your land when you go up three times a year to appear before the LORD your God.
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“You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread, nor is the sacrifice of the Feast of the Passover to be left over until morning.
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“You shall bring the very first of the first fruits of your soil into the house of the LORD your God. “You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.”
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Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”
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So he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did not eat bread or drink water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.
29
It came about when Moses was coming down from Mount Sinai (and the two tablets of the testimony were in Moses’ hand as he was coming down from the mountain), that Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because of his speaking with Him.
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So when Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone, and they were afraid to come near him.
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Then Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the rulers in the congregation returned to him; and Moses spoke to them.
32
Afterward all the sons of Israel came near, and he commanded them to do everything that the LORD had spoken to him on Mount Sinai.
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When Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face.
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But whenever Moses went in before the LORD to speak with Him, he would take off the veil until he came out; and whenever he came out and spoke to the sons of Israel what he had been commanded,
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the sons of Israel would see the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’ face shone. So Moses would replace the veil over his face until he went in to speak with Him.
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Then God spoke all these words, saying,
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“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
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“You shall have no other gods before Me.
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“You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth.
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You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me,
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but showing lovingkindness to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
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“You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not leave him unpunished who takes His name in vain.
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“Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
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Six days you shall labor and do all your work,
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but the seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you.
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For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.
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“Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be prolonged in the land which the LORD your God gives you.
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“You shall not murder.
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“You shall not commit adultery.
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“You shall not steal.
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“You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
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“You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife or his male servant or his female servant or his ox or his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”
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All the people perceived the thunder and the lightning flashes and the sound of the trumpet and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood at a distance.
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Then they said to Moses, “Speak to us yourself and we will listen; but let not God speak to us, or we will die.”
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Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid; for God has come in order to test you, and in order that the fear of Him may remain with you, so that you may not sin.”
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So the people stood at a distance, while Moses approached the thick cloud where God was.
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Then the LORD said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘You yourselves have seen that I have spoken to you from heaven.
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You shall not make other gods besides Me; gods of silver or gods of gold, you shall not make for yourselves.
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You shall make an altar of earth for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be remembered, I will come to you and bless you.
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If you make an altar of stone for Me, you shall not build it of cut stones, for if you wield your tool on it, you will profane it.
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And you shall not go up by steps to My altar, so that your nakedness will not be exposed on it.’
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“If a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for the ox and four sheep for the sheep.
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“If the thief is caught while breaking in and is struck so that he dies, there will be no bloodguiltiness on his account.
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But if the sun has risen on him, there will be bloodguiltiness on his account. He shall surely make restitution; if he owns nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.
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If what he stole is actually found alive in his possession, whether an ox or a donkey or a sheep, he shall pay double.
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“If a man lets a field or vineyard be grazed bare and lets his animal loose so that it grazes in another man’s field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard.
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“If a fire breaks out and spreads to thorn bushes, so that stacked grain or the standing grain or the field itself is consumed, he who started the fire shall surely make restitution.
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“If a man gives his neighbor money or goods to keep for him and it is stolen from the man’s house, if the thief is caught, he shall pay double.
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If the thief is not caught, then the owner of the house shall appear before the judges, to determine whether he laid his hands on his neighbor’s property.
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For every breach of trust, whether it is for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any lost thing about which one says, ‘This is it,’ the case of both parties shall come before the judges; he whom the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor.
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“If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep for him, and it dies or is hurt or is driven away while no one is looking,
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an oath before the LORD shall be made by the two of them that he has not laid hands on his neighbor’s property; and its owner shall accept it, and he shall not make restitution.
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But if it is actually stolen from him, he shall make restitution to its owner.
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If it is all torn to pieces, let him bring it as evidence; he shall not make restitution for what has been torn to pieces.
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“If a man borrows anything from his neighbor, and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, he shall make full restitution.
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If its owner is with it, he shall not make restitution; if it is hired, it came for its hire.
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“If a man seduces a virgin who is not engaged, and lies with her, he must pay a dowry for her to be his wife.
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If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money equal to the dowry for virgins.
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“You shall not allow a sorceress to live.
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“Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death.
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“He who sacrifices to any god, other than to the LORD alone, shall be utterly destroyed.
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“You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.
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You shall not afflict any widow or orphan.
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If you afflict him at all, and if he does cry out to Me, I will surely hear his cry;
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and My anger will be kindled, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall become widows and your children fatherless.
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“If you lend money to My people, to the poor among you, you are not to act as a creditor to him; you shall not charge him interest.
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If you ever take your neighbor’s cloak as a pledge, you are to return it to him before the sun sets,
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for that is his only covering; it is his cloak for his body. What else shall he sleep in? And it shall come about that when he cries out to Me, I will hear him, for I am gracious.
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“You shall not curse God, nor curse a ruler of your people.
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“You shall not delay the offering from your harvest and your vintage. The firstborn of your sons you shall give to Me.
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You shall do the same with your oxen and with your sheep. It shall be with its mother seven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.
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“You shall be holy men to Me, therefore you shall not eat any flesh torn to pieces in the field; you shall throw it to the dogs.
