Библия-Центр
РУ
Оглавление
Поделиться

Новое небо над новой землей (размышления над Библией)

В.В. Сорокин

Помазанник Яхве

Краткая эпоха расцвета древнего Израиля сменилась смутным временем, когда даже в Иудейском царстве нередки были гонения на яхвистов, и следующий всплеск мессианизма приходится уже на времена Исайи Иерусалимского. Два его мессианских гимна (Ис 9:1-7 и Ис 11:1-10) по стилю вполне соотносимы с псалмами, а краткие мессианские пророчества (Ис 4:2-6 и Ис 7:13-17) дополняют и в известном смысле разъясняют их. Мессия называется в пророчествах Исайи «отраслью» (Ис 4:2; ср. Ис 11:1) и «Сыном» (Ис 7:14; ср. Ис 9:6). Очевидно, что появление в гимне Исайи образа Мессии как великого правителя (Ис 9:7) прямо связано с обетованием, данным Давиду (2 Цар 7:11-12), хотя непосредственным образом оно касается прямого наследника Давида, которому суждено построить Храм Яхве (2 Цар 7:13); однако обещание незыблемости правящего дома Давида (2 Цар 7:16) наводило «бедняков Господних» на мысль о том, что времена Давида, которые казались им «золотым веком» Израиля, ещё вернутся, и образ Мессии как идеального правителя (каким «бедняки Господни» и считали Давида) появлялся в этом контексте вполне естественно, а Мессия видится прямо идеальным судьёй и праведным правителем, помазанником Божиим в традиционном смысле этого понятия (Ис 11:1-5). И всё же видно, что правление Мессии будет не обычным правлением земного владыки, но чем-то бо?льшим. В Его правление изменяются сами законы природы, так, что вражда утихает не только между людьми (Ис 9:5), но и между животными, где она неизбежна и неизбывна до конца времён (Ис 11:6-8). Замечательно также упоминание об «облаке и дыме» днём и «блистании пылающего огня» ночью, которые, по свидетельству Исайи, явятся над Сионом в мессианскую эпоху (Ис 4:5). С «огнём» (точнее, с сиянием) и легким туманным облаком яхвистская традиция с древнейших времён связывала теофанию, рассматривая их как знак особого присутствия Божия (Исх 3:2-3; Исх 13:21-22, 19-20; 40:34-38; Числ 9:15-18). Теофания эта получила впоследствии название кавод яхве, «слава Яхве» (см. Исх 40:34-35; ср. 3 Цар 8:10-11; в синодальном тексте — «слава Господня»). Очевидно, для Исайи мессианская эра связана с какой-то совершенно особенной, невиданной прежде полнотой присутствия Божия.

Однако это как раз и свидетельствует о том, что правление Мессии уже не вполне принадлежит земному порядку вещей. Ещё заметнее это становится, когда речь заходит о Самом Помазаннике. На первый взгляд, Он действительно всего лишь идеальный Божий правитель в традиционном смысле слова (Ис 11:1-5), однако уже эпитеты, данные Ему в другом мессианском гимне (Ис 9:6), говорят об ином. Из всех здесь приводимых эпитетов особенно замечательны «Отец вечности» (евр. ави-ад) и «Князь мира» (евр. сар-шалом). Если вспомнить, что евр. шалом значит не просто отсутствие вражды, но прежде всего тот благодатный мир, о котором Спаситель говорит, что он не от мира сего (Ин 14:27; греч. εἰρήνη), то станет понятно, что источником этого мира может быть лишь Сам Господь, и тот факт, что Мессия назван здесь «Князем мира», т.е., в сущности, распорядителем и раздаятелем благодати Божией, сам по себе говорит уже, что речь идёт не об обычном человеке. Ещё яснее свидетельствует об этом эпитет «Отец вечности». Здесь возникает смысловая перекличка с мессианским гимном пророка Михея (Мих 5:2-4), где о Мессии говорится, что Его происхождение «из начала, от дней вечных» (Мих 5:2; евр. микедем мийомей олам).

Выражение это вернее было бы перевести «из начала, от дней вечности», памятуя при этом, что евр. олам имеет в виду не только полноту времён, но и всеохватность сотворенного Богом космоса. Рождающийся так Мессия, очевидно, Сам должен заключить в Себе всю полноту творения с тем, чтобы открыть её миру. И Он действительно открывает её (Мих 5:4; ср. Ис 9:2-4, Ис 9:7; 11:9). Править в «величии имени Господа», собственно, означает явить полноту Присутствия Божия; а о том, каким будет это явление, говорит нам Исайя: оно открывает народу Божию такую меру благодатного мира (Ис 9:7), что свет, радость и веселье уже не оставляют его (Ис 9:2-4). Но изменения, как видно, затронут не только внешний порядок вещей: люди изменятся внутренне, став неспособными на зло, ибо им откроется такая полнота богопознания (евр. деах-эт-яхве, в cинодальном тексте — «ведение Господа»), какая прежде никому не открывалась (Ис 11:9). Разумеется, еврейское выражение означает не книжное знание о Боге, а знание опытное, обретаемое при личной встрече с Ним, которая станет возможной каждому благодаря явленной Мессией миру полноте благодати, так, что приобщившиеся к ней будут очищены и преображены Духом Святым (Ис 4:3-4; ср. Мф 3:11; Мк 1:7-8; Лк 3:16), и им станет видимо незримое прежде присутствие Божие (Ис 4:5). У Исайи Иерусалимского и у Михея указано место рождения Мессии (Ис 9:1; ср. Мих 5:2), а у Исайи — также и необычный способ Его рождения — от Девы (Ис 7:14; ставший традиционным у иудеев перевод евр. альма как «молодая женщина» неточен, т.к. слово это означает прежде всего «дева», «девственница»).

