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Новое небо над новой землей (размышления над Библией)

В.В. Сорокин

Скрижали сердца

«Готово сердце моё, Боже», — говорит псалмопевец (Пс 108:1). Но что стоит за этими словами? «Сердце» в Библии — прежде и более всего душа человека, его сокровенная сущность, и её-то нужно приготовить к приходу Божию. «Господь близко», — в этом главный пафос пророческой проповеди, венцом которой станут слова Спасителя о Царстве Небесном, которое приблизилось (Мф 4:17; Мк 1:15); и прежде всего пророки стремились донести до сознания своего народа истину о том, что Царство это пребывает в сокровенной глубине человеческой души, истину, выражаемую в Евангелии совершенно ясно (Лк 17:21) Тем, Кто открыл это Царство миру. Но прежде евангельского Откровения был долгий путь, проделанный Общиной народа Божия, путь, во время которого истина эта открывалась избранным из народа в той мере, какую позволял духовный уровень Общины. Все пророческие книги говорят о ней, предваряя собою Евангелие. Первые записанные пророчества относятся к VIII в. до Р.Х. — замечательному веку в истории Израиля, явившему миру пророка Исайю Иерусалимского и его общину; величие этой личности почти затмевает собою старших её современников — Амоса и Осию. Между тем, проповедь Амоса и Осии как бы предваряет собою служение Исайи; они не оставили после себя общины, но без их свидетельства проповедь Исайи о духовной нищете едва ли достигла бы своей цели. Свидетельство Амоса — это напоминание о дне суда Божия и о том, что может оправдать человека в этот день в глазах Божиих — о справедливости и любви к ближнему. Для Амоса представление о суде Божием ассоциируется прежде всего с древним израильским праздником, который назывался «день Яхве» (Ам 5:18, Ам 5:20). В этот день народ ждал от своего Бога знамений, которые подтверждали бы Его благоволение; но от имени Бога присутствующих ожидала гневная отповедь из уст пророка: «ищите добра, а не зла, и тогда Яхве будет с вами» (Ам 5:14). А если не так, то день света станет днём тьмы, и ожидаемая встреча с Богом превратится в суд. Суд Божий — это не суд Осириса, как изображают его фрески на стенах египетских пирамид, не взвешивание души на незримых весах, и Господь — не холодный судья с завязанными, как у греческой богини справедливости, глазами (представление о Последнем Суде, столь распространённое в исламе и проникшее даже в христианское сознание, восходит именно к этому языческому прообразу, когда представляет Бога немилосердным судьёй, скрупулёзно подсчитывающим каждое человеческое прегрешение с тем, чтобы в конце времён всё «припомнить»). Суд Божий — это, по слову пророка, «день Божий» (Ам 5:18) — время, когда Господь приближается и Лик Его открывается человеку; но если человек отворачивается от Бога, прячется от Него, подобно Адаму и Еве в Эдемском саду (Быт 3:8), то день обращается в ночь, а свет — во мрак (Ам 5:20). Мрак этот может обернуться и внешней катастрофой — личной или общенародной, но основой его будет всегда мрак внутренний, мрак души, оттолкнувшей руку Божию, и тогда свет Божий становится судом тому, кто, по слову Евангелия, «более возлюбил тьму, нежели свет, потому что дела его были злы» (Ин 3:19), а душа оказывается «во тьме внешней» Мф 22:13). Не случайно слово Амоса о суде Божием было вскоре дополнено словом Осии о любви Божией. Обличения Осии не менее суровы, чем обличения Амоса (Ос 8:1-11); но конец их совершенно неожиданный: это откровение Божией любви к народу, который, казалось бы, менее всего её достоин (Ос 6:4-7:16 Господь обращается к человеку, ожидая найти в его сердце истину (евр. эмет), любовь (евр. хэсэд) и знание Бога (евр. да'ат элохим) (Ос 4:1). Речь не идёт, разумеется, о книжном знании или о безразличном признании: «да, Бог есть». То, что обозначено словом да'ат — много больше: это знание-встреча, знание духовное, родившееся от того, что Господь вошёл в душу; а любовь и истина, хэсэд и эмет — составляющие такого духовного знания. Словом эмет называется не всякая истина, но лишь та, что вошла в сердце через живое Присутствие, восприятие которого и есть вхождение в Завет; это — в полном смысле слова богооткровенная истина, след Бога, оставленный Им в душе человека. Мы знаем, сколь реальны следы в душе мира сего: психология ХХ века тщательно их изучила и совершенно убедилась в их реальности, исследуя низшую психику и давая этим следам названия архетипов (если они статичны) или комплексов (если они раскрывают себя в динамике). Гораздо сложнее обнаружить в душе следы действия благодати: они стираются слишком быстро, когда благодать отходит, и почти не поддаются «объективному» исследованию, при котором душа человеческая неизбежно должна быть разъята, как тело в анатомическом театре. Однако «объективация» благодатного состояния души всё же возможна, и она являет себя как благодатная любовь, хэсэд, рождающаяся уже не просто от взаимной приязни, но от Бога, при такой любви всегда таинственно присутствующего и незримо осеняющего Своим Присутствием единение душ, которое с полным правом можно назвать соборным. Ради таких душ сохраняется Израиль, а свидетельством тому, что их было немало, является почти трёхсотлетнее существование общины, основанной пророком Исайей Иерусалимским.