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“You shall not bear a false report; do not join your hand with a wicked man to be a malicious witness.
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You shall not follow the masses in doing evil, nor shall you testify in a dispute so as to turn aside after a multitude in order to pervert justice;
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nor shall you be partial to a poor man in his dispute.
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“If you meet your enemy’s ox or his donkey wandering away, you shall surely return it to him.
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If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying helpless under its load, you shall refrain from leaving it to him, you shall surely release it with him.
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“You shall not pervert the justice due to your needy brother in his dispute.
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Keep far from a false charge, and do not kill the innocent or the righteous, for I will not acquit the guilty.
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“You shall not take a bribe, for a bribe blinds the clear-sighted and subverts the cause of the just.
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“You shall not oppress a stranger, since you yourselves know the feelings of a stranger, for you also were strangers in the land of Egypt.
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“You shall sow your land for six years and gather in its yield,
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but on the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, so that the needy of your people may eat; and whatever they leave the beast of the field may eat. You are to do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove.
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“Six days you are to do your work, but on the seventh day you shall cease from labor so that your ox and your donkey may rest, and the son of your female slave, as well as your stranger, may refresh themselves.
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Now concerning everything which I have said to you, be on your guard; and do not mention the name of other gods, nor let them be heard from your mouth.
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“Three times a year you shall celebrate a feast to Me.
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You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt. And none shall appear before Me empty-handed.
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Also you shall observe the Feast of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors from what you sow in the field; also the Feast of the Ingathering at the end of the year when you gather in the fruit of your labors from the field.
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Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Lord GOD.
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“You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread; nor is the fat of My feast to remain overnight until morning.
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“You shall bring the choice first fruits of your soil into the house of the LORD your God. “You are not to boil a young goat in the milk of its mother.
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“Behold, I am going to send an angel before you to guard you along the way and to bring you into the place which I have prepared.
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Be on your guard before him and obey his voice; do not be rebellious toward him, for he will not pardon your transgression, since My name is in him.
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But if you truly obey his voice and do all that I say, then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries.
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For My angel will go before you and bring you in to the land of the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites and the Jebusites; and I will completely destroy them.
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You shall not worship their gods, nor serve them, nor do according to their deeds; but you shall utterly overthrow them and break their sacred pillars in pieces.
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But you shall serve the LORD your God, and He will bless your bread and your water; and I will remove sickness from your midst.
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There shall be no one miscarrying or barren in your land; I will fulfill the number of your days.
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I will send My terror ahead of you, and throw into confusion all the people among whom you come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you.
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I will send hornets ahead of you so that they will drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites before you.
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I will not drive them out before you in a single year, that the land may not become desolate and the beasts of the field become too numerous for you.
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I will drive them out before you little by little, until you become fruitful and take possession of the land.
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I will fix your boundary from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River Euphrates; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before you.
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You shall make no covenant with them or with their gods.
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They shall not live in your land, because they will make you sin against Me; for if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you.”
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Then the LORD spoke to Moses, “Depart, go up from here, you and the people whom you have brought up from the land of Egypt, to the land of which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, ‘To your descendants I will give it.’
2
I will send an angel before you and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.
3
Go up to a land flowing with milk and honey; for I will not go up in your midst, because you are an obstinate people, and I might destroy you on the way.”
4
When the people heard this sad word, they went into mourning, and none of them put on his ornaments.
5
For the LORD had said to Moses, “Say to the sons of Israel, ‘You are an obstinate people; should I go up in your midst for one moment, I would destroy you. Now therefore, put off your ornaments from you, that I may know what I shall do with you.’”
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So the sons of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments, from Mount Horeb onward.
7
Now Moses used to take the tent and pitch it outside the camp, a good distance from the camp, and he called it the tent of meeting. And everyone who sought the LORD would go out to the tent of meeting which was outside the camp.
8
And it came about, whenever Moses went out to the tent, that all the people would arise and stand, each at the entrance of his tent, and gaze after Moses until he entered the tent.
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Whenever Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the entrance of the tent; and the LORD would speak with Moses.
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When all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people would arise and worship, each at the entrance of his tent.
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Thus the LORD used to speak to Moses face to face, just as a man speaks to his friend. When Moses returned to the camp, his servant Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, would not depart from the tent.
12
Then Moses said to the LORD, “See, You say to me, ‘Bring up this people!’ But You Yourself have not let me know whom You will send with me. Moreover, You have said, ‘I have known you by name, and you have also found favor in My sight.’
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Now therefore, I pray You, if I have found favor in Your sight, let me know Your ways that I may know You, so that I may find favor in Your sight. Consider too, that this nation is Your people.”
14
And He said, “My presence shall go with you, and I will give you rest.”
15
Then he said to Him, “If Your presence does not go with us, do not lead us up from here.
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For how then can it be known that I have found favor in Your sight, I and Your people? Is it not by Your going with us, so that we, I and Your people, may be distinguished from all the other people who are upon the face of the earth?”