Дальнейшее развитие мессианских представлений связано прежде всего с мессианскими пророчествами Иеремии (Иер 33:14-22) и Иезекииля (Иез 34:23-24). Пророчества эти напоминают пророчества Исайи Иерусалимского, и Мессия у Иеремии, как и у Исайи, назван «отраслью» (Иер 33:15). Примечательно, однако, что обетование, данное Давиду, относится у него не только к правителям, но и к священникам (Иер 33:18, Иер 33:21-22). Особенно показателен в этом отношении псалом 110, представляющий собой мессианский гимн, написанный, вероятно, во времена Иеремии и, может быть, в кругу его последователей. В этом псалме Мессия видится и как правитель (Пс 110:1-2), и как первосвященник (Пс 110:3-4). Появление образа Мессии-первосвященника вполне естественно, если вспомнить, что у Исайи Иерусалимского Мессия являет Себя миру прежде всего как Тот, через Кого открывается полнота благодати Божией. У верующих евреев того времени освящающее мир Присутствие Божие ассоциировалось, естественно, с Иерусалимским Храмом и с левитским священством. Роль первосвященника была особенно велика, он как бы прикасался к самому источнику святости, и Мессия, Который виделся пророкам и псалмопевцам величайшей Святыней Израиля, естественно открылся им как первосвященник.

Впрочем, уже во времена Иеремии некоторые, как это видно из текста псалма, понимали, что святость Мессии не будет связана непосредственно с левитским священством (Пс 110:4). Такое понимание было тем более естественно, что сам Иеремия, упоминая о Новом Завете с Богом, имел в виду прежде всего Тору, написанную в сердце (Иер 31:33), о чём уже было сказано выше, и именно с этой внутренней Торой связывает он полноту богопознания, о которой говорил Исайя Иерусалимский (Иер 31:34; ср. Ис 4:3-5; Ис 11:9). Об истинности такого понимания первосвященничества Мессии свидетельствует в Евангелии Сам Спаситель (Мф 5:17), о чем также уже шла речь выше. Иезекииль, называющий Мессию «пастырем» (Иез 34:23), подобно Иеремии связывает с Ним заключение нового Завета с Богом, названного им «заветом мира» (Иез 34:25-31), того благодатного мира, который должен изменить лицо земли и о котором говорил уже Исайя Иерусалимский (Ис 11:6-8). Впрочем, и образ Мессии-правителя этим пророкам был не чужд, у Иезекииля Он даже образно назван «Давидом» (Иез 34:24), однако власть Его как правителя начинает всё больше связываться с Его происхождением «от дней вечных» (Мих 5:2; ср. Пс 110:3); об истинности такого понимания также свидетельствует Сам Иисус (Ин 8:56-58).

Однако подлинный взлёт мессианизма эпохи плена связан с именем Исайи Вавилонского. Этот пророк обычно называет Мессию «отроком» (Ис 42:1) или «рабом Божиим» (Ис 52:13). Мессия видится Исайе Вавилонскому прежде всего как Освободитель и Просветитель (Ис 42:6-7; Ис 50:4, 10). Но Его служение — не служение правителя или первосвященника. Он совершает Свой путь тихо и незаметно (Ис 42:2-3; Ис 53:1-3). Однако это не отменяет того факта, что Господь всегда рядом со Своим Служителем (Ис 42:6; Ис 49:2; 50:8, 9), Который избран «от утробы матери» (Ис 49:1) с тем, чтобы через Него явилась миру слава Господня (Ис 42:4; Ис 49:3). У Исайи Вавилонского Мессия — не посредник или исполнитель только нового Завета; Он — Сам этот Завет, Он несёт Его в Себе с тем, чтобы народ Божий мог через Него войти в эту новую, невиданную прежде полноту богообщения. Народ же, по-видимому, не готов принять своего Мессию, который говорит о Себе, что, по человеческим меркам, Он зря трудился; но Его награда — в Нём Самом и в Том, Кто посылает Его (Ис 49:4). Между тем, Исайя Вавилонский впервые в истории Израиля свидетельствует о вселенской миссии Мессии, о том, что Он будет не только Мессией для Израиля, но и Мессией для всех народов (Ис 49:6). Видимо, именно факт отвержения Мессии теми, к кому Он пришёл, порождает у Исайи Вавилонского образ страдающего Мессии, который, кроме него, не встречается более ни у кого из пророков (Ис 50:6). Уверенность в окончательной победе естественна как следствие помощи Божией (Ис 50:8-9), но она становится в большей мере духовной и как бы отодвигается до времени последнего суда Божия (Ис 50:11). Однако у Исайи Вавилонского находим мы и более глубокое объяснение образа страдающего Мессии: Он страдает добровольно (Ис 53:7) для искупления наших грехов (Ис 53:4-6), но даже в этих страданиях Он остаётся Мессией, так, что и сама смерть Его таинственна и неизъяснима, даже в смерти Он остаётся победителем (Ис 53:8-9). Победа эта — тайна для Исайи, пророк ничего не говорит нам о Воскресении, но о том, что Мессия победил, он говорит совершенно ясно (Ис 53:10-12). Умерший за наши грехи Победитель смерти, явивший миру полноту божественной жизни — таков облик Мессии у Исайи Вавилонского. И, хотя пророк этот ничего не говорит нам о том, как именно Мессия побеждает смерть, свидетельство его остаётся самым глубоким и полным из всех, какие донесла до нас пророческая традиция Израиля.

