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Новое небо над новой землей (размышления над Библией)

В.В. Сорокин

Голос безмолвия

Известно, что св. Писание придаёт совершенно особенное значение среди пророков Израиля Моисею и Илии. Значение это особенно резко оттеняется в день Преображения Господня, когда, по слову Евангелия, рядом с Иисусом являются именно эти два пророка (Мф 17:3; ср. Мк 9:4; Лк 9:30). Такое свидетельство, разумеется, не может быть случайным; оно говорит о совершенно особенной их роли в истории Израиля. О встрече Моисея с Богом на Хоребе уже немало было сказано выше. Но эта встреча в жизни Моисея была не единственной; Книга Исхода упоминает ещё одну (Исх 33:17 — 34:10). Замечательно то, что здесь, как и в первый раз, является слава Божия (Исх 33:22) и звучит таинственное имя Божие (Исх 34:5). Но Лик Божий остаётся сокрытым; Моисею открывается лишь прикосновение «руки Божией» (Исх 33:23). Это сокрытие Лика означает, очевидно, не то, что Господь скрывается от Моисея; ведь и двух пережитых встреч хватило на всю оставшуюся жизнь, так, что лицо пророка до конца его дней сияло духовным светом (Исх 34:29-30) (наверное, таким же, как тот, который осиял св. Серафима Саровского во время его беседы с Мотовиловым). Не исключено, что речь здесь идёт о некотором особенном Присутствии, которое открывает себя в том числе и действием посредством природных стихий, быть может, так, как описано это в псалме Давида, где Господь «несётся на крыльях ветра» (2 Цар 22:11) (или «на крыльях духа»; соответствующее евр. канфей руах может означать и это; теофания, дыхание Божие совершенно сливается здесь с действием природной стихии). Такая внешняя теофания непременно должна была быть дополнена теофанией внутренней. И это произошло пять столетий спустя после Исхода: невдалеке от того места, где Господь открылся Моисею, с Ним встретился в это время другой великий пророк Израиля — Илия (3 Цар 19:9-14). Но это было другое время и другая встреча, и гонимому пророку Бог явился не в буре, не в огне и не в землетрясении, как было это пятьсот лет назад; Он явился теперь в «голосе тонкого безмолвия» (3 Цар 19:12; евр. коль дмама дака; в синодальном тексте — «веяние тихого ветра», выражение, появившееся из-за предпочтения синодальными переводчиками текста Септуагинты, с которого и сделан перевод). Это не просто тишина, как отсутствие всякого звука (она обозначается на иврите иным словом); это именно безмолвие, то апофатическое безмолвие, в котором только и может духовно чуткая и мистически одарённая душа услышать голос Божий (невольно вспоминается св. Тереза Авильская, писавшая, что Господь иногда зовёт душу каким-то совершенно невыразимым, пронзительным «свистом»). Звук этого «голоса» и есть подлинное, до конца явленное откровение Имени; теофания становится теперь не только внешней, но также и внутренней, и тогда происходит новое чудо: совершенно невыразимый прежде Голос начинает воплощаться, облекаясь в плоть человеческих слов (не случайно первые записи пророческих откровений начинаются вскоре после Илии).

И здесь мы сталкиваемся с тайной слова — не слова Божия, а слова человеческого. Слово представляет собою основу любого человеческого языка. Все иные языковые элементы и структуры так или иначе с ним связаны и в нём находят своё завершение — даже и те, которые, подобно предложению, превосходят его и включают в себя как составной элемент. Но определить слово исходя из формальных, чисто языковых критериев практически невозможно. Есть языки, где в качестве слова воспринимается целое предложение, а есть и такие, носители которых видят отдельное слово в каждой словоформе. Всё это напоминает нам о том, что слово, даже просто человеческое слово, — подлинно дар Божий. Человек далеко не сразу научился воспринимать слово так, как воспринимаем его мы; для этого нужно было преодолеть магическую тотальность предисторического мышления, перейти от предистории к истории. Слово открывается человеку только тогда, когда он становится вполне человеком; прежде того существует лишь континуум языковых элементов, и человек живёт внутри него так же, как живёт он до времени внутри того мира, который называется «мифологическим сознанием». Слово делает человека хозяином этого мира, которого прежде он был лишь одним из элементов. Произошло это, вероятнее всего, среди тех племён, которые были предками народов семитских, хамитских и арийских; но духовное значение события вышло далеко за рамки одного этноса, затронув, по существу, весь мир: возврата назад, к предисторическому типу языкового сознания, уже не было.