17
The LORD said to Moses, “I will also do this thing of which you have spoken; for you have found favor in My sight and I have known you by name.”
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Then Moses said, “I pray You, show me Your glory!”
19
And He said, “I Myself will make all My goodness pass before you, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before you; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show compassion on whom I will show compassion.”
20
But He said, “You cannot see My face, for no man can see Me and live!”
21
Then the LORD said, “Behold, there is a place by Me, and you shall stand there on the rock;
22
and it will come about, while My glory is passing by, that I will put you in the cleft of the rock and cover you with My hand until I have passed by.
23
Then I will take My hand away and you shall see My back, but My face shall not be seen.”
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‘Now if a person sins after he hears a public adjuration to testify when he is a witness, whether he has seen or otherwise known, if he does not tell it, then he will bear his guilt.
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Or if a person touches any unclean thing, whether a carcass of an unclean beast or the carcass of unclean cattle or a carcass of unclean swarming things, though it is hidden from him and he is unclean, then he will be guilty.
3
Or if he touches human uncleanness, of whatever sort his uncleanness may be with which he becomes unclean, and it is hidden from him, and then he comes to know it, he will be guilty.
4
Or if a person swears thoughtlessly with his lips to do evil or to do good, in whatever matter a man may speak thoughtlessly with an oath, and it is hidden from him, and then he comes to know it, he will be guilty in one of these.
5
So it shall be when he becomes guilty in one of these, that he shall confess that in which he has sinned.
6
He shall also bring his guilt offering to the LORD for his sin which he has committed, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat as a sin offering. So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin.
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‘But if he cannot afford a lamb, then he shall bring to the LORD his guilt offering for that in which he has sinned, two turtledoves or two young pigeons, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering.
8
He shall bring them to the priest, who shall offer first that which is for the sin offering and shall nip its head at the front of its neck, but he shall not sever it.
9
He shall also sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar, while the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar: it is a sin offering.
10
The second he shall then prepare as a burnt offering according to the ordinance. So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin which he has committed, and it will be forgiven him.
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‘But if his means are insufficient for two turtledoves or two young pigeons, then for his offering for that which he has sinned, he shall bring the tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall not put oil on it or place incense on it, for it is a sin offering.
12
He shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as its memorial portion and offer it up in smoke on the altar, with the offerings of the LORD by fire: it is a sin offering.
13
So the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin which he has committed from one of these, and it will be forgiven him; then the rest shall become the priest’s, like the grain offering.’”
14
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
15
“If a person acts unfaithfully and sins unintentionally against the LORD’S holy things, then he shall bring his guilt offering to the LORD: a ram without defect from the flock, according to your valuation in silver by shekels, in terms of the shekel of the sanctuary, for a guilt offering.
16
He shall make restitution for that which he has sinned against the holy thing, and shall add to it a fifth part of it and give it to the priest. The priest shall then make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt offering, and it will be forgiven him.
17
“Now if a person sins and does any of the things which the LORD has commanded not to be done, though he was unaware, still he is guilty and shall bear his punishment.
18
He is then to bring to the priest a ram without defect from the flock, according to your valuation, for a guilt offering. So the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his error in which he sinned unintentionally and did not know it, and it will be forgiven him.
19
It is a guilt offering; he was certainly guilty before the LORD.”
1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
2
“When a person sins and acts unfaithfully against the LORD, and deceives his companion in regard to a deposit or a security entrusted to him, or through robbery, or if he has extorted from his companion,
3
or has found what was lost and lied about it and sworn falsely, so that he sins in regard to any one of the things a man may do;
4
then it shall be, when he sins and becomes guilty, that he shall restore what he took by robbery or what he got by extortion, or the deposit which was entrusted to him or the lost thing which he found,
5
or anything about which he swore falsely; he shall make restitution for it in full and add to it one-fifth more. He shall give it to the one to whom it belongs on the day he presents his guilt offering.
6
Then he shall bring to the priest his guilt offering to the LORD, a ram without defect from the flock, according to your valuation, for a guilt offering,
7
and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he will be forgiven for any one of the things which he may have done to incur guilt.”
8
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
9
“Command Aaron and his sons, saying, ‘This is the law for the burnt offering: the burnt offering itself shall remain on the hearth on the altar all night until the morning, and the fire on the altar is to be kept burning on it.
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The priest is to put on his linen robe, and he shall put on undergarments next to his flesh; and he shall take up the ashes to which the fire reduces the burnt offering on the altar and place them beside the altar.
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Then he shall take off his garments and put on other garments, and carry the ashes outside the camp to a clean place.
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The fire on the altar shall be kept burning on it. It shall not go out, but the priest shall burn wood on it every morning; and he shall lay out the burnt offering on it, and offer up in smoke the fat portions of the peace offerings on it.
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Fire shall be kept burning continually on the altar; it is not to go out.
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‘Now this is the law of the grain offering: the sons of Aaron shall present it before the LORD in front of the altar.