Отрывки к тексту:
Isa 11
Isa 4
Isa 7
Sa2 7
Exo 40
Num 9
Jer 33
Eze 34
Psa 109
Isa 49
Isa 50
Isa 42
Isa 53
1
And a branch from his roots will bear fruit.
2
Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse,
2
The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.
3
And He will delight in the fear of the LORD, And He will not judge by what His eyes see, Nor make a decision by what His ears hear;
4
But with righteousness He will judge the poor, And decide with fairness for the afflicted of the earth; And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.
5
Also righteousness will be the belt about His loins, And faithfulness the belt about His waist.
6
And the wolf will dwell with the lamb, And the leopard will lie down with the young goat, And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little boy will lead them.
7
Also the cow and the bear will graze, Their young will lie down together, And the lion will eat straw like the ox.
8
The nursing child will play by the hole of the cobra, And the weaned child will put his hand on the viper’s den.
9
They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea.
10
Then in that day The nations will resort to the root of Jesse, Who will stand as a signal for the peoples; And His resting place will be glorious.
11
Then it will happen on that day that the Lord Will again recover the second time with His hand The remnant of His people, who will remain, From Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, And from the islands of the sea.
12
And He will lift up a standard for the nations And assemble the banished ones of Israel, And will gather the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.
13
Then the jealousy of Ephraim will depart, And those who harass Judah will be cut off; Ephraim will not be jealous of Judah, And Judah will not harass Ephraim.
14
They will swoop down on the slopes of the Philistines on the west; Together they will plunder the sons of the east; They will possess Edom and Moab, And the sons of Ammon will be subject to them.
15
And the LORD will utterly destroy The tongue of the Sea of Egypt; And He will wave His hand over the River With His scorching wind; And He will strike it into seven streams And make men walk over dry-shod.
16
And there will be a highway from Assyria For the remnant of His people who will be left, Just as there was for Israel In the day that they came up out of the land of Egypt.
Скрыть
1
For seven women will take hold of one man in that day, saying, “We will eat our own bread and wear our own clothes, only let us be called by your name; take away our reproach!”
2
In that day the Branch of the LORD will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth will be the pride and the adornment of the survivors of Israel.
3
It will come about that he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem will be called holy—everyone who is recorded for life in Jerusalem.
4
When the Lord has washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion and purged the bloodshed of Jerusalem from her midst, by the spirit of judgment and the spirit of burning,
5
then the LORD will create over the whole area of Mount Zion and over her assemblies a cloud by day, even smoke, and the brightness of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory will be a canopy.
6
There will be a shelter to give shade from the heat by day, and refuge and protection from the storm and the rain.
Скрыть
1
Now it came about in the days of Ahaz, the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Aram and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up to Jerusalem to wage war against it, but could not conquer it.
2
When it was reported to the house of David, saying, “The Arameans have camped in Ephraim,” his heart and the hearts of his people shook as the trees of the forest shake with the wind.
3
Then the LORD said to Isaiah, “Go out now to meet Ahaz, you and your son Shear-jashub, at the end of the conduit of the upper pool, on the highway to the fuller’s field,
4
and say to him, ‘Take care and be calm, have no fear and do not be fainthearted because of these two stubs of smoldering firebrands, on account of the fierce anger of Rezin and Aram and the son of Remaliah.
5
Because Aram, with Ephraim and the son of Remaliah, has planned evil against you, saying,
6
“Let us go up against Judah and terrorize it, and make for ourselves a breach in its walls and set up the son of Tabeel as king in the midst of it,”
7
thus says the Lord GOD: “It shall not stand nor shall it come to pass.
8
For the head of Aram is Damascus and the head of Damascus is Rezin (now within another 65 years Ephraim will be shattered, so that it is no longer a people),
9
and the head of Ephraim is Samaria and the head of Samaria is the son of Remaliah. If you will not believe, you surely shall not last.”’”
10
Then the LORD spoke again to Ahaz, saying,
11
“Ask a sign for yourself from the LORD your God; make it deep as Sheol or high as heaven.”
12
But Ahaz said, “I will not ask, nor will I test the LORD!”
13
Then he said, “Listen now, O house of David! Is it too slight a thing for you to try the patience of men, that you will try the patience of my God as well?
14
Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel.
15
He will eat curds and honey at the time He knows enough to refuse evil and choose good.
16
For before the boy will know enough to refuse evil and choose good, the land whose two kings you dread will be forsaken.
17
The LORD will bring on you, on your people, and on your father’s house such days as have never come since the day that Ephraim separated from Judah, the king of Assyria.”
18
In that day the LORD will whistle for the fly that is in the remotest part of the rivers of Egypt and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria.
19
They will all come and settle on the steep ravines, on the ledges of the cliffs, on all the thorn bushes and on all the watering places.
20
In that day the Lord will shave with a razor, hired from regions beyond the Euphrates (that is, with the king of Assyria), the head and the hair of the legs; and it will also remove the beard.
21
Now in that day a man may keep alive a heifer and a pair of sheep;
22
and because of the abundance of the milk produced he will eat curds, for everyone that is left within the land will eat curds and honey.
23
And it will come about in that day, that every place where there used to be a thousand vines, valued at a thousand shekels of silver, will become briars and thorns.
24
People will come there with bows and arrows because all the land will be briars and thorns.