А теперь, во времена Илии, тайна слова раскрывается до конца, и раскрытием этим стало единение слова человеческого со словом Божиим. Вся история пророческого движения есть, в сущности, не что иное, как вслушивание в тот «голос безмолвия», который впервые услышал Илия. А услышать этот таинственный голос значит — дать зазвучать в себе Имени, открывшемуся на Синае, так, что оно становится подлинно хлебом жизни. И тогда Имя начинает звучать и открываться народу Божию в простых человеческих словах, являя свою бесконечную, неисчерпаемую глубину и сохраняя одновременно изначальную простоту, подобно тому, как предвечное Слово, оставаясь простым, несёт в себе бесконечное разнообразие Премудрости Божией. Присутствием Имени в сердце человека совершается подлинное освящение всякого слова, исходящего из сердца во имя Божие, и молитва становится поистине внутренним жертвоприношением, которое теперь может быть дополнено освящением тела через жертвоприношение внешнее. Но присутствие это есть также и воплощение Имени, а Имя это есть не что иное, как откровение Слова, Которое, по свидетельству Евангелиста, «было в начале» (Ин 1:1). Имя открывается пророкам Израиля как слово Божие, непосредственно к человеку обращённое и в человеке воплощающееся, так, что их уже невозможно разделить; но воплощением этим слово не уничтожается и не растворяется, оно остаётся самим собою, очищая и освящая своим присутствием человека, который также до конца остаётся самим собою. О таком очищении и освящении напоминает нам откровение Исайи (Ис 6:6-7). Известен в Библии и образ символизирующего слово Божие свитка, который служитель Божий должен съесть, чтобы получить дар пророчества (Иез 2:8 — 3:4; ср. Откр 10:8-11), дар воплощения того слова, которое, как говорит Апостол, «проникает до разделения души и духа» (Евр 4:12). Это всепроникающее слово знали пророки Израиля и старались вместить его, — вместить невместимое. И настал наконец в жизни Общины Израиля день, когда невместимое Слово вместило Себя в человеческую плоть (Ин 1:14). Но и тогда слово человеческое, освящённое присутствием предвечного Слова, не потеряло своего значения, и слово Того, Кто Сам есть воплотившееся Слово, может очистить (Ин 15:3) и стать предварением совершенного единения (Ин 15:4). И тогда священным Писанием, по слову Апостола, становится сам человек (2 Кор 3:3) — истина, известная уже пророкам Израиля (Иер 31:33-34), но вполне реализованная лишь во Христе. Потому-то Литургия Слова предшествует Литургии Тела и Крови: прежде приобщения к благодатной полноте нужно непременно услышать Слово, обращённое к общине в целом и к каждому её члену конкретно. Потому-то так важна именно Литургия, общее молитвенное делание, ведь общецерковная молитва и есть тот невидимый храм, который освящается прежде всего, — а от него уже и священные сосуды, и иконы, и самые камни храма. Потому-то возможна Литургия без храма, без икон, с минимальным числом священных сосудов (как это было у первых христиан и не раз впоследствии во время гонений), но нет Литургии без соборной молитвы, так что даже один, в отсутствии народа, епископ или священник не может литургисать. А когда Слово воплощается, вместе с Ним начинает приоткрываться и Лик.

Отрывки к тексту:
Exo 33-34
Ki1 19
Eze 2-3
1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, “Depart, go up from here, you and the people whom you have brought up from the land of Egypt, to the land of which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, ‘To your descendants I will give it.’
2
I will send an angel before you and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.
3
Go up to a land flowing with milk and honey; for I will not go up in your midst, because you are an obstinate people, and I might destroy you on the way.”
4
When the people heard this sad word, they went into mourning, and none of them put on his ornaments.
5
For the LORD had said to Moses, “Say to the sons of Israel, ‘You are an obstinate people; should I go up in your midst for one moment, I would destroy you. Now therefore, put off your ornaments from you, that I may know what I shall do with you.’”
6
So the sons of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments, from Mount Horeb onward.
