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Мысли вслух на Exo 9:1-35

Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh and say to him, 'This is what the LORD , the God of the Hebrews, says: "Let my people go, so that they may worship me."
If you refuse to let them go and continue to hold them back,
the hand of the LORD will bring a terrible plague on your livestock in the field-on your horses and donkeys and camels and on your cattle and sheep and goats.
But the LORD will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and that of Egypt, so that no animal belonging to the Israelites will die.' "
The LORD set a time and said, "Tomorrow the LORD will do this in the land."
And the next day the LORD did it: All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one animal belonging to the Israelites died.
Pharaoh sent men to investigate and found that not even one of the animals of the Israelites had died. Yet his heart was unyielding and he would not let the people go.
Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "Take handfuls of soot from a furnace and have Moses toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh.
It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt, and festering boils will break out on men and animals throughout the land."
10  So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh. Moses tossed it into the air, and festering boils broke out on men and animals.
11  The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils that were on them and on all the Egyptians.
12  But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart and he would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said to Moses.
13  Then the LORD said to Moses, "Get up early in the morning, confront Pharaoh and say to him, 'This is what the LORD , the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me,
14  or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth.
15  For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with a plague that would have wiped you off the earth.
16  But I have raised you up1 9:16 Or have spared you for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.
17  You still set yourself against my people and will not let them go.
18  Therefore, at this time tomorrow I will send the worst hailstorm that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded till now.
19  Give an order now to bring your livestock and everything you have in the field to a place of shelter, because the hail will fall on every man and animal that has not been brought in and is still out in the field, and they will die.' "
20  Those officials of Pharaoh who feared the word of the LORD hurried to bring their slaves and their livestock inside.
21  But those who ignored the word of the LORD left their slaves and livestock in the field.
22  Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky so that hail will fall all over Egypt-on men and animals and on everything growing in the fields of Egypt."
23  When Moses stretched out his staff toward the sky, the LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning flashed down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt;
24  hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation.
25  Throughout Egypt hail struck everything in the fields-both men and animals; it beat down everything growing in the fields and stripped every tree.
26  The only place it did not hail was the land of Goshen, where the Israelites were.
27  Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron. "This time I have sinned," he said to them. "The LORD is in the right, and I and my people are in the wrong.
28  Pray to the LORD , for we have had enough thunder and hail. I will let you go; you don't have to stay any longer."
29  Moses replied, "When I have gone out of the city, I will spread out my hands in prayer to the LORD . The thunder will stop and there will be no more hail, so you may know that the earth is the LORD's.
30  But I know that you and your officials still do not fear the LORD God."
31  (The flax and barley were destroyed, since the barley had headed and the flax was in bloom.
32  The wheat and spelt, however, were not destroyed, because they ripen later.)
33  Then Moses left Pharaoh and went out of the city. He spread out his hands toward the LORD ; the thunder and hail stopped, and the rain no longer poured down on the land.
34  When Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail and thunder had stopped, he sinned again: He and his officials hardened their hearts.
35  So Pharaoh's heart was hard and he would not let the Israelites go, just as the LORD had said through Moses.
Свернуть

Казни продолжаются. Стихийные бедствия обрушиваются на Египет одно за другим. Египетские маги уже признали своё бессилие, они уже прямо говорят фараону, что тут дело Божье, а потому они ничем не могут помочь. Даже народ начинает уже прислушиваться к словам странного пророка из евреев: ведь не прислушиваться, как показывает опыт, себе дороже. Если прислушаться, можно хотя бы минимизировать ущерб от стихии. Непреклонен остаётся лишь фараон. Впрочем, не совсем.

Иногда начинает казаться, что он готов отпустить народ. Обычно тогда, когда ситуация видится ему совсем уж катастрофической. Когда же она хотя бы на время улучшается — по молитвам всё того же Моисея, — фараон вновь становится прежним, жёстким и неуступчивым. Почему так? Что мешает ему увидеть очевидное, понять то, что уже понимают все его подданные? Боязнь потерять лицо? Может быть. Уступка с его стороны могла быть расценена всеми, и в первую очередь семитами, жившими в дельте, как слабость. Со слабыми обычно не церемонятся: за первой уступкой потребуют вторую, за второй — третью… Это, с точки зрения всякой власти, путь в пропасть.

Таким путём фараон пойти не мог. Было и другое: привычный уклад жизни. Привычные модели. Привычное мировоззрение. Если сейчас позволить одному из семитских племён уйти, это будет означать настоящий переворот, изменение всей жизни, всего мироощущения. Когда бывало, чтобы какие-то варвары заставляли фараонов Египта пойти у себя на поводу — да ещё вот так, без войны, не вторгаясь в Египет буйной ордой, а просто выпрашивая себе поблажки?

Невиданное дело! Кто будет после такого уважать его, фараона? Он и сам себя после этого уважать перестанет. К тому же ведь и неизвестно ещё, не мистификация ли всё происходящее, может быть, бедствия, обрушившиеся на страну, и не связаны напрямую со странным пророком. Может быть, вообще вот это самое бедствие и станет уже последним, и дальше всё будет опять как прежде… Но бедствия повторялись снова и снова, повторялись с тем, чтобы фараон наконец убедился: перед ним не случайность, народ надо отпускать, иначе конца катаклизмам не будет.