25
As for all the hills which used to be cultivated with the hoe, you will not go there for fear of briars and thorns; but they will become a place for pasturing oxen and for sheep to trample.
Скрыть
1
Now it came about when the king lived in his house, and the LORD had given him rest on every side from all his enemies,
2
that the king said to Nathan the prophet, “See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwells within tent curtains.”
3
Nathan said to the king, “Go, do all that is in your mind, for the LORD is with you.”
4
But in the same night the word of the LORD came to Nathan, saying,
5
“Go and say to My servant David, ‘Thus says the LORD, “Are you the one who should build Me a house to dwell in?
6
For I have not dwelt in a house since the day I brought up the sons of Israel from Egypt, even to this day; but I have been moving about in a tent, even in a tabernacle.
7
Wherever I have gone with all the sons of Israel, did I speak a word with one of the tribes of Israel, which I commanded to shepherd My people Israel, saying, ‘Why have you not built Me a house of cedar?’”’
8
“Now therefore, thus you shall say to My servant David, ‘Thus says the LORD of hosts, “I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be ruler over My people Israel.
9
I have been with you wherever you have gone and have cut off all your enemies from before you; and I will make you a great name, like the names of the great men who are on the earth.
10
I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly,
11
even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you.
12
When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom.
13
He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.
14
I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men,
15
but My lovingkindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you.
16
Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever.”’”
17
In accordance with all these words and all this vision, so Nathan spoke to David.
18
Then David the king went in and sat before the LORD, and he said, “Who am I, O Lord GOD, and what is my house, that You have brought me this far?
19
And yet this was insignificant in Your eyes, O Lord GOD, for You have spoken also of the house of Your servant concerning the distant future. And this is the custom of man, O Lord GOD.
20
Again what more can David say to You? For You know Your servant, O Lord GOD!
21
For the sake of Your word, and according to Your own heart, You have done all this greatness to let Your servant know.
22
For this reason You are great, O Lord GOD; for there is none like You, and there is no God besides You, according to all that we have heard with our ears.
23
And what one nation on the earth is like Your people Israel, whom God went to redeem for Himself as a people and to make a name for Himself, and to do a great thing for You and awesome things for Your land, before Your people whom You have redeemed for Yourself from Egypt, from nations and their gods?
24
For You have established for Yourself Your people Israel as Your own people forever, and You, O LORD, have become their God.
25
Now therefore, O LORD God, the word that You have spoken concerning Your servant and his house, confirm it forever, and do as You have spoken,
26
that Your name may be magnified forever, by saying, ‘The LORD of hosts is God over Israel’; and may the house of Your servant David be established before You.
27
For You, O LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, have made a revelation to Your servant, saying, ‘I will build you a house’; therefore Your servant has found courage to pray this prayer to You.
28
Now, O Lord GOD, You are God, and Your words are truth, and You have promised this good thing to Your servant.
29
Now therefore, may it please You to bless the house of Your servant, that it may continue forever before You. For You, O Lord GOD, have spoken; and with Your blessing may the house of Your servant be blessed forever.”
Скрыть
1
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
2
“On the first day of the first month you shall set up the tabernacle of the tent of meeting.
3
You shall place the ark of the testimony there, and you shall screen the ark with the veil.
4
You shall bring in the table and arrange what belongs on it; and you shall bring in the lampstand and mount its lamps.
5
Moreover, you shall set the gold altar of incense before the ark of the testimony, and set up the veil for the doorway to the tabernacle.
6
You shall set the altar of burnt offering in front of the doorway of the tabernacle of the tent of meeting.
7
You shall set the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it.
8
You shall set up the court all around and hang up the veil for the gateway of the court.
9
Then you shall take the anointing oil and anoint the tabernacle and all that is in it, and shall consecrate it and all its furnishings; and it shall be holy.
10
You shall anoint the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils, and consecrate the altar, and the altar shall be most holy.
11
You shall anoint the laver and its stand, and consecrate it.
12
Then you shall bring Aaron and his sons to the doorway of the tent of meeting and wash them with water.
13
You shall put the holy garments on Aaron and anoint him and consecrate him, that he may minister as a priest to Me.
14
You shall bring his sons and put tunics on them;
15
and you shall anoint them even as you have anointed their father, that they may minister as priests to Me; and their anointing will qualify them for a perpetual priesthood throughout their generations.”
16
Thus Moses did; according to all that the LORD had commanded him, so he did.
17
Now in the first month of the second year, on the first day of the month, the tabernacle was erected.
18
Moses erected the tabernacle and laid its sockets, and set up its boards, and inserted its bars and erected its pillars.
19
He spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the covering of the tent on top of it, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
20
Then he took the testimony and put it into the ark, and attached the poles to the ark, and put the mercy seat on top of the ark.
21
He brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up a veil for the screen, and screened off the ark of the testimony, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
22
Then he put the table in the tent of meeting on the north side of the tabernacle, outside the veil.
23
He set the arrangement of bread in order on it before the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
24
Then he placed the lampstand in the tent of meeting, opposite the table, on the south side of the tabernacle.
25
He lighted the lamps before the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
26
Then he placed the gold altar in the tent of meeting in front of the veil;
27
and he burned fragrant incense on it, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
28
Then he set up the veil for the doorway of the tabernacle.
29
He set the altar of burnt offering before the doorway of the tabernacle of the tent of meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the meal offering, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
30
He placed the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it for washing.
31
From it Moses and Aaron and his sons washed their hands and their feet.
32
When they entered the tent of meeting, and when they approached the altar, they washed, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
33
He erected the court all around the tabernacle and the altar, and hung up the veil for the gateway of the court. Thus Moses finished the work.