7
Now Moses used to take the tent and pitch it outside the camp, a good distance from the camp, and he called it the tent of meeting. And everyone who sought the LORD would go out to the tent of meeting which was outside the camp.
8
And it came about, whenever Moses went out to the tent, that all the people would arise and stand, each at the entrance of his tent, and gaze after Moses until he entered the tent.
9
Whenever Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the entrance of the tent; and the LORD would speak with Moses.
10
When all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people would arise and worship, each at the entrance of his tent.
11
Thus the LORD used to speak to Moses face to face, just as a man speaks to his friend. When Moses returned to the camp, his servant Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, would not depart from the tent.
12
Then Moses said to the LORD, “See, You say to me, ‘Bring up this people!’ But You Yourself have not let me know whom You will send with me. Moreover, You have said, ‘I have known you by name, and you have also found favor in My sight.’
13
Now therefore, I pray You, if I have found favor in Your sight, let me know Your ways that I may know You, so that I may find favor in Your sight. Consider too, that this nation is Your people.”
14
And He said, “My presence shall go with you, and I will give you rest.”
15
Then he said to Him, “If Your presence does not go with us, do not lead us up from here.
16
For how then can it be known that I have found favor in Your sight, I and Your people? Is it not by Your going with us, so that we, I and Your people, may be distinguished from all the other people who are upon the face of the earth?”
17
The LORD said to Moses, “I will also do this thing of which you have spoken; for you have found favor in My sight and I have known you by name.”
18
Then Moses said, “I pray You, show me Your glory!”
19
And He said, “I Myself will make all My goodness pass before you, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before you; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show compassion on whom I will show compassion.”
20
But He said, “You cannot see My face, for no man can see Me and live!”
21
Then the LORD said, “Behold, there is a place by Me, and you shall stand there on the rock;
22
and it will come about, while My glory is passing by, that I will put you in the cleft of the rock and cover you with My hand until I have passed by.
23
Then I will take My hand away and you shall see My back, but My face shall not be seen.”
1
Now the LORD said to Moses, “Cut out for yourself two stone tablets like the former ones, and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the former tablets which you shattered.
2
So be ready by morning, and come up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and present yourself there to Me on the top of the mountain.
3
No man is to come up with you, nor let any man be seen anywhere on the mountain; even the flocks and the herds may not graze in front of that mountain.”
4
So he cut out two stone tablets like the former ones, and Moses rose up early in the morning and went up to Mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, and he took two stone tablets in his hand.
5
The LORD descended in the cloud and stood there with him as he called upon the name of the LORD.
6
Then the LORD passed by in front of him and proclaimed, “The LORD, the LORD God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in lovingkindness and truth;
7
who keeps lovingkindness for thousands, who forgives iniquity, transgression and sin; yet He will by no means leave the guilty unpunished, visiting the iniquity of fathers on the children and on the grandchildren to the third and fourth generations.”
8
Moses made haste to bow low toward the earth and worship.
9
He said, “If now I have found favor in Your sight, O Lord, I pray, let the Lord go along in our midst, even though the people are so obstinate, and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us as Your own possession.”
10
Then God said, “Behold, I am going to make a covenant. Before all your people I will perform miracles which have not been produced in all the earth nor among any of the nations; and all the people among whom you live will see the working of the LORD, for it is a fearful thing that I am going to perform with you.
11
“Be sure to observe what I am commanding you this day: behold, I am going to drive out the Amorite before you, and the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.
12
Watch yourself that you make no covenant with the inhabitants of the land into which you are going, or it will become a snare in your midst.
13
But rather, you are to tear down their altars and smash their sacred pillars and cut down their Asherim
14
—for you shall not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God—
15
otherwise you might make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land and they would play the harlot with their gods and sacrifice to their gods, and someone might invite you to eat of his sacrifice,
16
and you might take some of his daughters for your sons, and his daughters might play the harlot with their gods and cause your sons also to play the harlot with their gods.
17
You shall make for yourself no molten gods.
18
“You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread. For seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in the month of Abib you came out of Egypt.
19
“The first offspring from every womb belongs to Me, and all your male livestock, the first offspring from cattle and sheep.
20
You shall redeem with a lamb the first offspring from a donkey; and if you do not redeem it, then you shall break its neck. You shall redeem all the firstborn of your sons. None shall appear before Me empty-handed.