Жизнь этого великого пророка сама являет собою целую эпоху. Аристократ, принадлежавший, если верить семейным преданиям, к царскому роду, он видел мимолётный расцвет Иудеи в дни своей юности, а на закате дней ему пришлось стать свидетелем осады Иерусалима ассирийской армией Синахериба и чуда, спасшего Иерусалим. Это явленное Богом чудо стало венцом пророческого служения Исайи; началом же его было видение Престола Божия, бывшее в Иерусалимском Храме (Ис 6:1-13). И во всё время служения — прежде и более всего — проповедь духовной нищеты. Были, разумеется, и грозные обличения, напоминающие слово Амоса о суде Божием (Ис 5:8-23); но если Амос призывает прежде всего к справедливости, то Исайя — к смирению (Ис 30:1-18). Смирение видится ему как единственное спасение в день суда Божия, и тогда открывающаяся пророку картина становится почти апокалиптической (Ис 2:12-22; ср. Откр 6:12-17). Всякая гордыня погибельна, она разрушает человека, предстоящего Богу; Господь хочет войти в сердце человека, и только так можно человеку спастись в «день Яхве»; всякое своеволие замыкает душу, делает её непроницаемой для благодати, и тогда необжигающий огонь Синая становится всесожигающим огнем «озера огненного» (Откр 20:14). В «день Яхве Саваофа» (Ис 2:12) остаётся лишь одна «высота» — «высота Божия» (Ис 2:17); всякая другая «высота» (Ис 2:11-16) должна или исчезнуть, или совершенно переродиться, войдя в иное отношение к Творцу. Подлинное смирение и есть эта прозрачность души для благодати, и имеющих её называет Исайя анавим, бедняками (Ис 3:14, Ис 3:15; 10:2; 11:4; 14:32; 26:6), или эвионим, «смиренными» (Ис 14:30; Ис 25:4). Эти анавим-эвионим не всегда были бедняками, и не всякий нищий материально мог стать нищим духом. О духовной нищете замечательное свидетельство даёт младший современник Исайи пророк Михей (Мих 6:6-8). Человеку нечего принести в жертву Богу, кроме своего смиренного сердца; и общины эвионим, которые возникали во времена Исайи и Михея в Иудее, были тем духовным ядром, без влияния коего заповедь Спасителя о духовной нищете (Мтф. 5:3) едва ли была бы понятна хотя кому-нибудь. Эта духовная нищета, прозрачность для действия благодати были целью духовной жизни входивших в общины эвионим; проповедь Исайи, Михея и иных, неизвестных нам учителей была для Израиля тем же, чем много столетий спустя стала для Римской Церкви проповедь св. Франциска Ассизского. Общины эвионим просуществовали до конца плена, а в эпоху Второго Храма они растворились в движении тех, кто называл себя перушим, «отделившиеся» (евангельские «фарисеи»). Из пророков эпохи плена ближе всего к движению эвионим были Иезекииль и Исайя Вавилонский. Проповедь Иезекииля — это в значительной мере проповедь личной ответственности и покаяния (Иез 18:1-32). Слово тшува, переводимое обычно как «покаяние», по-еврейски значит, собств., «обращение», так же, как и соответствующее ему в Евангелии греческое μετάνοια; изначальный смысл русского слова «по-кая-ние» связан с понятием укора или обвинения — вероятно, в связи с неизбежным при покаянии осознанием своей греховности и самоукорением. Однако понятие обращения в Библии имеет гораздо более глубокий смысл. Обращение — это прежде всего изменение духовного состояния человека, когда в глубине души совершенно реально рождается «новое сердце и новый дух» (Иез. 18:31); этот «новый дух» рождается в ином, особенном, духовном измерении, которое открывается в момент обращения, становясь тем внутренним «пространством Завета», где созревает «достойный плод покаяния» (Мф. 3:8) и рождается «тело духовное» (I Кор. 15:44) или, по словоупотреблению отцов-аскетов, «внутренний человек», встречающийся с «внешним» в сокровенной глубине сердца, где, как у Престола Божия, духовное измерение соприкасается с природным. Именно эта глубина и затрагивается Духом Святым при подлинном обращении, и тогда возможным становится «достойный плод»; в ином случае обращение — лишь эмоциональное переживание, затрагивающее психику, но не духовную сферу человека.