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Then one of them shall lift up from it a handful of the fine flour of the grain offering, with its oil and all the incense that is on the grain offering, and he shall offer it up in smoke on the altar, a soothing aroma, as its memorial offering to the LORD.
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What is left of it Aaron and his sons are to eat. It shall be eaten as unleavened cakes in a holy place; they are to eat it in the court of the tent of meeting.
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It shall not be baked with leaven. I have given it as their share from My offerings by fire; it is most holy, like the sin offering and the guilt offering.
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Every male among the sons of Aaron may eat it; it is a permanent ordinance throughout your generations, from the offerings by fire to the LORD. Whoever touches them will become consecrated.’”
19
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
20
“This is the offering which Aaron and his sons are to present to the LORD on the day when he is anointed; the tenth of an ephah of fine flour as a regular grain offering, half of it in the morning and half of it in the evening.
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It shall be prepared with oil on a griddle. When it is well stirred, you shall bring it. You shall present the grain offering in baked pieces as a soothing aroma to the LORD.
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The anointed priest who will be in his place among his sons shall offer it. By a permanent ordinance it shall be entirely offered up in smoke to the LORD.
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So every grain offering of the priest shall be burned entirely. It shall not be eaten.”
24
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
25
“Speak to Aaron and to his sons, saying, ‘This is the law of the sin offering: in the place where the burnt offering is slain the sin offering shall be slain before the LORD; it is most holy.
26
The priest who offers it for sin shall eat it. It shall be eaten in a holy place, in the court of the tent of meeting.
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Anyone who touches its flesh will become consecrated; and when any of its blood splashes on a garment, in a holy place you shall wash what was splashed on.
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Also the earthenware vessel in which it was boiled shall be broken; and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel, then it shall be scoured and rinsed in water.
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Every male among the priests may eat of it; it is most holy.
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But no sin offering of which any of the blood is brought into the tent of meeting to make atonement in the holy place shall be eaten; it shall be burned with fire.
1
‘Now this is the law of the guilt offering; it is most holy.
2
In the place where they slay the burnt offering they are to slay the guilt offering, and he shall sprinkle its blood around on the altar.
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Then he shall offer from it all its fat: the fat tail and the fat that covers the entrails,
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and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and the lobe on the liver he shall remove with the kidneys.
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The priest shall offer them up in smoke on the altar as an offering by fire to the LORD; it is a guilt offering.
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Every male among the priests may eat of it. It shall be eaten in a holy place; it is most holy.
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The guilt offering is like the sin offering, there is one law for them; the priest who makes atonement with it shall have it.
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Also the priest who presents any man’s burnt offering, that priest shall have for himself the skin of the burnt offering which he has presented.
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Likewise, every grain offering that is baked in the oven and everything prepared in a pan or on a griddle shall belong to the priest who presents it.
10
Every grain offering, mixed with oil or dry, shall belong to all the sons of Aaron, to all alike.
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‘Now this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings which shall be presented to the LORD.
12
If he offers it by way of thanksgiving, then along with the sacrifice of thanksgiving he shall offer unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil, and cakes of well stirred fine flour mixed with oil.
13
With the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving, he shall present his offering with cakes of leavened bread.
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Of this he shall present one of every offering as a contribution to the LORD; it shall belong to the priest who sprinkles the blood of the peace offerings.
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‘Now as for the flesh of the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace offerings, it shall be eaten on the day of his offering; he shall not leave any of it over until morning.
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But if the sacrifice of his offering is a votive or a freewill offering, it shall be eaten on the day that he offers his sacrifice, and on the next day what is left of it may be eaten;
17
but what is left over from the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burned with fire.
18
So if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings should ever be eaten on the third day, he who offers it will not be accepted, and it will not be reckoned to his benefit. It shall be an offensive thing, and the person who eats of it will bear his own iniquity.
19
‘Also the flesh that touches anything unclean shall not be eaten; it shall be burned with fire. As for other flesh, anyone who is clean may eat such flesh.
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But the person who eats the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings which belong to the LORD, in his uncleanness, that person shall be cut off from his people.
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When anyone touches anything unclean, whether human uncleanness, or an unclean animal, or any unclean detestable thing, and eats of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings which belong to the LORD, that person shall be cut off from his people.’”
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Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
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“Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘You shall not eat any fat from an ox, a sheep or a goat.
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Also the fat of an animal which dies and the fat of an animal torn by beasts may be put to any other use, but you must certainly not eat it.
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For whoever eats the fat of the animal from which an offering by fire is offered to the LORD, even the person who eats shall be cut off from his people.
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You are not to eat any blood, either of bird or animal, in any of your dwellings.
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Any person who eats any blood, even that person shall be cut off from his people.’”
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Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
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“Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘He who offers the sacrifice of his peace offerings to the LORD shall bring his offering to the LORD from the sacrifice of his peace offerings.
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His own hands are to bring offerings by fire to the LORD. He shall bring the fat with the breast, that the breast may be presented as a wave offering before the LORD.
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The priest shall offer up the fat in smoke on the altar, but the breast shall belong to Aaron and his sons.
