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Мысли вслух на Lev 11:45

45  I am the LORD who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.
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Какую святость заповедует Бог Своему народу? Не требует ли Он невозможного? Ведь не все же, на что способен Бог, доступно человеку.

В земле Египетской Израиль был порабощен, потомки Авраама были вынуждены подчиняться фараону, более того — принадлежать ему и поклоняться ему как богу. Господь освобождает народ из рабства, чтобы они могли вернуться к своему Богу, Богу Авраама, Исаака и Иакова. Здесь-то и возникает это слово «святость», кадош по-древнееврейски. Святое, кадош — это то, что не принадлежит никому и ничему в этом мире, отделено от этого мира, именно таков Сам Бог. Он вообще не от мира, поэтому то, что принадлежит Ему или посвящено Ему, — тоже кадош. Итак, вот чего хочет Бог от Своего народа после его освобождения: никогда больше не становиться рабами никому в этом мире, но посвятить себя Господу, внутренне отделившись от всякого нечестия. Возможно ли это? До какой-то степени — да, конечно. Особенно возможно желать этого, стремиться к этому.

Другие мысли вслух

 
На Lev 11:1-47
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron,
"Say to the Israelites: 'Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:
You may eat any animal that has a split hoof completely divided and that chews the cud.
" 'There are some that only chew the cud or only have a split hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you.
The coney,1 11:5 That is, the hyrax or rock badger though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you.
The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you.
And the pig, though it has a split hoof completely divided, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you.
You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.
" 'Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams, you may eat any that have fins and scales.
10  But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales-whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water-you are to detest.
11  And since you are to detest them, you must not eat their meat and you must detest their carcasses.
12  Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be detestable to you.
13  " 'These are the birds you are to detest and not eat because they are detestable: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture,
14  the red kite, any kind of black kite,
15  any kind of raven,
16  the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk,
17  the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl,
18  the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,
19  the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.2 11:19 The precise identification of some of the birds, insects and animals in this chapter is uncertain.
20  " 'All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be detestable to you.
21  There are, however, some winged creatures that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground.
22  Of these you may eat any kind of locust, katydid, cricket or grasshopper.
23  But all other winged creatures that have four legs you are to detest.
24  " 'You will make yourselves unclean by these; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.
25  Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening.
26  " 'Every animal that has a split hoof not completely divided or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean.
27  Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.
28  Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening. They are unclean for you.
29  " 'Of the animals that move about on the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,
30  the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon.
31  Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening.
32  When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean.
33  If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot.
34  Any food that could be eaten but has water on it from such a pot is unclean, and any liquid that could be drunk from it is unclean.
35  Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean.
36  A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean.
37  If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean.
38  But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.
39  " 'If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches the carcass will be unclean till evening.
40  Anyone who eats some of the carcass must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening.
41  " 'Every creature that moves about on the ground is detestable; it is not to be eaten.
42  You are not to eat any creature that moves about on the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is detestable.
43  Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures. Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them.
44  I am the LORD your God; consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves about on the ground.
45  I am the LORD who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.
46  " 'These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves in the water and every creature that moves about on the ground.
47  You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.' "
Свернуть
Закон о чистой и нечистой пище всегда был одним из важнейших препятствий для смешения израильтян с окружающими народами...  Читать далее

Закон о чистой и нечистой пище всегда был одним из важнейших препятствий для смешения израильтян с окружающими народами. Вероятно, это удерживало их от отступничества, так как общие трапезы должны были совершаться на языческих религиозных праздниках или просто сопровождаться молитвенными обращениями к языческим богам. Для нас важнее то, что эта отделенность от остального мира была не просто сектантством или горделивой замкнутостью, а выражением полной принадлежности Богу — святости, то есть, реализацией заповеди «Будьте святы, как Я свят». Как это касается нас? Ведь мы больше не призваны к замкнутости, скорее, наоборот — к любви ко всем, даже к врагам и инакомыслящим. Очевидно, для нас требование ритуальной чистоты превращается в призвание к чистоте сердца, души и тела, к осознанию полной принадлежности Богу, к святости в новом, последнем смысле.