В тесной связи с учением о покаянии и духовном обновлении человека развивается учение о Мессии. От Исайи Иерусалимского до нас дошло три мессианских гимна (Ис 9:2-7; Ис 11:1-9 и Ис 33:17-24), а также одно пророчество в прозаической форме (Ис 7:13-17). Во всех трёх гимнах Мессия видится как Тот, Кто принесёт мир Израилю (Ис. 9:5; ср. Ис 11:6-9). Этот приносимый Мессией народу «мир» (евр. шалом) — не просто примирение и конец всяких войн, хотя, несомненно, всеобщее примирение очень важно (Ис 11:6-9; Ис 33:20; ср. Мих. 5:5); это прежде всего тот оставляемый Иисусом Своим ученикам благодатный мир (εἰρήνη), который не от мира сего. Этот мир воспримет спасающийся остаток (евр. шеар) Израиля (Ис 10:20-23), который виделся Исайе, несомненно, в лице эвионим, вполне предавших себя воле Божией; Мессия же открылся ему в облике истинного Правителя, воплощающего собою идеал праведности в духе тех же эвионим (Ис. 9:7; ср. Ис 11:1-5). У Иезекииля впервые появляется образ Мессии как истинного Пастыря (Иез 34:23-24); через Него Господь заключит с Израилем Новый Завет, впервые упоминаемый Иеремией (Иер 31:31-34) и названный у Иезекииля «заветом мира» (евр. брит шалом; Иез 34:25-31). Царство же Мессии открывается как пребывание в полноте духовной, как совершенное преображение человека через обретение нового сердца (Иез 36:25-28). А завершение ветхозаветного учения о Мессии находим мы у Исайи Вавилонского, которого с полным основанием называют иногда «ветхозаветным Евангелистом». Здесь Мессия видится как воплощённая полнота смирения в духе эвионим (Ис 42:1-4), Царство Которого неотделимо от Его смирения перед Богом, так, что оно почти уже не от мира сего (Ис 49:1-7); приоткрывается Исайе Вавилонскому и тайна страдания Мессии (Ис 50:4-11; ср. Ис 52:13-15; Ис 53:1-12). А рядом с этим находим мы у пророка и образ Израиля как невесты Божией, возвратившейся к Жениху (Ис 54:4-8), и образ Небесного Иерусалима (Ис 60:1-3, Ис 60:19-22) как исполнения Нового Завета, свидетельствованного Иеремией (см. Иер 31:31-40). Но для того, чтобы войти в этот Завет, Тора (в синодальном тексте «закон Божий») должна быть написана в сердце (Иер. 31:33). Это невозможно человеку, но невозможное человеку возможно Богу, и Иисус приходит, чтобы исполнить Закон — не те требования, что стали нормой среди перушим во времена Второго Храма, а Закон, который должен быть написан на скрижалях сердца (Мф. 5:17).

Разумеется, далеко не все в Израиле в эпоху Второго Храма сохранили огненную веру, переданную своему народу пророками. Лучшее тому свидетельство — Книга Иова и проповедь Екклесиаста. Последняя по духу более всего напоминает столь распространённые в языческом мире в эллинистическую эпоху писания стоиков; если бы не упоминания о Боге, можно было бы принять Книгу Екклесиаста за одну из книг стоической философской школы. Иное дело — Книга Иова: здесь звучит неутолимая жажда общения с подлинным, живым Богом, жажда, которую не удовлетворяют расхожие сентенции респектабельной религиозности, столь распространённые в израильском обществе во времена, когда жил неизвестный нам по имени автор этой замечательной Книги. Характерно, что друзья Иова, тщетно пытаясь его утешить, совершенно не понимают, чего ищет Иов; они не понимают даже того, что в иных случаях лучше молча помолиться о человеке, чем «наставлять» его от ума при полном молчании сердца и без всякого понятия о действии Святого Духа. Этот замечательный памятник израильского экзистенциализма лучше всяких исследований характеризует духовное состояние Израиля эпохи Второго Храма. Естественно, встаёт вопрос о том, как всё это соединялось с самим существованием Храма и Храмового культа, а также и о том, чем являлся культ в религиозной жизни Израиля.

Отрывки к тексту:
Amo 5
Hos 6
Hos 8
Gen 3
Isa 5
Isa 6
Isa 30
Isa 2
Eze 18
Isa 9
Isa 11
Isa 33
1
Hear this word which I take up for you as a dirge, O house of Israel:
2
She has fallen, she will not rise again— The virgin Israel. She lies neglected on her land; There is none to raise her up.
3
For thus says the Lord GOD, “The city which goes forth a thousand strong Will have a hundred left, And the one which goes forth a hundred strong Will have ten left to the house of Israel.”
4
For thus says the LORD to the house of Israel, “Seek Me that you may live.
5
“But do not resort to Bethel And do not come to Gilgal, Nor cross over to Beersheba; For Gilgal will certainly go into captivity And Bethel will come to trouble.
6
“Seek the LORD that you may live, Or He will break forth like a fire, O house of Joseph, And it will consume with none to quench it for Bethel,
7
For those who turn justice into wormwood And cast righteousness down to the earth.”
8
He who made the Pleiades and Orion And changes deep darkness into morning, Who also darkens day into night, Who calls for the waters of the sea And pours them out on the surface of the earth, The LORD is His name.
9
It is He who flashes forth with destruction upon the strong, So that destruction comes upon the fortress.
10
They hate him who reproves in the gate, And they abhor him who speaks with integrity.
11
Therefore because you impose heavy rent on the poor And exact a tribute of grain from them, Though you have built houses of well-hewn stone, Yet you will not live in them; You have planted pleasant vineyards, yet you will not drink their wine.
12
For I know your transgressions are many and your sins are great, You who distress the righteous and accept bribes And turn aside the poor in the gate.
13
Therefore at such a time the prudent person keeps silent, for it is an evil time.
14
Seek good and not evil, that you may live; And thus may the LORD God of hosts be with you, Just as you have said!
15
Hate evil, love good, And establish justice in the gate! Perhaps the LORD God of hosts May be gracious to the remnant of Joseph.
16
Therefore thus says the LORD God of hosts, the Lord, “There is wailing in all the plazas, And in all the streets they say, ‘Alas! Alas!’ They also call the farmer to mourning And professional mourners to lamentation.
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“And in all the vineyards there is wailing, Because I will pass through the midst of you,” says the LORD.
18
Alas, you who are longing for the day of the LORD, For what purpose will the day of the LORD be to you? It will be darkness and not light;
19
As when a man flees from a lion And a bear meets him, Or goes home, leans his hand against the wall And a snake bites him.