21
“You shall work six days, but on the seventh day you shall rest; even during plowing time and harvest you shall rest.
22
You shall celebrate the Feast of Weeks, that is, the first fruits of the wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year.
23
Three times a year all your males are to appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel.
24
For I will drive out nations before you and enlarge your borders, and no man shall covet your land when you go up three times a year to appear before the LORD your God.
25
“You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread, nor is the sacrifice of the Feast of the Passover to be left over until morning.
26
“You shall bring the very first of the first fruits of your soil into the house of the LORD your God. “You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.”
27
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”
28
So he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did not eat bread or drink water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.
29
It came about when Moses was coming down from Mount Sinai (and the two tablets of the testimony were in Moses’ hand as he was coming down from the mountain), that Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because of his speaking with Him.
30
So when Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone, and they were afraid to come near him.
31
Then Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the rulers in the congregation returned to him; and Moses spoke to them.
32
Afterward all the sons of Israel came near, and he commanded them to do everything that the LORD had spoken to him on Mount Sinai.
33
When Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face.
34
But whenever Moses went in before the LORD to speak with Him, he would take off the veil until he came out; and whenever he came out and spoke to the sons of Israel what he had been commanded,
35
the sons of Israel would see the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’ face shone. So Moses would replace the veil over his face until he went in to speak with Him.
Скрыть
1
Now Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, and how he had killed all the prophets with the sword.
2
Then Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah, saying, “So may the gods do to me and even more, if I do not make your life as the life of one of them by tomorrow about this time.”
3
And he was afraid and arose and ran for his life and came to Beersheba, which belongs to Judah, and left his servant there.
4
But he himself went a day’s journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a juniper tree; and he requested for himself that he might die, and said, “It is enough; now, O LORD, take my life, for I am not better than my fathers.”
5
He lay down and slept under a juniper tree; and behold, there was an angel touching him, and he said to him, “Arise, eat.”
6
Then he looked and behold, there was at his head a bread cake baked on hot stones, and a jar of water. So he ate and drank and lay down again.
7
The angel of the LORD came again a second time and touched him and said, “Arise, eat, because the journey is too great for you.”
8
So he arose and ate and drank, and went in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights to Horeb, the mountain of God.
9
Then he came there to a cave and lodged there; and behold, the word of the LORD came to him, and He said to him, “What are you doing here, Elijah?”
10
He said, “I have been very zealous for the LORD, the God of hosts; for the sons of Israel have forsaken Your covenant, torn down Your altars and killed Your prophets with the sword. And I alone am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.”
11
So He said, “Go forth and stand on the mountain before the LORD.” And behold, the LORD was passing by! And a great and strong wind was rending the mountains and breaking in pieces the rocks before the LORD; but the LORD was not in the wind. And after the wind an earthquake, but the LORD was not in the earthquake.
12
After the earthquake a fire, but the LORD was not in the fire; and after the fire a sound of a gentle blowing.
13
When Elijah heard it, he wrapped his face in his mantle and went out and stood in the entrance of the cave. And behold, a voice came to him and said, “What are you doing here, Elijah?”
14
Then he said, “I have been very zealous for the LORD, the God of hosts; for the sons of Israel have forsaken Your covenant, torn down Your altars and killed Your prophets with the sword. And I alone am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.”
15
The LORD said to him, “Go, return on your way to the wilderness of Damascus, and when you have arrived, you shall anoint Hazael king over Aram;
16
and Jehu the son of Nimshi you shall anoint king over Israel; and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah you shall anoint as prophet in your place.
17
It shall come about, the one who escapes from the sword of Hazael, Jehu shall put to death, and the one who escapes from the sword of Jehu, Elisha shall put to death.
18
Yet I will leave 7,000 in Israel, all the knees that have not bowed to Baal and every mouth that has not kissed him.”
19
So he departed from there and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, while he was plowing with twelve pairs of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth. And Elijah passed over to him and threw his mantle on him.
20
He left the oxen and ran after Elijah and said, “Please let me kiss my father and my mother, then I will follow you.” And he said to him, “Go back again, for what have I done to you?”
21
So he returned from following him, and took the pair of oxen and sacrificed them and boiled their flesh with the implements of the oxen, and gave it to the people and they ate. Then he arose and followed Elijah and ministered to him.
Скрыть
1
Then He said to me, “Son of man, stand on your feet that I may speak with you!”
