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Мысли вслух на Lev 4:1-35

1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘If a person sins unintentionally in any of thea Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and commits any of them, 3 if the anointed priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer to the LORD ab Or bull of the herdbull without defect as a sin offering for the sin he hasc Lit sinnedcommitted. 4 He shall bring the bull to the doorway of the tent of meeting before the LORD, and he shall lay his hand on the head of the bull and slay the bull before the LORD. 5 Then the anointed priest is to take some of the blood of the bull and bring it to the tent of meeting, 6 and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary. 7 The priest shall also put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense which is before the LORD in the tent of meeting; and all the blood of the bull he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting. 8 He shall remove from it all the fat of the bull of the sin offering: the fat that covers the entrails, and all the fat which is on the entrails, 9 and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and thed Or appendage onlobe of the liver, which he shall remove with the kidneys 10 (just as it is removed from the ox of the sacrifice of peace offerings), and the priest is to offer them up in smoke on the altar of burnt offering. 11 But the hide of the bull and all its flesh with its head and its legs and its entrails and its refuse, 12 e Lit andthat is, all the rest of the bull, he is to bring out to a clean place outside the camp where thef Or fat ashes areashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where theg Or fat ashes areashes are poured out it shall be burned.
13 ‘Now if the whole congregation of Israel commits error and the matterh Lit is hidden from the eyes ofescapes the notice of the assembly, and they commit any of thei Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and they become guilty; 14 when the sinj Lit concerning whichwhich they havek Lit sinnedcommitted becomes known, then the assembly shall offer al Lit son of the herdbull of the herd for a sin offering and bring it before the tent of meeting. 15 Then the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before the LORD, and the bull shall be slain before the LORD. 16 Then the anointed priest is to bring some of the blood of the bull to the tent of meeting; 17 and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil. 18 He shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar which is before the LORDm Lit which is inin the tent of meeting; and all the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting. 19 He shall remove all its fat from it and offer it up in smoke on the altar. 20 He shall also do with the bull just as he did with the bull of the sin offering; thus he shall do with it. So the priest shall make atonement for them, and they will be forgiven. 21 Then he is to bring out the bull to a place outside the camp and burn it as he burned the first bull; it is the sin offering for the assembly.
22 ‘When a leader sins and unintentionally does any one of all then Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD his God has commanded not to be done, and he becomes guilty, 23 o Lit orif his sinp Lit in which he has sinnedwhich he has committed is made known to him, he shall bring for his offering aq Lit buck of the goatsgoat, a male without defect. 24 He shall lay his hand on the head of the male goat and slay it in the place wherer Lit one slaysthey slay the burnt offering before the LORD; it is a sin offering. 25 Then the priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering; and the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering. 26 All its fat he shall offer up in smoke on the altar as in the case of the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him in regard to his sin, and he will be forgiven.
27 ‘Now ifs Lit one soulanyone oft Lit the people of the landthe common people sins unintentionally in doing any of theu Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and becomes guilty, 28 v Lit orif his sin which he hasw Lit sinnedcommitted is made known to him, then he shall bring for his offering ax Or female goatgoat, a female without defect, for his sin which he hasy Lit sinnedcommitted. 29 He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slay the sin offering at the place of the burnt offering. 30 The priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering; and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. 31 Then he shall remove all its fat, just as the fat was removed from the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall offer it up in smoke on the altar for a soothing aroma to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him,z Or so that he may beand he will be forgiven.
32 ‘But if he brings a lamb as his offering for a sin offering, he shall bring it, a female without defect. 33 He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slay it for a sin offering in the place whereaa Lit one slaysthey slay the burnt offering. 34 The priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. 35 Then he shall remove all its fat, just as the fat of the lamb is removed from the sacrifice of the peace offerings, and the priest shall offer them up in smoke on the altar, on the offerings by fire to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him in regard to his sin which he hasab Lit sinnedcommitted, and he will be forgiven.
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Помимо жертвы мира в яхвизме существовали также специальные очистительные жертвоприношения. Назывались они по-разному (обычно в Синодальном переводе их называют «жертвой за грех» или «жертвой повинности»), но смысл всякой такой жертвы был один: очистить человека, избавить его о той нечистоты, которая стала следствием совершённого греха. В яхвизме вообще на грех смотрели не только и не столько как на нечто безнравственное, сколько как на скверну, как на то, что человека оскверняет, лишая его возможности богообщения.

Нарушение заповеди было страшно не потому, что человек преступал некую норму, пусть и данную Богом, а потому, что тем самым он отрезал себя от Бога, ставил между Ним и собой стену, которую было не так просто потом сломать. Вот очистительная жертва и должна была сломать возведённую человеком стену. В отличие от жертвы мира, очистительная жертва предполагала покаянную молитву и исповедание совершённого греха, исповедание публичное, в присутствии всех, кто собрался вокруг жертвенника во время очистительного жертвоприношения.

При этом кающийся не участвовал в жертвенной трапезе: в ней могли участвовать все присутствовавшие, кроме него. Кающегося лишь окропляли жертвенной кровью. Оно и понятно: предполагалось, что полноценное освящение человека не очистившегося, а значит, не избавившегося от последствий совершённого греха, невозможно. Покаяние и окропление кровью избавляло человека от греха и его последствий.