20
Will not the day of the LORD be darkness instead of light, Even gloom with no brightness in it?
21
“I hate, I reject your festivals, Nor do I delight in your solemn assemblies.
22
“Even though you offer up to Me burnt offerings and your grain offerings, I will not accept them; And I will not even look at the peace offerings of your fatlings.
23
“Take away from Me the noise of your songs; I will not even listen to the sound of your harps.
24
“But let justice roll down like waters And righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.
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“Did you present Me with sacrifices and grain offerings in the wilderness for forty years, O house of Israel?
26
You also carried along Sikkuth your king and Kiyyun, your images, the star of your gods which you made for yourselves.
27
Therefore, I will make you go into exile beyond Damascus,” says the LORD, whose name is the God of hosts.
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1
“Come, let us return to the LORD. For He has torn us, but He will heal us; He has wounded us, but He will bandage us.
2
“He will revive us after two days; He will raise us up on the third day, That we may live before Him.
3
“So let us know, let us press on to know the LORD. His going forth is as certain as the dawn; And He will come to us like the rain, Like the spring rain watering the earth.”
4
What shall I do with you, O Ephraim? What shall I do with you, O Judah? For your loyalty is like a morning cloud And like the dew which goes away early.
5
Therefore I have hewn them in pieces by the prophets; I have slain them by the words of My mouth; And the judgments on you are like the light that goes forth.
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For I delight in loyalty rather than sacrifice, And in the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.
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But like Adam they have transgressed the covenant; There they have dealt treacherously against Me.
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Gilead is a city of wrongdoers, Tracked with bloody footprints.
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And as raiders wait for a man, So a band of priests murder on the way to Shechem; Surely they have committed crime.
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In the house of Israel I have seen a horrible thing; Ephraim’s harlotry is there, Israel has defiled itself.
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Also, O Judah, there is a harvest appointed for you, When I restore the fortunes of My people.
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Put the trumpet to your lips! Like an eagle the enemy comes against the house of the LORD, Because they have transgressed My covenant And rebelled against My law.
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They cry out to Me, “My God, we of Israel know You!”
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Israel has rejected the good; The enemy will pursue him.
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They have set up kings, but not by Me; They have appointed princes, but I did not know it. With their silver and gold they have made idols for themselves, That they might be cut off.
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He has rejected your calf, O Samaria, saying, “My anger burns against them!” How long will they be incapable of innocence?
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For from Israel is even this! A craftsman made it, so it is not God; Surely the calf of Samaria will be broken to pieces.
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For they sow the wind And they reap the whirlwind. The standing grain has no heads; It yields no grain. Should it yield, strangers would swallow it up.
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Israel is swallowed up; They are now among the nations Like a vessel in which no one delights.
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For they have gone up to Assyria, Like a wild donkey all alone; Ephraim has hired lovers.
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Even though they hire allies among the nations, Now I will gather them up; And they will begin to diminish Because of the burden of the king of princes.
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Since Ephraim has multiplied altars for sin, They have become altars of sinning for him.
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Though I wrote for him ten thousand precepts of My law, They are regarded as a strange thing.
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As for My sacrificial gifts, They sacrifice the flesh and eat it, But the LORD has taken no delight in them. Now He will remember their iniquity, And punish them for their sins; They will return to Egypt.
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For Israel has forgotten his Maker and built palaces; And Judah has multiplied fortified cities, But I will send a fire on its cities that it may consume its palatial dwellings.
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Now the serpent was more crafty than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said to the woman, “Indeed, has God said, ‘You shall not eat from any tree of the garden’?”
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The woman said to the serpent, “From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;
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but from the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat from it or touch it, or you will die.’”
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The serpent said to the woman, “You surely will not die!
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For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.”
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When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate.
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Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves loin coverings.
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They heard the sound of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God among the trees of the garden.
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Then the LORD God called to the man, and said to him, “Where are you?”
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He said, “I heard the sound of You in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid myself.”
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And He said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?”
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The man said, “The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me from the tree, and I ate.”
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Then the LORD God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” And the woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.”
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The LORD God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, Cursed are you more than all cattle, And more than every beast of the field; On your belly you will go, And dust you will eat All the days of your life;
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And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, And you shall bruise him on the heel.”
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To the woman He said, “I will greatly multiply Your pain in childbirth, In pain you will bring forth children; Yet your desire will be for your husband, And he will rule over you.”
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Then to Adam He said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree about which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat from it’; Cursed is the ground because of you; In toil you will eat of it All the days of your life.
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“Both thorns and thistles it shall grow for you; And you will eat the plants of the field;
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By the sweat of your face You will eat bread, Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken; For you are dust, And to dust you shall return.”
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Now the man called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all the living.
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The LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them.
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Then the LORD God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever”—
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therefore the LORD God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken.
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So He drove the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the tree of life.
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Let me sing now for my well-beloved A song of my beloved concerning His vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard on a fertile hill.
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He dug it all around, removed its stones, And planted it with the choicest vine. And He built a tower in the middle of it And also hewed out a wine vat in it; Then He expected it to produce good grapes, But it produced only worthless ones.
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“And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge between Me and My vineyard.
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“What more was there to do for My vineyard that I have not done in it? Why, when I expected it to produce good grapes did it produce worthless ones?