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You shall give the right thigh to the priest as a contribution from the sacrifices of your peace offerings.
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The one among the sons of Aaron who offers the blood of the peace offerings and the fat, the right thigh shall be his as his portion.
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For I have taken the breast of the wave offering and the thigh of the contribution from the sons of Israel from the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons as their due forever from the sons of Israel.
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‘This is that which is consecrated to Aaron and that which is consecrated to his sons from the offerings by fire to the LORD, in that day when he presented them to serve as priests to the LORD.
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These the LORD had commanded to be given them from the sons of Israel in the day that He anointed them. It is their due forever throughout their generations.’”
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This is the law of the burnt offering, the grain offering and the sin offering and the guilt offering and the ordination offering and the sacrifice of peace offerings,
38
which the LORD commanded Moses at Mount Sinai in the day that He commanded the sons of Israel to present their offerings to the LORD in the wilderness of Sinai.
1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
2
“Take Aaron and his sons with him, and the garments and the anointing oil and the bull of the sin offering, and the two rams and the basket of unleavened bread,
3
and assemble all the congregation at the doorway of the tent of meeting.”
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So Moses did just as the LORD commanded him. When the congregation was assembled at the doorway of the tent of meeting,
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Moses said to the congregation, “This is the thing which the LORD has commanded to do.”
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Then Moses had Aaron and his sons come near and washed them with water.
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He put the tunic on him and girded him with the sash, and clothed him with the robe and put the ephod on him; and he girded him with the artistic band of the ephod, with which he tied it to him.
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He then placed the breastpiece on him, and in the breastpiece he put the Urim and the Thummim.
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He also placed the turban on his head, and on the turban, at its front, he placed the golden plate, the holy crown, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Moses then took the anointing oil and anointed the tabernacle and all that was in it, and consecrated them.
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He sprinkled some of it on the altar seven times and anointed the altar and all its utensils, and the basin and its stand, to consecrate them.
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Then he poured some of the anointing oil on Aaron’s head and anointed him, to consecrate him.
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Next Moses had Aaron’s sons come near and clothed them with tunics, and girded them with sashes and bound caps on them, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he brought the bull of the sin offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the bull of the sin offering.
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Next Moses slaughtered it and took the blood and with his finger put some of it around on the horns of the altar, and purified the altar. Then he poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar and consecrated it, to make atonement for it.
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He also took all the fat that was on the entrails and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys and their fat; and Moses offered it up in smoke on the altar.
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But the bull and its hide and its flesh and its refuse he burned in the fire outside the camp, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he presented the ram of the burnt offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram.
19
Moses slaughtered it and sprinkled the blood around on the altar.
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When he had cut the ram into its pieces, Moses offered up the head and the pieces and the suet in smoke.
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After he had washed the entrails and the legs with water, Moses offered up the whole ram in smoke on the altar. It was a burnt offering for a soothing aroma; it was an offering by fire to the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he presented the second ram, the ram of ordination, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram.
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Moses slaughtered it and took some of its blood and put it on the lobe of Aaron’s right ear, and on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot.
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He also had Aaron’s sons come near; and Moses put some of the blood on the lobe of their right ear, and on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot. Moses then sprinkled the rest of the blood around on the altar.
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He took the fat, and the fat tail, and all the fat that was on the entrails, and the lobe of the liver and the two kidneys and their fat and the right thigh.
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From the basket of unleavened bread that was before the LORD, he took one unleavened cake and one cake of bread mixed with oil and one wafer, and placed them on the portions of fat and on the right thigh.
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He then put all these on the hands of Aaron and on the hands of his sons and presented them as a wave offering before the LORD.
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Then Moses took them from their hands and offered them up in smoke on the altar with the burnt offering. They were an ordination offering for a soothing aroma; it was an offering by fire to the LORD.
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Moses also took the breast and presented it for a wave offering before the LORD; it was Moses’ portion of the ram of ordination, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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So Moses took some of the anointing oil and some of the blood which was on the altar and sprinkled it on Aaron, on his garments, on his sons, and on the garments of his sons with him; and he consecrated Aaron, his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him.
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Then Moses said to Aaron and to his sons, “Boil the flesh at the doorway of the tent of meeting, and eat it there together with the bread which is in the basket of the ordination offering, just as I commanded, saying, ‘Aaron and his sons shall eat it.’
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The remainder of the flesh and of the bread you shall burn in the fire.
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You shall not go outside the doorway of the tent of meeting for seven days, until the day that the period of your ordination is fulfilled; for he will ordain you through seven days.
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The LORD has commanded to do as has been done this day, to make atonement on your behalf.
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At the doorway of the tent of meeting, moreover, you shall remain day and night for seven days and keep the charge of the LORD, so that you will not die, for so I have been commanded.”
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Thus Aaron and his sons did all the things which the LORD had commanded through Moses.
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Now it came about on the eighth day that Moses called Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel;
2
and he said to Aaron, “Take for yourself a calf, a bull, for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering, both without defect, and offer them before the LORD.