Другие мысли вслух

 
На Exo 9:1-35
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh and say to him, 'This is what the LORD , the God of the Hebrews, says: "Let my people go, so that they may worship me."
If you refuse to let them go and continue to hold them back,
the hand of the LORD will bring a terrible plague on your livestock in the field-on your horses and donkeys and camels and on your cattle and sheep and goats.
But the LORD will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and that of Egypt, so that no animal belonging to the Israelites will die.' "
The LORD set a time and said, "Tomorrow the LORD will do this in the land."
And the next day the LORD did it: All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one animal belonging to the Israelites died.
Pharaoh sent men to investigate and found that not even one of the animals of the Israelites had died. Yet his heart was unyielding and he would not let the people go.
Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "Take handfuls of soot from a furnace and have Moses toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh.
It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt, and festering boils will break out on men and animals throughout the land."
10  So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh. Moses tossed it into the air, and festering boils broke out on men and animals.
11  The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils that were on them and on all the Egyptians.
12  But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart and he would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said to Moses.
13  Then the LORD said to Moses, "Get up early in the morning, confront Pharaoh and say to him, 'This is what the LORD , the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me,
14  or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth.
15  For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with a plague that would have wiped you off the earth.
16  But I have raised you up1 9:16 Or have spared you for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.
17  You still set yourself against my people and will not let them go.
18  Therefore, at this time tomorrow I will send the worst hailstorm that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded till now.
19  Give an order now to bring your livestock and everything you have in the field to a place of shelter, because the hail will fall on every man and animal that has not been brought in and is still out in the field, and they will die.' "
20  Those officials of Pharaoh who feared the word of the LORD hurried to bring their slaves and their livestock inside.
21  But those who ignored the word of the LORD left their slaves and livestock in the field.
22  Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky so that hail will fall all over Egypt-on men and animals and on everything growing in the fields of Egypt."
23  When Moses stretched out his staff toward the sky, the LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning flashed down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt;
24  hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation.
25  Throughout Egypt hail struck everything in the fields-both men and animals; it beat down everything growing in the fields and stripped every tree.
26  The only place it did not hail was the land of Goshen, where the Israelites were.
27  Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron. "This time I have sinned," he said to them. "The LORD is in the right, and I and my people are in the wrong.
28  Pray to the LORD , for we have had enough thunder and hail. I will let you go; you don't have to stay any longer."
29  Moses replied, "When I have gone out of the city, I will spread out my hands in prayer to the LORD . The thunder will stop and there will be no more hail, so you may know that the earth is the LORD's.
30  But I know that you and your officials still do not fear the LORD God."
31  (The flax and barley were destroyed, since the barley had headed and the flax was in bloom.
32  The wheat and spelt, however, were not destroyed, because they ripen later.)
33  Then Moses left Pharaoh and went out of the city. He spread out his hands toward the LORD ; the thunder and hail stopped, and the rain no longer poured down on the land.
34  When Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail and thunder had stopped, he sinned again: He and his officials hardened their hearts.
35  So Pharaoh's heart was hard and he would not let the Israelites go, just as the LORD had said through Moses.
Свернуть
Катастрофа, захватившая Египет, описывается библейским автором очень схематично, выводы напрашиваются сами собой...  Читать далее

Катастрофа, захватившая Египет, описывается библейским автором очень схематично, выводы напрашиваются сами собой: нечестивый царь — неверующий народ — наказание, - и наоборот: пророк — верный народ — благополучие (израильтян не касается ни одна из египетских «казней»). На первый взгляд такое богословие довольно примитивно. Разве верующие люди не страдают? Разве в мировых катастрофах не гибнут люди разных убеждений, «хорошие» и «плохие»? Да и как различить хороших и плохих, и разве Бог не «благ к неблагодарным и злым»? За этим древним и специфическим языком («врагов казнить, наших помиловать») стоит и другая, более универсальная истина: зло, происходящее в мире, является следствием человеческого зла (пускай не напрямую), смерть приходит в мир из-за недоверия Богу, а следовательно, вера — путь жизни, пусть даже мы не всегда можем видеть это своими глазами.