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“So now let Me tell you what I am going to do to My vineyard: I will remove its hedge and it will be consumed; I will break down its wall and it will become trampled ground.
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“I will lay it waste; It will not be pruned or hoed, But briars and thorns will come up. I will also charge the clouds to rain no rain on it.”
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For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel And the men of Judah His delightful plant. Thus He looked for justice, but behold, bloodshed; For righteousness, but behold, a cry of distress.
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Woe to those who add house to house and join field to field, Until there is no more room, So that you have to live alone in the midst of the land!
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In my ears the LORD of hosts has sworn, “Surely, many houses shall become desolate, Even great and fine ones, without occupants.
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“For ten acres of vineyard will yield only one bath of wine, And a homer of seed will yield but an ephah of grain.”
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Woe to those who rise early in the morning that they may pursue strong drink, Who stay up late in the evening that wine may inflame them!
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Their banquets are accompanied by lyre and harp, by tambourine and flute, and by wine; But they do not pay attention to the deeds of the LORD, Nor do they consider the work of His hands.
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Therefore My people go into exile for their lack of knowledge; And their honorable men are famished, And their multitude is parched with thirst.
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Therefore Sheol has enlarged its throat and opened its mouth without measure; And Jerusalem’s splendor, her multitude, her din of revelry and the jubilant within her, descend into it.
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So the common man will be humbled and the man of importance abased, The eyes of the proud also will be abased.
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But the LORD of hosts will be exalted in judgment, And the holy God will show Himself holy in righteousness.
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Then the lambs will graze as in their pasture, And strangers will eat in the waste places of the wealthy.
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Woe to those who drag iniquity with the cords of falsehood, And sin as if with cart ropes;
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Who say, “Let Him make speed, let Him hasten His work, that we may see it; And let the purpose of the Holy One of Israel draw near And come to pass, that we may know it!”
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Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil; Who substitute darkness for light and light for darkness; Who substitute bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter!
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Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes And clever in their own sight!
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Woe to those who are heroes in drinking wine And valiant men in mixing strong drink,
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Who justify the wicked for a bribe, And take away the rights of the ones who are in the right!
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Therefore, as a tongue of fire consumes stubble And dry grass collapses into the flame, So their root will become like rot and their blossom blow away as dust; For they have rejected the law of the LORD of hosts And despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.
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On this account the anger of the LORD has burned against His people, And He has stretched out His hand against them and struck them down. And the mountains quaked, and their corpses lay like refuse in the middle of the streets. For all this His anger is not spent, But His hand is still stretched out.
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He will also lift up a standard to the distant nation, And will whistle for it from the ends of the earth; And behold, it will come with speed swiftly.
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No one in it is weary or stumbles, None slumbers or sleeps; Nor is the belt at its waist undone, Nor its sandal strap broken.
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Its arrows are sharp and all its bows are bent; The hoofs of its horses seem like flint and its chariot wheels like a whirlwind.
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Its roaring is like a lioness, and it roars like young lions; It growls as it seizes the prey And carries it off with no one to deliver it.
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And it will growl over it in that day like the roaring of the sea. If one looks to the land, behold, there is darkness and distress; Even the light is darkened by its clouds.
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In the year of King Uzziah’s death I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted, with the train of His robe filling the temple.
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Seraphim stood above Him, each having six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew.
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And one called out to another and said, “Holy, Holy, Holy, is the LORD of hosts, The whole earth is full of His glory.”
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And the foundations of the thresholds trembled at the voice of him who called out, while the temple was filling with smoke.
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Then I said, “Woe is me, for I am ruined! Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I live among a people of unclean lips; For my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts.”
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Then one of the seraphim flew to me with a burning coal in his hand, which he had taken from the altar with tongs.
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He touched my mouth with it and said, “Behold, this has touched your lips; and your iniquity is taken away and your sin is forgiven.”
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Then I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go for Us?” Then I said, “Here am I. Send me!”
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He said, “Go, and tell this people: ‘Keep on listening, but do not perceive; Keep on looking, but do not understand.’
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“Render the hearts of this people insensitive, Their ears dull, And their eyes dim, Otherwise they might see with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their hearts, And return and be healed.”
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Then I said, “Lord, how long?” And He answered, “Until cities are devastated and without inhabitant, Houses are without people And the land is utterly desolate,
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“The LORD has removed men far away, And the forsaken places are many in the midst of the land.
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“Yet there will be a tenth portion in it, And it will again be subject to burning, Like a terebinth or an oak Whose stump remains when it is felled. The holy seed is its stump.”
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“Who execute a plan, but not Mine, And make an alliance, but not of My Spirit, In order to add sin to sin;
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“Woe to the rebellious children,” declares the LORD,
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Who proceed down to Egypt Without consulting Me, To take refuge in the safety of Pharaoh And to seek shelter in the shadow of Egypt!
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“Therefore the safety of Pharaoh will be your shame And the shelter in the shadow of Egypt, your humiliation.
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“For their princes are at Zoan And their ambassadors arrive at Hanes.
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“Everyone will be ashamed because of a people who cannot profit them, Who are not for help or profit, but for shame and also for reproach.”
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The oracle concerning the beasts of the Negev. Through a land of distress and anguish, From where come lioness and lion, viper and flying serpent, They carry their riches on the backs of young donkeys And their treasures on camels’ humps, To a people who cannot profit them;
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Even Egypt, whose help is vain and empty. Therefore, I have called her “Rahab who has been exterminated.”