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Then to the sons of Israel you shall speak, saying, ‘Take a male goat for a sin offering, and a calf and a lamb, both one year old, without defect, for a burnt offering,
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and an ox and a ram for peace offerings, to sacrifice before the LORD, and a grain offering mixed with oil; for today the LORD will appear to you.’”
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So they took what Moses had commanded to the front of the tent of meeting, and the whole congregation came near and stood before the LORD.
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Moses said, “This is the thing which the LORD has commanded you to do, that the glory of the LORD may appear to you.”
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Moses then said to Aaron, “Come near to the altar and offer your sin offering and your burnt offering, that you may make atonement for yourself and for the people; then make the offering for the people, that you may make atonement for them, just as the LORD has commanded.”
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So Aaron came near to the altar and slaughtered the calf of the sin offering which was for himself.
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Aaron’s sons presented the blood to him; and he dipped his finger in the blood and put some on the horns of the altar, and poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar.
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The fat and the kidneys and the lobe of the liver of the sin offering, he then offered up in smoke on the altar just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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The flesh and the skin, however, he burned with fire outside the camp.
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Then he slaughtered the burnt offering; and Aaron’s sons handed the blood to him and he sprinkled it around on the altar.
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They handed the burnt offering to him in pieces, with the head, and he offered them up in smoke on the altar.
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He also washed the entrails and the legs, and offered them up in smoke with the burnt offering on the altar.
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Then he presented the people’s offering, and took the goat of the sin offering which was for the people, and slaughtered it and offered it for sin, like the first.
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He also presented the burnt offering, and offered it according to the ordinance.
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Next he presented the grain offering, and filled his hand with some of it and offered it up in smoke on the altar, besides the burnt offering of the morning.
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Then he slaughtered the ox and the ram, the sacrifice of peace offerings which was for the people; and Aaron’s sons handed the blood to him and he sprinkled it around on the altar.
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As for the portions of fat from the ox and from the ram, the fat tail, and the fat covering, and the kidneys and the lobe of the liver,
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they now placed the portions of fat on the breasts; and he offered them up in smoke on the altar.
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But the breasts and the right thigh Aaron presented as a wave offering before the LORD, just as Moses had commanded.
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Then Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them, and he stepped down after making the sin offering and the burnt offering and the peace offerings.
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Moses and Aaron went into the tent of meeting. When they came out and blessed the people, the glory of the LORD appeared to all the people.
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Then fire came out from before the LORD and consumed the burnt offering and the portions of fat on the altar; and when all the people saw it, they shouted and fell on their faces.
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Now Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took their respective firepans, and after putting fire in them, placed incense on it and offered strange fire before the LORD, which He had not commanded them.
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And fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed them, and they died before the LORD.
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Then Moses said to Aaron, “It is what the LORD spoke, saying, ‘By those who come near Me I will be treated as holy, And before all the people I will be honored.’” So Aaron, therefore, kept silent.
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Moses called also to Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Aaron’s uncle Uzziel, and said to them, “Come forward, carry your relatives away from the front of the sanctuary to the outside of the camp.”
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So they came forward and carried them still in their tunics to the outside of the camp, as Moses had said.
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Then Moses said to Aaron and to his sons Eleazar and Ithamar, “Do not uncover your heads nor tear your clothes, so that you will not die and that He will not become wrathful against all the congregation. But your kinsmen, the whole house of Israel, shall bewail the burning which the LORD has brought about.
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You shall not even go out from the doorway of the tent of meeting, or you will die; for the LORD’S anointing oil is upon you.” So they did according to the word of Moses.
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The LORD then spoke to Aaron, saying,
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“Do not drink wine or strong drink, neither you nor your sons with you, when you come into the tent of meeting, so that you will not die—it is a perpetual statute throughout your generations—
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and so as to make a distinction between the holy and the profane, and between the unclean and the clean,
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and so as to teach the sons of Israel all the statutes which the LORD has spoken to them through Moses.”
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Then Moses spoke to Aaron, and to his surviving sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, “Take the grain offering that is left over from the LORD’S offerings by fire and eat it unleavened beside the altar, for it is most holy.
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You shall eat it, moreover, in a holy place, because it is your due and your sons’ due out of the LORD’S offerings by fire; for thus I have been commanded.
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The breast of the wave offering, however, and the thigh of the offering you may eat in a clean place, you and your sons and your daughters with you; for they have been given as your due and your sons’ due out of the sacrifices of the peace offerings of the sons of Israel.
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The thigh offered by lifting up and the breast offered by waving they shall bring along with the offerings by fire of the portions of fat, to present as a wave offering before the LORD; so it shall be a thing perpetually due you and your sons with you, just as the LORD has commanded.”
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But Moses searched carefully for the goat of the sin offering, and behold, it had been burned up! So he was angry with Aaron’s surviving sons Eleazar and Ithamar, saying,
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“Why did you not eat the sin offering at the holy place? For it is most holy, and He gave it to you to bear away the guilt of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the LORD.
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Behold, since its blood had not been brought inside, into the sanctuary, you should certainly have eaten it in the sanctuary, just as I commanded.”