2
As He spoke to me the Spirit entered me and set me on my feet; and I heard Him speaking to me.
3
Then He said to me, “Son of man, I am sending you to the sons of Israel, to a rebellious people who have rebelled against Me; they and their fathers have transgressed against Me to this very day.
4
I am sending you to them who are stubborn and obstinate children, and you shall say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD.’
5
As for them, whether they listen or not—for they are a rebellious house—they will know that a prophet has been among them.
6
And you, son of man, neither fear them nor fear their words, though thistles and thorns are with you and you sit on scorpions; neither fear their words nor be dismayed at their presence, for they are a rebellious house.
7
But you shall speak My words to them whether they listen or not, for they are rebellious.
8
“Now you, son of man, listen to what I am speaking to you; do not be rebellious like that rebellious house. Open your mouth and eat what I am giving you.”
9
Then I looked, and behold, a hand was extended to me; and lo, a scroll was in it.
10
When He spread it out before me, it was written on the front and back, and written on it were lamentations, mourning and woe.
1
Then He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you find; eat this scroll, and go, speak to the house of Israel.”
2
So I opened my mouth, and He fed me this scroll.
3
He said to me, “Son of man, feed your stomach and fill your body with this scroll which I am giving you.” Then I ate it, and it was sweet as honey in my mouth.
4
Then He said to me, “Son of man, go to the house of Israel and speak with My words to them.
5
For you are not being sent to a people of unintelligible speech or difficult language, but to the house of Israel,
6
nor to many peoples of unintelligible speech or difficult language, whose words you cannot understand. But I have sent you to them who should listen to you;
7
yet the house of Israel will not be willing to listen to you, since they are not willing to listen to Me. Surely the whole house of Israel is stubborn and obstinate.
8
Behold, I have made your face as hard as their faces and your forehead as hard as their foreheads.
9
Like emery harder than flint I have made your forehead. Do not be afraid of them or be dismayed before them, though they are a rebellious house.”
10
Moreover, He said to me, “Son of man, take into your heart all My words which I will speak to you and listen closely.
11
Go to the exiles, to the sons of your people, and speak to them and tell them, whether they listen or not, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD.’”
12
Then the Spirit lifted me up, and I heard a great rumbling sound behind me, “Blessed be the glory of the LORD in His place.”
13
And I heard the sound of the wings of the living beings touching one another and the sound of the wheels beside them, even a great rumbling sound.
14
So the Spirit lifted me up and took me away; and I went embittered in the rage of my spirit, and the hand of the LORD was strong on me.
15
Then I came to the exiles who lived beside the river Chebar at Tel-abib, and I sat there seven days where they were living, causing consternation among them.
16
At the end of seven days the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
17
“Son of man, I have appointed you a watchman to the house of Israel; whenever you hear a word from My mouth, warn them from Me.
18
When I say to the wicked, ‘You will surely die,’ and you do not warn him or speak out to warn the wicked from his wicked way that he may live, that wicked man shall die in his iniquity, but his blood I will require at your hand.
19
Yet if you have warned the wicked and he does not turn from his wickedness or from his wicked way, he shall die in his iniquity; but you have delivered yourself.
20
Again, when a righteous man turns away from his righteousness and commits iniquity, and I place an obstacle before him, he will die; since you have not warned him, he shall die in his sin, and his righteous deeds which he has done shall not be remembered; but his blood I will require at your hand.
21
However, if you have warned the righteous man that the righteous should not sin and he does not sin, he shall surely live because he took warning; and you have delivered yourself.”
22
The hand of the LORD was on me there, and He said to me, “Get up, go out to the plain, and there I will speak to you.”
23
So I got up and went out to the plain; and behold, the glory of the LORD was standing there, like the glory which I saw by the river Chebar, and I fell on my face.
24
The Spirit then entered me and made me stand on my feet, and He spoke with me and said to me, “Go, shut yourself up in your house.
25
As for you, son of man, they will put ropes on you and bind you with them so that you cannot go out among them.
26
Moreover, I will make your tongue stick to the roof of your mouth so that you will be mute and cannot be a man who rebukes them, for they are a rebellious house.
27
But when I speak to you, I will open your mouth and you will say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD.’ He who hears, let him hear; and he who refuses, let him refuse; for they are a rebellious house.
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