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Now go, write it on a tablet before them And inscribe it on a scroll, That it may serve in the time to come As a witness forever.
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For this is a rebellious people, false sons, Sons who refuse to listen To the instruction of the LORD;
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Who say to the seers, “You must not see visions”; And to the prophets, “You must not prophesy to us what is right, Speak to us pleasant words, Prophesy illusions.
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“Get out of the way, turn aside from the path, Let us hear no more about the Holy One of Israel.”
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Therefore thus says the Holy One of Israel, “Since you have rejected this word And have put your trust in oppression and guile, and have relied on them,
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Therefore this iniquity will be to you Like a breach about to fall, A bulge in a high wall, Whose collapse comes suddenly in an instant,
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Whose collapse is like the smashing of a potter’s jar, So ruthlessly shattered That a sherd will not be found among its pieces To take fire from a hearth Or to scoop water from a cistern.”
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For thus the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel, has said, “In repentance and rest you will be saved, In quietness and trust is your strength.” But you were not willing,
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And you said, “No, for we will flee on horses,” Therefore you shall flee! “And we will ride on swift horses,” Therefore those who pursue you shall be swift.
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One thousand will flee at the threat of one man; You will flee at the threat of five, Until you are left as a flag on a mountain top And as a signal on a hill.
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Therefore the LORD longs to be gracious to you, And therefore He waits on high to have compassion on you. For the LORD is a God of justice; How blessed are all those who long for Him.
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O people in Zion, inhabitant in Jerusalem, you will weep no longer. He will surely be gracious to you at the sound of your cry; when He hears it, He will answer you.
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Although the Lord has given you bread of privation and water of oppression, He, your Teacher will no longer hide Himself, but your eyes will behold your Teacher.
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Your ears will hear a word behind you, “This is the way, walk in it,” whenever you turn to the right or to the left.
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And you will defile your graven images overlaid with silver, and your molten images plated with gold. You will scatter them as an impure thing, and say to them, “Be gone!”
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Then He will give you rain for the seed which you will sow in the ground, and bread from the yield of the ground, and it will be rich and plenteous; on that day your livestock will graze in a roomy pasture.
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Also the oxen and the donkeys which work the ground will eat salted fodder, which has been winnowed with shovel and fork.
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On every lofty mountain and on every high hill there will be streams running with water on the day of the great slaughter, when the towers fall.
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The light of the moon will be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun will be seven times brighter, like the light of seven days, on the day the LORD binds up the fracture of His people and heals the bruise He has inflicted.
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Behold, the name of the LORD comes from a remote place; Burning is His anger and dense is His smoke; His lips are filled with indignation And His tongue is like a consuming fire;
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His breath is like an overflowing torrent, Which reaches to the neck, To shake the nations back and forth in a sieve, And to put in the jaws of the peoples the bridle which leads to ruin.
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You will have songs as in the night when you keep the festival, And gladness of heart as when one marches to the sound of the flute, To go to the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel.
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And the LORD will cause His voice of authority to be heard, And the descending of His arm to be seen in fierce anger, And in the flame of a consuming fire In cloudburst, downpour and hailstones.
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For at the voice of the LORD Assyria will be terrified, When He strikes with the rod.
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And every blow of the rod of punishment, Which the LORD will lay on him, Will be with the music of tambourines and lyres; And in battles, brandishing weapons, He will fight them.
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For Topheth has long been ready, Indeed, it has been prepared for the king. He has made it deep and large, A pyre of fire with plenty of wood; The breath of the LORD, like a torrent of brimstone, sets it afire.
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The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.
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Now it will come about that In the last days The mountain of the house of the LORD Will be established as the chief of the mountains, And will be raised above the hills; And all the nations will stream to it.
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And many peoples will come and say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; That He may teach us concerning His ways And that we may walk in His paths.” For the law will go forth from Zion And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
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And He will judge between the nations, And will render decisions for many peoples; And they will hammer their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not lift up sword against nation, And never again will they learn war.
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Come, house of Jacob, and let us walk in the light of the LORD.
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For You have abandoned Your people, the house of Jacob, Because they are filled with influences from the east, And they are soothsayers like the Philistines, And they strike bargains with the children of foreigners.
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Their land has also been filled with silver and gold And there is no end to their treasures; Their land has also been filled with horses And there is no end to their chariots.
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Their land has also been filled with idols; They worship the work of their hands, That which their fingers have made.
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So the common man has been humbled And the man of importance has been abased, But do not forgive them.
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Enter the rock and hide in the dust From the terror of the LORD and from the splendor of His majesty.
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The proud look of man will be abased And the loftiness of man will be humbled, And the LORD alone will be exalted in that day.
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For the LORD of hosts will have a day of reckoning Against everyone who is proud and lofty And against everyone who is lifted up, That he may be abased.
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And it will be against all the cedars of Lebanon that are lofty and lifted up, Against all the oaks of Bashan,
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Against all the lofty mountains, Against all the hills that are lifted up,
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Against every high tower, Against every fortified wall,
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Against all the ships of Tarshish And against all the beautiful craft.
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The pride of man will be humbled And the loftiness of men will be abased; And the LORD alone will be exalted in that day,
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But the idols will completely vanish.
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Men will go into caves of the rocks And into holes of the ground Before the terror of the LORD And the splendor of His majesty, When He arises to make the earth tremble.