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But Aaron spoke to Moses, “Behold, this very day they presented their sin offering and their burnt offering before the LORD. When things like these happened to me, if I had eaten a sin offering today, would it have been good in the sight of the LORD?”
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When Moses heard that, it seemed good in his sight.
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Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
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“Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘I am the LORD your God.
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You shall not do what is done in the land of Egypt where you lived, nor are you to do what is done in the land of Canaan where I am bringing you; you shall not walk in their statutes.
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You are to perform My judgments and keep My statutes, to live in accord with them; I am the LORD your God.
5
So you shall keep My statutes and My judgments, by which a man may live if he does them; I am the LORD.
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‘None of you shall approach any blood relative of his to uncover nakedness; I am the LORD.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, that is, the nakedness of your mother. She is your mother; you are not to uncover her nakedness.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife; it is your father’s nakedness.
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The nakedness of your sister, either your father’s daughter or your mother’s daughter, whether born at home or born outside, their nakedness you shall not uncover.
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The nakedness of your son’s daughter or your daughter’s daughter, their nakedness you shall not uncover; for their nakedness is yours.
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The nakedness of your father’s wife’s daughter, born to your father, she is your sister, you shall not uncover her nakedness.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s sister; she is your father’s blood relative.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of your mother’s sister, for she is your mother’s blood relative.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother; you shall not approach his wife, she is your aunt.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter-in-law; she is your son’s wife, you shall not uncover her nakedness.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of your brother’s wife; it is your brother’s nakedness.
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You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and of her daughter, nor shall you take her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter, to uncover her nakedness; they are blood relatives. It is lewdness.
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You shall not marry a woman in addition to her sister as a rival while she is alive, to uncover her nakedness.
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‘Also you shall not approach a woman to uncover her nakedness during her menstrual impurity.
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You shall not have intercourse with your neighbor’s wife, to be defiled with her.
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You shall not give any of your offspring to offer them to Molech, nor shall you profane the name of your God; I am the LORD.
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You shall not lie with a male as one lies with a female; it is an abomination.
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Also you shall not have intercourse with any animal to be defiled with it, nor shall any woman stand before an animal to mate with it; it is a perversion.
24
‘Do not defile yourselves by any of these things; for by all these the nations which I am casting out before you have become defiled.
25
For the land has become defiled, therefore I have brought its punishment upon it, so the land has spewed out its inhabitants.
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But as for you, you are to keep My statutes and My judgments and shall not do any of these abominations, neither the native, nor the alien who sojourns among you
27
(for the men of the land who have been before you have done all these abominations, and the land has become defiled);
28
so that the land will not spew you out, should you defile it, as it has spewed out the nation which has been before you.
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For whoever does any of these abominations, those persons who do so shall be cut off from among their people.
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Thus you are to keep My charge, that you do not practice any of the abominable customs which have been practiced before you, so as not to defile yourselves with them; I am the LORD your God.’”
1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying:
2
“Speak to all the congregation of the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘You shall be holy, for I the LORD your God am holy.
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Every one of you shall reverence his mother and his father, and you shall keep My sabbaths; I am the LORD your God.
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Do not turn to idols or make for yourselves molten gods; I am the LORD your God.
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‘Now when you offer a sacrifice of peace offerings to the LORD, you shall offer it so that you may be accepted.
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It shall be eaten the same day you offer it, and the next day; but what remains until the third day shall be burned with fire.
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So if it is eaten at all on the third day, it is an offense; it will not be accepted.
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Everyone who eats it will bear his iniquity, for he has profaned the holy thing of the LORD; and that person shall be cut off from his people.
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‘Now when you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap to the very corners of your field, nor shall you gather the gleanings of your harvest.
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Nor shall you glean your vineyard, nor shall you gather the fallen fruit of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the needy and for the stranger. I am the LORD your God.
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‘You shall not steal, nor deal falsely, nor lie to one another.
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You shall not swear falsely by My name, so as to profane the name of your God; I am the LORD.
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‘You shall not oppress your neighbor, nor rob him. The wages of a hired man are not to remain with you all night until morning.
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You shall not curse a deaf man, nor place a stumbling block before the blind, but you shall revere your God; I am the LORD.
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‘You shall do no injustice in judgment; you shall not be partial to the poor nor defer to the great, but you are to judge your neighbor fairly.
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You shall not go about as a slanderer among your people, and you are not to act against the life of your neighbor; I am the LORD.
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‘You shall not hate your fellow countryman in your heart; you may surely reprove your neighbor, but shall not incur sin because of him.
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You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the sons of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself; I am the LORD.
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‘You are to keep My statutes. You shall not breed together two kinds of your cattle; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed, nor wear a garment upon you of two kinds of material mixed together.
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‘Now if a man lies carnally with a woman who is a slave acquired for another man, but who has in no way been redeemed nor given her freedom, there shall be punishment; they shall not, however, be put to death, because she was not free.
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He shall bring his guilt offering to the LORD to the doorway of the tent of meeting, a ram for a guilt offering.