Правда, только в том случае, если грех был ненамеренным, если человек совершал его, к примеру, по слабости или по неведению. Если же грех был намеренным, осознанным, то очиститься от его последствий было невозможно, они оставались с человеком иногда до самой смерти, отравляя его жизнь и мешая богообщению. Оно и понятно: речь ведь идёт о том, насколько воля человека одобряет или не одобряет совершаемое им греховное действие. До прихода Христа мир был другим, грех в нём был куда сильнее, чем сегодня, и противостоять ему было куда труднее, а избавиться полностью вообще невозможно, особенно тогда, когда человек с самого начала хотел греха и стремился к нему.

Другие мысли вслух

 
На Lev 4:1-35
1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘If a person sins unintentionally in any of thea Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and commits any of them, 3 if the anointed priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer to the LORD ab Or bull of the herdbull without defect as a sin offering for the sin he hasc Lit sinnedcommitted. 4 He shall bring the bull to the doorway of the tent of meeting before the LORD, and he shall lay his hand on the head of the bull and slay the bull before the LORD. 5 Then the anointed priest is to take some of the blood of the bull and bring it to the tent of meeting, 6 and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary. 7 The priest shall also put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense which is before the LORD in the tent of meeting; and all the blood of the bull he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting. 8 He shall remove from it all the fat of the bull of the sin offering: the fat that covers the entrails, and all the fat which is on the entrails, 9 and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and thed Or appendage onlobe of the liver, which he shall remove with the kidneys 10 (just as it is removed from the ox of the sacrifice of peace offerings), and the priest is to offer them up in smoke on the altar of burnt offering. 11 But the hide of the bull and all its flesh with its head and its legs and its entrails and its refuse, 12 e Lit andthat is, all the rest of the bull, he is to bring out to a clean place outside the camp where thef Or fat ashes areashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where theg Or fat ashes areashes are poured out it shall be burned.
13 ‘Now if the whole congregation of Israel commits error and the matterh Lit is hidden from the eyes ofescapes the notice of the assembly, and they commit any of thei Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and they become guilty; 14 when the sinj Lit concerning whichwhich they havek Lit sinnedcommitted becomes known, then the assembly shall offer al Lit son of the herdbull of the herd for a sin offering and bring it before the tent of meeting. 15 Then the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before the LORD, and the bull shall be slain before the LORD. 16 Then the anointed priest is to bring some of the blood of the bull to the tent of meeting; 17 and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil. 18 He shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar which is before the LORDm Lit which is inin the tent of meeting; and all the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting. 19 He shall remove all its fat from it and offer it up in smoke on the altar. 20 He shall also do with the bull just as he did with the bull of the sin offering; thus he shall do with it. So the priest shall make atonement for them, and they will be forgiven. 21 Then he is to bring out the bull to a place outside the camp and burn it as he burned the first bull; it is the sin offering for the assembly.
22 ‘When a leader sins and unintentionally does any one of all then Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD his God has commanded not to be done, and he becomes guilty, 23 o Lit orif his sinp Lit in which he has sinnedwhich he has committed is made known to him, he shall bring for his offering aq Lit buck of the goatsgoat, a male without defect. 24 He shall lay his hand on the head of the male goat and slay it in the place wherer Lit one slaysthey slay the burnt offering before the LORD; it is a sin offering. 25 Then the priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering; and the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering. 26 All its fat he shall offer up in smoke on the altar as in the case of the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him in regard to his sin, and he will be forgiven.
27 ‘Now ifs Lit one soulanyone oft Lit the people of the landthe common people sins unintentionally in doing any of theu Lit commands of the Lord which are not to be donethings which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and becomes guilty, 28 v Lit orif his sin which he hasw Lit sinnedcommitted is made known to him, then he shall bring for his offering ax Or female goatgoat, a female without defect, for his sin which he hasy Lit sinnedcommitted. 29 He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slay the sin offering at the place of the burnt offering. 30 The priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering; and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. 31 Then he shall remove all its fat, just as the fat was removed from the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall offer it up in smoke on the altar for a soothing aroma to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him,z Or so that he may beand he will be forgiven.
32 ‘But if he brings a lamb as his offering for a sin offering, he shall bring it, a female without defect. 33 He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slay it for a sin offering in the place whereaa Lit one slaysthey slay the burnt offering. 34 The priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. 35 Then he shall remove all its fat, just as the fat of the lamb is removed from the sacrifice of the peace offerings, and the priest shall offer them up in smoke on the altar, on the offerings by fire to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him in regard to his sin which he hasab Lit sinnedcommitted, and he will be forgiven.
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Следующий важнейший вид жертвы — жертва за грех. Как мы видим, в самом обряде принесения этой жертвы есть...  Читать далее

Следующий важнейший вид жертвы — жертва за грех. Как мы видим, в самом обряде принесения этой жертвы есть много указаний на то, что ее суть сильно отличается от других приношений. Никто не вкушает мяса животного «за грех»; после того, как его закалывают перед скинией, его кровь вносится в святилище, перед завесу (для того, чтобы символически показать Богу, что совершено пролитие крови), внутренности его сжигаются на жертвеннике, а мясо — уничтожается за станом (сравни Евр 13:11). Это не «священная трапеза Бога с людьми», а символическое наказание животного за грехи людей (вспомним обряд возложения рук на голову жертвы). Этот ритуал связывает воедино духовно неразделимые понятия греха (отпадения от Бога, от источника жизни) и смерти, уничтожения, как следствия этого отпадения.

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