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In that day men will cast away to the moles and the bats Their idols of silver and their idols of gold, Which they made for themselves to worship,
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In order to go into the caverns of the rocks and the clefts of the cliffs Before the terror of the LORD and the splendor of His majesty, When He arises to make the earth tremble.
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Stop regarding man, whose breath of life is in his nostrils; For why should he be esteemed?
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Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
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“What do you mean by using this proverb concerning the land of Israel, saying, ‘The fathers eat the sour grapes, But the children’s teeth are set on edge’?
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As I live,” declares the Lord GOD, “you are surely not going to use this proverb in Israel anymore.
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Behold, all souls are Mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is Mine. The soul who sins will die.
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“But if a man is righteous and practices justice and righteousness,
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and does not eat at the mountain shrines or lift up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, or defile his neighbor’s wife or approach a woman during her menstrual period—
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if a man does not oppress anyone, but restores to the debtor his pledge, does not commit robbery, but gives his bread to the hungry and covers the naked with clothing,
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if he does not lend money on interest or take increase, if he keeps his hand from iniquity and executes true justice between man and man,
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if he walks in My statutes and My ordinances so as to deal faithfully—he is righteous and will surely live,” declares the Lord GOD.
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“Then he may have a violent son who sheds blood and who does any of these things to a brother
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(though he himself did not do any of these things), that is, he even eats at the mountain shrines, and defiles his neighbor’s wife,
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oppresses the poor and needy, commits robbery, does not restore a pledge, but lifts up his eyes to the idols and commits abomination,
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he lends money on interest and takes increase; will he live? He will not live! He has committed all these abominations, he will surely be put to death; his blood will be on his own head.
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“Now behold, he has a son who has observed all his father’s sins which he committed, and observing does not do likewise.
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He does not eat at the mountain shrines or lift up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, or defile his neighbor’s wife,
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or oppress anyone, or retain a pledge, or commit robbery, but he gives his bread to the hungry and covers the naked with clothing,
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he keeps his hand from the poor, does not take interest or increase, but executes My ordinances, and walks in My statutes; he will not die for his father’s iniquity, he will surely live.
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As for his father, because he practiced extortion, robbed his brother and did what was not good among his people, behold, he will die for his iniquity.
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“Yet you say, ‘Why should the son not bear the punishment for the father’s iniquity?’ When the son has practiced justice and righteousness and has observed all My statutes and done them, he shall surely live.
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The person who sins will die. The son will not bear the punishment for the father’s iniquity, nor will the father bear the punishment for the son’s iniquity; the righteousness of the righteous will be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked will be upon himself.
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“But if the wicked man turns from all his sins which he has committed and observes all My statutes and practices justice and righteousness, he shall surely live; he shall not die.
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All his transgressions which he has committed will not be remembered against him; because of his righteousness which he has practiced, he will live.
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Do I have any pleasure in the death of the wicked,” declares the Lord GOD, “rather than that he should turn from his ways and live?
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“But when a righteous man turns away from his righteousness, commits iniquity and does according to all the abominations that a wicked man does, will he live? All his righteous deeds which he has done will not be remembered for his treachery which he has committed and his sin which he has committed; for them he will die.
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Yet you say, ‘The way of the Lord is not right.’ Hear now, O house of Israel! Is My way not right? Is it not your ways that are not right?
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When a righteous man turns away from his righteousness, commits iniquity and dies because of it, for his iniquity which he has committed he will die.
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Again, when a wicked man turns away from his wickedness which he has committed and practices justice and righteousness, he will save his life.
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Because he considered and turned away from all his transgressions which he had committed, he shall surely live; he shall not die.
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But the house of Israel says, ‘The way of the Lord is not right.’ Are My ways not right, O house of Israel? Is it not your ways that are not right?
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“Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, each according to his conduct,” declares the Lord GOD. “Repent and turn away from all your transgressions, so that iniquity may not become a stumbling block to you.
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Cast away from you all your transgressions which you have committed and make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit! For why will you die, O house of Israel?
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For I have no pleasure in the death of anyone who dies,” declares the Lord GOD. “Therefore, repent and live.”
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But there will be no more gloom for her who was in anguish; in earlier times He treated the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali with contempt, but later on He shall make it glorious, by the way of the sea, on the other side of Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles.
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The people who walk in darkness Will see a great light; Those who live in a dark land, The light will shine on them.
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You shall multiply the nation, You shall increase their gladness; They will be glad in Your presence As with the gladness of harvest, As men rejoice when they divide the spoil.
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For You shall break the yoke of their burden and the staff on their shoulders, The rod of their oppressor, as at the battle of Midian.
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For every boot of the booted warrior in the battle tumult, And cloak rolled in blood, will be for burning, fuel for the fire.
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For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.
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There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over his kingdom, To establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness From then on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this.
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The Lord sends a message against Jacob, And it falls on Israel.
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And all the people know it, That is, Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria, Asserting in pride and in arrogance of heart:
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“The bricks have fallen down, But we will rebuild with smooth stones; The sycamores have been cut down, But we will replace them with cedars.”
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Therefore the LORD raises against them adversaries from Rezin And spurs their enemies on,
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The Arameans on the east and the Philistines on the west; And they devour Israel with gaping jaws. In spite of all this, His anger does not turn away And His hand is still stretched out.
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Yet the people do not turn back to Him who struck them, Nor do they seek the LORD of hosts.
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So the LORD cuts off head and tail from Israel, Both palm branch and bulrush in a single day.
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The head is the elder and honorable man, And the prophet who teaches falsehood is the tail.