34
Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.
35
Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud had settled on it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.
36
Throughout all their journeys whenever the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the sons of Israel would set out;
37
but if the cloud was not taken up, then they did not set out until the day when it was taken up.
38
For throughout all their journeys, the cloud of the LORD was on the tabernacle by day, and there was fire in it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel.
Скрыть
1
Thus the LORD spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt, saying,
2
“Now, let the sons of Israel observe the Passover at its appointed time.
3
On the fourteenth day of this month, at twilight, you shall observe it at its appointed time; you shall observe it according to all its statutes and according to all its ordinances.”
4
So Moses told the sons of Israel to observe the Passover.
5
They observed the Passover in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight, in the wilderness of Sinai; according to all that the LORD had commanded Moses, so the sons of Israel did.
6
But there were some men who were unclean because of the dead person, so that they could not observe Passover on that day; so they came before Moses and Aaron on that day.
7
Those men said to him, “Though we are unclean because of the dead person, why are we restrained from presenting the offering of the LORD at its appointed time among the sons of Israel?”
8
Moses therefore said to them, “Wait, and I will listen to what the LORD will command concerning you.”
9
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
10
“Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘If any one of you or of your generations becomes unclean because of a dead person, or is on a distant journey, he may, however, observe the Passover to the LORD.
11
In the second month on the fourteenth day at twilight, they shall observe it; they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
12
They shall leave none of it until morning, nor break a bone of it; according to all the statute of the Passover they shall observe it.
13
But the man who is clean and is not on a journey, and yet neglects to observe the Passover, that person shall then be cut off from his people, for he did not present the offering of the LORD at its appointed time. That man will bear his sin.
14
If an alien sojourns among you and observes the Passover to the LORD, according to the statute of the Passover and according to its ordinance, so he shall do; you shall have one statute, both for the alien and for the native of the land.’”
15
Now on the day that the tabernacle was erected the cloud covered the tabernacle, the tent of the testimony, and in the evening it was like the appearance of fire over the tabernacle, until morning.
16
So it was continuously; the cloud would cover it by day, and the appearance of fire by night.
17
Whenever the cloud was lifted from over the tent, afterward the sons of Israel would then set out; and in the place where the cloud settled down, there the sons of Israel would camp.
18
At the command of the LORD the sons of Israel would set out, and at the command of the LORD they would camp; as long as the cloud settled over the tabernacle, they remained camped.
19
Even when the cloud lingered over the tabernacle for many days, the sons of Israel would keep the LORD’S charge and not set out.
20
If sometimes the cloud remained a few days over the tabernacle, according to the command of the LORD they remained camped. Then according to the command of the LORD they set out.
21
If sometimes the cloud remained from evening until morning, when the cloud was lifted in the morning, they would move out; or if it remained in the daytime and at night, whenever the cloud was lifted, they would set out.
22
Whether it was two days or a month or a year that the cloud lingered over the tabernacle, staying above it, the sons of Israel remained camped and did not set out; but when it was lifted, they did set out.
23
At the command of the LORD they camped, and at the command of the LORD they set out; they kept the LORD’S charge, according to the command of the LORD through Moses.
Скрыть
1
Then the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the second time, while he was still confined in the court of the guard, saying,
2
“Thus says the LORD who made the earth, the LORD who formed it to establish it, the LORD is His name,
3
‘Call to Me and I will answer you, and I will tell you great and mighty things, which you do not know.’
4
For thus says the LORD God of Israel concerning the houses of this city, and concerning the houses of the kings of Judah which are broken down to make a defense against the siege ramps and against the sword,
5
‘While they are coming to fight with the Chaldeans and to fill them with the corpses of men whom I have slain in My anger and in My wrath, and I have hidden My face from this city because of all their wickedness:
6
Behold, I will bring to it health and healing, and I will heal them; and I will reveal to them an abundance of peace and truth.
7
I will restore the fortunes of Judah and the fortunes of Israel and will rebuild them as they were at first.
8
I will cleanse them from all their iniquity by which they have sinned against Me, and I will pardon all their iniquities by which they have sinned against Me and by which they have transgressed against Me.
9
It will be to Me a name of joy, praise and glory before all the nations of the earth which will hear of all the good that I do for them, and they will fear and tremble because of all the good and all the peace that I make for it.’
10
“Thus says the LORD, ‘Yet again there will be heard in this place, of which you say, “It is a waste, without man and without beast,” that is, in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem that are desolate, without man and without inhabitant and without beast,
11
the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of those who say, “Give thanks to the LORD of hosts, For the LORD is good, For His lovingkindness is everlasting”; and of those who bring a thank offering into the house of the LORD. For I will restore the fortunes of the land as they were at first,’ says the LORD.
12
“Thus says the LORD of hosts, ‘There will again be in this place which is waste, without man or beast, and in all its cities, a habitation of shepherds who rest their flocks.
13
In the cities of the hill country, in the cities of the lowland, in the cities of the Negev, in the land of Benjamin, in the environs of Jerusalem and in the cities of Judah, the flocks will again pass under the hands of the one who numbers them,’ says the LORD.
14
‘Behold, days are coming,’ declares the LORD, ‘when I will fulfill the good word which I have spoken concerning the house of Israel and the house of Judah.
15
In those days and at that time I will cause a righteous Branch of David to spring forth; and He shall execute justice and righteousness on the earth.
16
In those days Judah will be saved and Jerusalem will dwell in safety; and this is the name by which she will be called: the LORD is our righteousness.’