Свернуть
 
На Exo 9:1-35
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh and say to him, 'This is what the LORD , the God of the Hebrews, says: "Let my people go, so that they may worship me."
If you refuse to let them go and continue to hold them back,
the hand of the LORD will bring a terrible plague on your livestock in the field-on your horses and donkeys and camels and on your cattle and sheep and goats.
But the LORD will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and that of Egypt, so that no animal belonging to the Israelites will die.' "
The LORD set a time and said, "Tomorrow the LORD will do this in the land."
And the next day the LORD did it: All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one animal belonging to the Israelites died.
Pharaoh sent men to investigate and found that not even one of the animals of the Israelites had died. Yet his heart was unyielding and he would not let the people go.
Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "Take handfuls of soot from a furnace and have Moses toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh.
It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt, and festering boils will break out on men and animals throughout the land."
10  So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh. Moses tossed it into the air, and festering boils broke out on men and animals.
11  The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils that were on them and on all the Egyptians.
12  But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart and he would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said to Moses.
13  Then the LORD said to Moses, "Get up early in the morning, confront Pharaoh and say to him, 'This is what the LORD , the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me,
14  or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth.
15  For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with a plague that would have wiped you off the earth.
16  But I have raised you up1 9:16 Or have spared you for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.
17  You still set yourself against my people and will not let them go.
18  Therefore, at this time tomorrow I will send the worst hailstorm that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded till now.
19  Give an order now to bring your livestock and everything you have in the field to a place of shelter, because the hail will fall on every man and animal that has not been brought in and is still out in the field, and they will die.' "
20  Those officials of Pharaoh who feared the word of the LORD hurried to bring their slaves and their livestock inside.
21  But those who ignored the word of the LORD left their slaves and livestock in the field.
22  Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky so that hail will fall all over Egypt-on men and animals and on everything growing in the fields of Egypt."
23  When Moses stretched out his staff toward the sky, the LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning flashed down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt;
24  hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation.
25  Throughout Egypt hail struck everything in the fields-both men and animals; it beat down everything growing in the fields and stripped every tree.
26  The only place it did not hail was the land of Goshen, where the Israelites were.
27  Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron. "This time I have sinned," he said to them. "The LORD is in the right, and I and my people are in the wrong.
28  Pray to the LORD , for we have had enough thunder and hail. I will let you go; you don't have to stay any longer."
29  Moses replied, "When I have gone out of the city, I will spread out my hands in prayer to the LORD . The thunder will stop and there will be no more hail, so you may know that the earth is the LORD's.
30  But I know that you and your officials still do not fear the LORD God."
31  (The flax and barley were destroyed, since the barley had headed and the flax was in bloom.
32  The wheat and spelt, however, were not destroyed, because they ripen later.)
33  Then Moses left Pharaoh and went out of the city. He spread out his hands toward the LORD ; the thunder and hail stopped, and the rain no longer poured down on the land.
34  When Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail and thunder had stopped, he sinned again: He and his officials hardened their hearts.
35  So Pharaoh's heart was hard and he would not let the Israelites go, just as the LORD had said through Moses.
Свернуть
Сегодняшнее чтение во многом отвечает на вопрос о том, почему всё же Бог не смог или не захотел смягчить сердце...  Читать далее

Сегодняшнее чтение во многом отвечает на вопрос о том, почему всё же Бог не смог или не захотел смягчить сердце фараона. Этим ответом является упоминание о том, что Бог вовсе не для того попускает казни египетские, чтобы просто стереть Египет и самого фараона с лица земли и убрать его с дороги, как досадную помеху Своим планам. Если бы цель заключалась только в этом, Богу ничего не стоило бы осуществить её намного быстрее (ст. 14 – 16). Но Ему важно, чтобы в противостоянии с упрямым фараоном стала очевидной для всех сила Божия (ст. 16). Казалось бы, если так, то лучшим доказательством силы и стало бы полное исчезновение с лица земли Египта и самого фараона. Но, видимо, сила Божия проявляется иначе. Ведь если бы, к примеру, Египет и впрямь был бы погублен каким-нибудь чудовищным природным катаклизмом, сила Божия проявила бы себя лишь как обычная природная сила, а Бог Библии в таком случае не очень отличался бы от любого языческого бога-громовника, разве лишь превосходя любого из них масштабами. Но Богу нужно не это. Ему нужны не трупы и не руины, а свидетели. Ведь отношения у Бога могут быть только с живыми людьми, и только живые люди могут рассказать другим о своих отношениях с Богом. По-видимому, способность Бога сокрушать города и страны одним ударом не является чем-то основополагающим для Его отношений с нами. Во всяком случае, Сам Он, обращаясь к человеку, внимания на этом не акцентирует. А вот признание Его как Владыки мироздания для Него чрезвычайно важно, и от фараона Он ждёт хотя бы такого признания — минимума, без которого никакие отношения с Ним человека становятся невозможны. И потому так важно для Него добровольное согласие фараона. Казалось бы, добровольным оно всё равно не является, ведь все казни египетские были, на первый взгляд, именно демонстрацией силы. Но демонстрация эта была, во-первых, избирательной, так что многие стихийные бедствия обошли народ Божий стороной (один из примеров тому мы находим и в сегодняшнем чтении, ст. 25 – 26), и, во-вторых, она была управляемой, прекращаясь по просьбе Моисея (пример тому есть и в сегодняшнем отрывке, ст. 33). Всё это должно было дать понять фараону, что Бог евреев, Которым он пренебрегает, хотя и может всё, тем не менее не стремится просто продемонстрировать Своё превосходство, Он хочет установления доверительных отношений, которые вполне возможны, если фараон решится признать Его Владыкой мира и, соответственно, исполнить то, чего Бог от него требует. Вначале добровольное и свободное признание власти Божией, и лишь потом — следование Его воле. Но если сердце человека продолжает упорствовать, такие отношения становятся невозможны, и тогда человек начинает видеть перед собой другой лик Бога, куда менее к нему благосклонный.

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