Свернуть
 
На Lev 11:1-47
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron,
"Say to the Israelites: 'Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:
You may eat any animal that has a split hoof completely divided and that chews the cud.
" 'There are some that only chew the cud or only have a split hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you.
The coney,1 11:5 That is, the hyrax or rock badger though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you.
The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you.
And the pig, though it has a split hoof completely divided, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you.
You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.
" 'Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams, you may eat any that have fins and scales.
10  But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales-whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water-you are to detest.
11  And since you are to detest them, you must not eat their meat and you must detest their carcasses.
12  Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be detestable to you.
13  " 'These are the birds you are to detest and not eat because they are detestable: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture,
14  the red kite, any kind of black kite,
15  any kind of raven,
16  the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk,
17  the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl,
18  the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,
19  the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.2 11:19 The precise identification of some of the birds, insects and animals in this chapter is uncertain.
20  " 'All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be detestable to you.
21  There are, however, some winged creatures that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground.
22  Of these you may eat any kind of locust, katydid, cricket or grasshopper.
23  But all other winged creatures that have four legs you are to detest.
24  " 'You will make yourselves unclean by these; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.
25  Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening.
26  " 'Every animal that has a split hoof not completely divided or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean.
27  Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.
28  Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening. They are unclean for you.
29  " 'Of the animals that move about on the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,
30  the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon.
31  Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening.
32  When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean.
33  If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot.
34  Any food that could be eaten but has water on it from such a pot is unclean, and any liquid that could be drunk from it is unclean.
35  Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean.
36  A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean.
37  If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean.
38  But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.
39  " 'If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches the carcass will be unclean till evening.
40  Anyone who eats some of the carcass must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean till evening.
41  " 'Every creature that moves about on the ground is detestable; it is not to be eaten.
42  You are not to eat any creature that moves about on the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is detestable.
43  Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures. Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them.
44  I am the LORD your God; consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves about on the ground.
45  I am the LORD who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.
46  " 'These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves in the water and every creature that moves about on the ground.
47  You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.' "
Свернуть
Вопрос о чистой (кошерной) и нечистой (некошерной) пище как в яхвизме, так и в иудаизме являлся и является одним из центральных. Значительная часть иудейских религиозных предписаний связана именно с...  Читать далее

Вопрос о чистой (кошерной) и нечистой (некошерной) пище как в яхвизме, так и в иудаизме являлся и является одним из центральных. Значительная часть иудейских религиозных предписаний связана именно с пищевыми запретами, составляющими основу того, что в иудаизме называется кашрутом — сводом норм и правил ритуальной чистоты. На первый взгляд перечень чистых и нечистых животных с духовной точки зрения — сугубая формальность. На самом деле, однако, тут отражена некая особенность дохристианского мира, которую человеку, желавшему освятиться и вести соответствующий образ жизни, игнорировать было нельзя.

Речь идёт об объективной опасности для человека некоторых проявлений падшего мира — проявлений чисто природных, естественных. Казалось бы, странно: это ведь Божий мир, Божье творение, которое Бог Сам оценивает как «вполне хорошее». После грехопадения, однако, в него вошло то зло, которое особенно ярко и безнаказанно проявляло себя до прихода Христа.

Тут возможно было всё, что угодно, и человеку приходилось соблюдать особую осторожность. То, что можно было бы назвать метафизическим ландшафтом, не всегда было безобидным: сказки и предания о «дурных» местах не совсем беспочвенны, и если теперь мы можем ничего такого не бояться, то лишь потому, что после прихода Христа мир в значительной мере уже стал другим — хотя ещё и не совсем. В прежние же времена даже с пищей надо было быть осторожным — и не только в гигиеническом или диетическом смысле.

Пища ведь — это физиология, в физиологическом смысле мы есть то, что мы едим. Освятить же через жертвоприношение надо было не только дух человека, но и его тело, природу, и освящалась она через жертвенную трапезу, через вкушение жертвенного мяса. Тут природа и дух, святость и физиология соприкасались слишком тесно, чтобы можно было игнорировать всё, связанное с пищей, которой питается человек.

Между тем в опыте людей было немало такого, что не стоило игнорировать: к примеру, особенности воздействия тех или иных видов мяса, да и пищи вообще, на физическое и даже психическое состояние человека. Во времена, когда падшая природа довлела человеку, а Божье присутствие лишь ослабляло её воздействие, но не пересиливало его, физиология была для духовной жизни куда важнее, чем сейчас — отсюда и нормы, связанные с чистой и нечистой пищей. И если сегодня мы можем ни о чём таком не думать, то это заслуга не наша, а Того, Кто принёс в мир Царство.

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