17
For thus says the LORD, ‘David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel;
18
and the Levitical priests shall never lack a man before Me to offer burnt offerings, to burn grain offerings and to prepare sacrifices continually.’”
19
The word of the LORD came to Jeremiah, saying,
20
“Thus says the LORD, ‘If you can break My covenant for the day and My covenant for the night, so that day and night will not be at their appointed time,
21
then My covenant may also be broken with David My servant so that he will not have a son to reign on his throne, and with the Levitical priests, My ministers.
22
As the host of heaven cannot be counted and the sand of the sea cannot be measured, so I will multiply the descendants of David My servant and the Levites who minister to Me.’”
23
And the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah, saying,
24
“Have you not observed what this people have spoken, saying, ‘The two families which the LORD chose, He has rejected them’? Thus they despise My people, no longer are they as a nation in their sight.
25
Thus says the LORD, ‘If My covenant for day and night stand not, and the fixed patterns of heaven and earth I have not established,
26
then I would reject the descendants of Jacob and David My servant, not taking from his descendants rulers over the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. But I will restore their fortunes and will have mercy on them.’”
Скрыть
1
Then the word of the LORD came to me saying,
2
“Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel. Prophesy and say to those shepherds, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD, “Woe, shepherds of Israel who have been feeding themselves! Should not the shepherds feed the flock?
3
You eat the fat and clothe yourselves with the wool, you slaughter the fat sheep without feeding the flock.
4
Those who are sickly you have not strengthened, the diseased you have not healed, the broken you have not bound up, the scattered you have not brought back, nor have you sought for the lost; but with force and with severity you have dominated them.
5
They were scattered for lack of a shepherd, and they became food for every beast of the field and were scattered.
6
My flock wandered through all the mountains and on every high hill; My flock was scattered over all the surface of the earth, and there was no one to search or seek for them.”’”
7
Therefore, you shepherds, hear the word of the LORD:
8
“As I live,” declares the Lord GOD, “surely because My flock has become a prey, My flock has even become food for all the beasts of the field for lack of a shepherd, and My shepherds did not search for My flock, but rather the shepherds fed themselves and did not feed My flock;
9
therefore, you shepherds, hear the word of the LORD:
10
‘Thus says the Lord GOD, “Behold, I am against the shepherds, and I will demand My sheep from them and make them cease from feeding sheep. So the shepherds will not feed themselves anymore, but I will deliver My flock from their mouth, so that they will not be food for them.”’”
11
For thus says the Lord GOD, “Behold, I Myself will search for My sheep and seek them out.
12
As a shepherd cares for his herd in the day when he is among his scattered sheep, so I will care for My sheep and will deliver them from all the places to which they were scattered on a cloudy and gloomy day.
13
I will bring them out from the peoples and gather them from the countries and bring them to their own land; and I will feed them on the mountains of Israel, by the streams, and in all the inhabited places of the land.
14
I will feed them in a good pasture, and their grazing ground will be on the mountain heights of Israel. There they will lie down on good grazing ground and feed in rich pasture on the mountains of Israel.
15
I will feed My flock and I will lead them to rest,” declares the Lord GOD.
16
“I will seek the lost, bring back the scattered, bind up the broken and strengthen the sick; but the fat and the strong I will destroy. I will feed them with judgment.
17
“As for you, My flock, thus says the Lord GOD, ‘Behold, I will judge between one sheep and another, between the rams and the male goats.
18
Is it too slight a thing for you that you should feed in the good pasture, that you must tread down with your feet the rest of your pastures? Or that you should drink of the clear waters, that you must foul the rest with your feet?
19
As for My flock, they must eat what you tread down with your feet and drink what you foul with your feet!’”
20
Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD to them, “Behold, I, even I, will judge between the fat sheep and the lean sheep.
21
Because you push with side and with shoulder, and thrust at all the weak with your horns until you have scattered them abroad,
22
therefore, I will deliver My flock, and they will no longer be a prey; and I will judge between one sheep and another.
23
“Then I will set over them one shepherd, My servant David, and he will feed them; he will feed them himself and be their shepherd.
24
And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David will be prince among them; I the LORD have spoken.
25
“I will make a covenant of peace with them and eliminate harmful beasts from the land so that they may live securely in the wilderness and sleep in the woods.
26
I will make them and the places around My hill a blessing. And I will cause showers to come down in their season; they will be showers of blessing.
27
Also the tree of the field will yield its fruit and the earth will yield its increase, and they will be secure on their land. Then they will know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke and have delivered them from the hand of those who enslaved them.
28
They will no longer be a prey to the nations, and the beasts of the earth will not devour them; but they will live securely, and no one will make them afraid.
29
I will establish for them a renowned planting place, and they will not again be victims of famine in the land, and they will not endure the insults of the nations anymore.
30
Then they will know that I, the LORD their God, am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are My people,” declares the Lord GOD.
31
“As for you, My sheep, the sheep of My pasture, you are men, and I am your God,” declares the Lord GOD.
Скрыть
1
Do not be silent!
2
For they have opened the wicked and deceitful mouth against me; They have spoken against me with a lying tongue.
3
O God of my praise,
3
They have also surrounded me with words of hatred, And fought against me without cause.
4
In return for my love they act as my accusers; But I am in prayer.
5
Thus they have repaid me evil for good And hatred for my love.
6
Appoint a wicked man over him, And let an accuser stand at his right hand.
7
When he is judged, let him come forth guilty, And let his prayer become sin.
8
Let his days be few; Let another take his office.