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The priest shall also make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt offering before the LORD for his sin which he has committed, and the sin which he has committed will be forgiven him.
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‘When you enter the land and plant all kinds of trees for food, then you shall count their fruit as forbidden. Three years it shall be forbidden to you; it shall not be eaten.
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But in the fourth year all its fruit shall be holy, an offering of praise to the LORD.
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In the fifth year you are to eat of its fruit, that its yield may increase for you; I am the LORD your God.
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‘You shall not eat anything with the blood, nor practice divination or soothsaying.
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You shall not round off the side-growth of your heads nor harm the edges of your beard.
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You shall not make any cuts in your body for the dead nor make any tattoo marks on yourselves: I am the LORD.
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‘Do not profane your daughter by making her a harlot, so that the land will not fall to harlotry and the land become full of lewdness.
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You shall keep My sabbaths and revere My sanctuary; I am the LORD.
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‘Do not turn to mediums or spiritists; do not seek them out to be defiled by them. I am the LORD your God.
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‘You shall rise up before the grayheaded and honor the aged, and you shall revere your God; I am the LORD.
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‘When a stranger resides with you in your land, you shall not do him wrong.
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The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as the native among you, and you shall love him as yourself, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt; I am the LORD your God.
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‘You shall do no wrong in judgment, in measurement of weight, or capacity.
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You shall have just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin; I am the LORD your God, who brought you out from the land of Egypt.
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You shall thus observe all My statutes and all My ordinances and do them; I am the LORD.’”
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Then Gideon went in and prepared a young goat and unleavened bread from an ephah of flour; he put the meat in a basket and the broth in a pot, and brought them out to him under the oak and presented them.
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So Manoah took the young goat with the grain offering and offered it on the rock to the LORD, and He performed wonders while Manoah and his wife looked on.
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So they brought in the ark of the LORD and set it in its place inside the tent which David had pitched for it; and David offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD.
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“Did you present Me with sacrifices and grain offerings in the wilderness for forty years, O house of Israel?
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He has told you, O man, what is good; And what does the LORD require of you But to do justice, to love kindness, And to walk humbly with your God?
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Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, “Add your burnt offerings to your sacrifices and eat flesh.
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Jesus answered, “The foremost is, ‘HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD;
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AND YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND, AND WITH ALL YOUR STRENGTH.’
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The second is this, ‘YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.”
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The scribe said to Him, “Right, Teacher; You have truly stated that HE IS ONE, AND THERE IS NO ONE ELSE BESIDES HIM;
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AND TO LOVE HIM WITH ALL THE HEART AND WITH ALL THE UNDERSTANDING AND WITH ALL THE STRENGTH, AND TO LOVE ONE’S NEIGHBOR AS HIMSELF, is much more than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.”
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And all the people gathered as one man at the square which was in front of the Water Gate, and they asked Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the law of Moses which the LORD had given to Israel.
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Now on the twenty-fourth day of this month the sons of Israel assembled with fasting, in sackcloth and with dirt upon them.
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For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
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Oh let Israel say, “His lovingkindness is everlasting.”
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Give thanks to the LORD, for He is good;
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Oh let the house of Aaron say, “His lovingkindness is everlasting.”
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Oh let those who fear the LORD say, “His lovingkindness is everlasting.”
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From my distress I called upon the LORD; The LORD answered me and set me in a large place.
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The LORD is for me; I will not fear; What can man do to me?
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The LORD is for me among those who help me; Therefore I will look with satisfaction on those who hate me.
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It is better to take refuge in the LORD Than to trust in man.
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It is better to take refuge in the LORD Than to trust in princes.
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All nations surrounded me; In the name of the LORD I will surely cut them off.
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They surrounded me, yes, they surrounded me; In the name of the LORD I will surely cut them off.
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They surrounded me like bees; They were extinguished as a fire of thorns; In the name of the LORD I will surely cut them off.
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You pushed me violently so that I was falling, But the LORD helped me.
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The LORD is my strength and song, And He has become my salvation.
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The sound of joyful shouting and salvation is in the tents of the righteous; The right hand of the LORD does valiantly.
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The right hand of the LORD is exalted; The right hand of the LORD does valiantly.
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I will not die, but live, And tell of the works of the LORD.
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The LORD has disciplined me severely, But He has not given me over to death.
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Open to me the gates of righteousness; I shall enter through them, I shall give thanks to the LORD.
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This is the gate of the LORD; The righteous will enter through it.
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I shall give thanks to You, for You have answered me, And You have become my salvation.
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The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief corner stone.
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This is the LORD’S doing; It is marvelous in our eyes.
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This is the day which the LORD has made; Let us rejoice and be glad in it.
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O LORD, do save, we beseech You; O LORD, we beseech You, do send prosperity!
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Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the LORD; We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.
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The LORD is God, and He has given us light; Bind the festival sacrifice with cords to the horns of the altar.
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You are my God, and I give thanks to You; You are my God, I extol You.
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Give thanks to the LORD, for He is good; For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
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