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For those who guide this people are leading them astray; And those who are guided by them are brought to confusion.
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Therefore the Lord does not take pleasure in their young men, Nor does He have pity on their orphans or their widows; For every one of them is godless and an evildoer, And every mouth is speaking foolishness. In spite of all this, His anger does not turn away And His hand is still stretched out.
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For wickedness burns like a fire; It consumes briars and thorns; It even sets the thickets of the forest aflame And they roll upward in a column of smoke.
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By the fury of the LORD of hosts the land is burned up, And the people are like fuel for the fire; No man spares his brother.
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They slice off what is on the right hand but still are hungry, And they eat what is on the left hand but they are not satisfied; Each of them eats the flesh of his own arm.
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Manasseh devours Ephraim, and Ephraim Manasseh, And together they are against Judah. In spite of all this, His anger does not turn away And His hand is still stretched out.
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And a branch from his roots will bear fruit.
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Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse,
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The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.
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And He will delight in the fear of the LORD, And He will not judge by what His eyes see, Nor make a decision by what His ears hear;
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But with righteousness He will judge the poor, And decide with fairness for the afflicted of the earth; And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.
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Also righteousness will be the belt about His loins, And faithfulness the belt about His waist.
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And the wolf will dwell with the lamb, And the leopard will lie down with the young goat, And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little boy will lead them.
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Also the cow and the bear will graze, Their young will lie down together, And the lion will eat straw like the ox.
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The nursing child will play by the hole of the cobra, And the weaned child will put his hand on the viper’s den.
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They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea.
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Then in that day The nations will resort to the root of Jesse, Who will stand as a signal for the peoples; And His resting place will be glorious.
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Then it will happen on that day that the Lord Will again recover the second time with His hand The remnant of His people, who will remain, From Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, And from the islands of the sea.
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And He will lift up a standard for the nations And assemble the banished ones of Israel, And will gather the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.
13
Then the jealousy of Ephraim will depart, And those who harass Judah will be cut off; Ephraim will not be jealous of Judah, And Judah will not harass Ephraim.
14
They will swoop down on the slopes of the Philistines on the west; Together they will plunder the sons of the east; They will possess Edom and Moab, And the sons of Ammon will be subject to them.
15
And the LORD will utterly destroy The tongue of the Sea of Egypt; And He will wave His hand over the River With His scorching wind; And He will strike it into seven streams And make men walk over dry-shod.
16
And there will be a highway from Assyria For the remnant of His people who will be left, Just as there was for Israel In the day that they came up out of the land of Egypt.
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1
While you were not destroyed; And he who is treacherous, while others did not deal treacherously with him. As soon as you finish destroying, you will be destroyed; As soon as you cease to deal treacherously, others will deal treacherously with you.
2
Woe to you, O destroyer,
2
O LORD, be gracious to us; we have waited for You. Be their strength every morning, Our salvation also in the time of distress.
3
At the sound of the tumult peoples flee; At the lifting up of Yourself nations disperse.
4
Your spoil is gathered as the caterpillar gathers; As locusts rushing about men rush about on it.
5
The LORD is exalted, for He dwells on high; He has filled Zion with justice and righteousness.
6
And He will be the stability of your times, A wealth of salvation, wisdom and knowledge; The fear of the LORD is his treasure.
7
Behold, their brave men cry in the streets, The ambassadors of peace weep bitterly.
8
The highways are desolate, the traveler has ceased, He has broken the covenant, he has despised the cities, He has no regard for man.
9
The land mourns and pines away, Lebanon is shamed and withers; Sharon is like a desert plain, And Bashan and Carmel lose their foliage.
10
“Now I will arise,” says the LORD, “Now I will be exalted, now I will be lifted up.
11
“You have conceived chaff, you will give birth to stubble; My breath will consume you like a fire.
12
“The peoples will be burned to lime, Like cut thorns which are burned in the fire.
13
“You who are far away, hear what I have done; And you who are near, acknowledge My might.”
14
Sinners in Zion are terrified; Trembling has seized the godless. “Who among us can live with the consuming fire? Who among us can live with continual burning?”
15
He who walks righteously and speaks with sincerity, He who rejects unjust gain And shakes his hands so that they hold no bribe; He who stops his ears from hearing about bloodshed And shuts his eyes from looking upon evil;
16
He will dwell on the heights, His refuge will be the impregnable rock; His bread will be given him, His water will be sure.
17
Your eyes will see the King in His beauty; They will behold a far-distant land.
18
Your heart will meditate on terror: “Where is he who counts? Where is he who weighs? Where is he who counts the towers?”
19
You will no longer see a fierce people, A people of unintelligible speech which no one comprehends, Of a stammering tongue which no one understands.
20
Look upon Zion, the city of our appointed feasts; Your eyes will see Jerusalem, an undisturbed habitation, A tent which will not be folded; Its stakes will never be pulled up, Nor any of its cords be torn apart.
21
But there the majestic One, the LORD, will be for us A place of rivers and wide canals On which no boat with oars will go, And on which no mighty ship will pass—
22
For the LORD is our judge, The LORD is our lawgiver, The LORD is our king; He will save us—
23
Your tackle hangs slack; It cannot hold the base of its mast firmly, Nor spread out the sail. Then the prey of an abundant spoil will be divided; The lame will take the plunder.
24
And no resident will say, “I am sick”; The people who dwell there will be forgiven their iniquity.
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