9
Let his children be fatherless And his wife a widow.
10
Let his children wander about and beg; And let them seek sustenance far from their ruined homes.
11
Let the creditor seize all that he has, And let strangers plunder the product of his labor.
12
Let there be none to extend lovingkindness to him, Nor any to be gracious to his fatherless children.
13
Let his posterity be cut off; In a following generation let their name be blotted out.
14
Let the iniquity of his fathers be remembered before the LORD, And do not let the sin of his mother be blotted out.
15
Let them be before the LORD continually, That He may cut off their memory from the earth;
16
Because he did not remember to show lovingkindness, But persecuted the afflicted and needy man, And the despondent in heart, to put them to death.
17
He also loved cursing, so it came to him; And he did not delight in blessing, so it was far from him.
18
But he clothed himself with cursing as with his garment, And it entered into his body like water And like oil into his bones.
19
Let it be to him as a garment with which he covers himself, And for a belt with which he constantly girds himself.
20
Let this be the reward of my accusers from the LORD, And of those who speak evil against my soul.
21
But You, O GOD, the Lord, deal kindly with me for Your name’s sake; Because Your lovingkindness is good, deliver me;
22
For I am afflicted and needy, And my heart is wounded within me.
23
I am passing like a shadow when it lengthens; I am shaken off like the locust.
24
My knees are weak from fasting, And my flesh has grown lean, without fatness.
25
I also have become a reproach to them; When they see me, they wag their head.
26
Help me, O LORD my God; Save me according to Your lovingkindness.
27
And let them know that this is Your hand; You, LORD, have done it.
28
Let them curse, but You bless; When they arise, they shall be ashamed, But Your servant shall be glad.
29
Let my accusers be clothed with dishonor, And let them cover themselves with their own shame as with a robe.
30
With my mouth I will give thanks abundantly to the LORD; And in the midst of many I will praise Him.
31
For He stands at the right hand of the needy, To save him from those who judge his soul.
Скрыть
1
And pay attention, you peoples from afar. The LORD called Me from the womb; From the body of My mother He named Me.
2
Listen to Me, O islands,
2
He has made My mouth like a sharp sword, In the shadow of His hand He has concealed Me; And He has also made Me a select arrow, He has hidden Me in His quiver.
3
He said to Me, “You are My Servant, Israel, In Whom I will show My glory.”
4
But I said, “I have toiled in vain, I have spent My strength for nothing and vanity; Yet surely the justice due to Me is with the LORD, And My reward with My God.”
5
And now says the LORD, who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob back to Him, so that Israel might be gathered to Him (For I am honored in the sight of the LORD, And My God is My strength),
6
He says, “It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth.”
7
Thus says the LORD, the Redeemer of Israel and its Holy One, To the despised One, To the One abhorred by the nation, To the Servant of rulers, “Kings will see and arise, Princes will also bow down, Because of the LORD who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel who has chosen You.”
8
Thus says the LORD, “In a favorable time I have answered You, And in a day of salvation I have helped You; And I will keep You and give You for a covenant of the people, To restore the land, to make them inherit the desolate heritages;
9
Saying to those who are bound, ‘Go forth,’ To those who are in darkness, ‘Show yourselves.’ Along the roads they will feed, And their pasture will be on all bare heights.
10
“They will not hunger or thirst, Nor will the scorching heat or sun strike them down; For He who has compassion on them will lead them And will guide them to springs of water.
11
“I will make all My mountains a road, And My highways will be raised up.
12
“Behold, these will come from afar; And lo, these will come from the north and from the west, And these from the land of Sinim.”
13
Shout for joy, O heavens! And rejoice, O earth! Break forth into joyful shouting, O mountains! For the LORD has comforted His people And will have compassion on His afflicted.
14
But Zion said, “The LORD has forsaken me, And the Lord has forgotten me.”
15
“Can a woman forget her nursing child And have no compassion on the son of her womb? Even these may forget, but I will not forget you.
16
“Behold, I have inscribed you on the palms of My hands; Your walls are continually before Me.
17
“Your builders hurry; Your destroyers and devastators Will depart from you.
18
“Lift up your eyes and look around; All of them gather together, they come to you. As I live,” declares the LORD, “You will surely put on all of them as jewels and bind them on as a bride.
19
“For your waste and desolate places and your destroyed land— Surely now you will be too cramped for the inhabitants, And those who swallowed you will be far away.
20
“The children of whom you were bereaved will yet say in your ears, ‘The place is too cramped for me; Make room for me that I may live here.’
21
“Then you will say in your heart, ‘Who has begotten these for me, Since I have been bereaved of my children And am barren, an exile and a wanderer? And who has reared these? Behold, I was left alone; From where did these come?’”
22
Thus says the Lord GOD, “Behold, I will lift up My hand to the nations And set up My standard to the peoples; And they will bring your sons in their bosom, And your daughters will be carried on their shoulders.
23
“Kings will be your guardians, And their princesses your nurses. They will bow down to you with their faces to the earth And lick the dust of your feet; And you will know that I am the LORD; Those who hopefully wait for Me will not be put to shame.
24
“Can the prey be taken from the mighty man, Or the captives of a tyrant be rescued?”
25
Surely, thus says the LORD, “Even the captives of the mighty man will be taken away, And the prey of the tyrant will be rescued; For I will contend with the one who contends with you, And I will save your sons.
26
“I will feed your oppressors with their own flesh, And they will become drunk with their own blood as with sweet wine; And all flesh will know that I, the LORD, am your Savior And your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.”
Скрыть
1
Thus says the LORD, “Where is the certificate of divorce By which I have sent your mother away? Or to whom of My creditors did I sell you? Behold, you were sold for your iniquities, And for your transgressions your mother was sent away.
2
“Why was there no man when I came? When I called, why was there none to answer? Is My hand so short that it cannot ransom? Or have I no power to deliver? Behold, I dry up the sea with My rebuke, I make the rivers a wilderness; Their fish stink for lack of water And die of thirst.
3
“I clothe the heavens with blackness And make sackcloth their covering.”
4
The Lord GOD has given Me the tongue of disciples, That I may know how to sustain the weary one with a word. He awakens Me morning by morning, He awakens My ear to listen as a disciple.
5
The Lord GOD has opened My ear; And I was not disobedient Nor did I turn back.
6
I gave My back to those who strike Me, And My cheeks to those who pluck out the beard; I did not cover My face from humiliation and spitting.
7
For the Lord GOD helps Me, Therefore, I am not disgraced; Therefore, I have set My face like flint, And I know that I will not be ashamed.
8
He who vindicates Me is near; Who will contend with Me? Let us stand up to each other; Who has a case against Me? Let him draw near to Me.
9
Behold, the Lord GOD helps Me; Who is he who condemns Me? Behold, they will all wear out like a garment; The moth will eat them.
10
Who is among you that fears the LORD, That obeys the voice of His servant, That walks in darkness and has no light? Let him trust in the name of the LORD and rely on his God.
11
Behold, all you who kindle a fire, Who encircle yourselves with firebrands, Walk in the light of your fire And among the brands you have set ablaze. This you will have from My hand: You will lie down in torment.
Скрыть
1
My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations.
2
“Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold;
2
“He will not cry out or raise His voice, Nor make His voice heard in the street.
3
“A bruised reed He will not break And a dimly burning wick He will not extinguish; He will faithfully bring forth justice.
4
“He will not be disheartened or crushed Until He has established justice in the earth; And the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law.”
5
Thus says God the LORD, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring, Who gives breath to the people on it And spirit to those who walk in it,
6
“I am the LORD, I have called You in righteousness, I will also hold You by the hand and watch over You, And I will appoint You as a covenant to the people, As a light to the nations,
7
To open blind eyes, To bring out prisoners from the dungeon And those who dwell in darkness from the prison.
8
“I am the LORD, that is My name; I will not give My glory to another, Nor My praise to graven images.
9
“Behold, the former things have come to pass, Now I declare new things; Before they spring forth I proclaim them to you.”
10
Sing to the LORD a new song, Sing His praise from the end of the earth! You who go down to the sea, and all that is in it. You islands, and those who dwell on them.
11
Let the wilderness and its cities lift up their voices, The settlements where Kedar inhabits. Let the inhabitants of Sela sing aloud, Let them shout for joy from the tops of the mountains.
12
Let them give glory to the LORD And declare His praise in the coastlands.
13
The LORD will go forth like a warrior, He will arouse His zeal like a man of war. He will utter a shout, yes, He will raise a war cry. He will prevail against His enemies.
14
“I have kept silent for a long time, I have kept still and restrained Myself. Now like a woman in labor I will groan, I will both gasp and pant.
15
“I will lay waste the mountains and hills And wither all their vegetation; I will make the rivers into coastlands And dry up the ponds.
16
“I will lead the blind by a way they do not know, In paths they do not know I will guide them. I will make darkness into light before them And rugged places into plains. These are the things I will do, And I will not leave them undone.”
17
They will be turned back and be utterly put to shame, Who trust in idols, Who say to molten images, “You are our gods.”
18
Hear, you deaf! And look, you blind, that you may see.
19
Who is blind but My servant, Or so deaf as My messenger whom I send? Who is so blind as he that is at peace with Me, Or so blind as the servant of the LORD?
20
You have seen many things, but you do not observe them; Your ears are open, but none hears.
21
The LORD was pleased for His righteousness’ sake To make the law great and glorious.
22
But this is a people plundered and despoiled; All of them are trapped in caves, Or are hidden away in prisons; They have become a prey with none to deliver them, And a spoil, with none to say, “Give them back!”
23
Who among you will give ear to this? Who will give heed and listen hereafter?
24
Who gave Jacob up for spoil, and Israel to plunderers? Was it not the LORD, against whom we have sinned, And in whose ways they were not willing to walk, And whose law they did not obey?
25
So He poured out on him the heat of His anger And the fierceness of battle; And it set him aflame all around, Yet he did not recognize it; And it burned him, but he paid no attention.
Скрыть
1
And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed?
2
Who has believed our message?
2
For He grew up before Him like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him.
3
He was despised and forsaken of men, A man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like one from whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not esteem Him.
4
Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted.
5
But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed.
6
All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him.
7
He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He did not open His mouth.
8
By oppression and judgment He was taken away; And as for His generation, who considered That He was cut off out of the land of the living For the transgression of my people, to whom the stroke was due?
9
His grave was assigned with wicked men, Yet He was with a rich man in His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth.
10
But the LORD was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the LORD will prosper in His hand.
11
As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; By His knowledge the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities.
12
Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, And He will divide the booty with the strong; Because He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors.
Скрыть
Оглавление
Поделиться

Благодаря регистрации Вы можете подписаться на рассылку текстов любого из планов чтения Библии

Мы планируем постепенно развивать возможности самостоятельной настройки сайта и другие дополнительные сервисы для зарегистрированных пользователей, так что советуем регистрироваться уже сейчас (разумеется, бесплатно).