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1 Samuel, Chapter 10,  verses 5-27

After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy:
And the Spirit of the LORD will come upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy with them, and shalt be turned into another man.
And let it be, when these signs are come unto thee, that thou do as occasion serve thee; for God is with thee.
And thou shalt go down before me to Gilgal; and, behold, I will come down unto thee, to offer burnt offerings, and to sacrifice sacrifices of peace offerings: seven days shalt thou tarry, till I come to thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do.
And it was so, that when he had turned his back to go from Samuel, God gave him another heart: and all those signs came to pass that day.
10 And when they came thither to the hill, behold, a company of prophets met him; and the Spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied among them.
11 And it came to pass, when all that knew him beforetime saw that, behold, he prophesied among the prophets, then the people said one to another, What is this that is come unto the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?
12 And one of the same place answered and said, But who is their father? Therefore it became a proverb, Is Saul also among the prophets?
13 And when he had made an end of prophesying, he came to the high place.
14 And Saul's uncle said unto him and to his servant, Whither went ye? And he said, To seek the asses: and when we saw that they were no where, we came to Samuel.
15 And Saul's uncle said, Tell me, I pray thee, what Samuel said unto you.
16 And Saul said unto his uncle, He told us plainly that the asses were found. But of the matter of the kingdom, whereof Samuel spake, he told him not.
17 And Samuel called the people together unto the LORD to Mizpeh;
18 And said unto the children of Israel, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I brought up Israel out of Egypt, and delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of all kingdoms, and of them that oppressed you:
19 And ye have this day rejected your God, who himself saved you out of all your adversities and your tribulations; and ye have said unto him, Nay, but set a king over us. Now therefore present yourselves before the LORD by your tribes, and by your thousands.
20 And when Samuel had caused all the tribes of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was taken.
21 When he had caused the tribe of Benjamin to come near by their families, the family of Matri was taken, and Saul the son of Kish was taken: and when they sought him, he could not be found.
22 Therefore they inquired of the LORD further, if the man should yet come thither. And the LORD answered, Behold, he hath hid himself among the stuff.
23 And they ran and fetched him thence: and when he stood among the people, he was higher than any of the people from his shoulders and upward.
24 And Samuel said to all the people, See ye him whom the LORD hath chosen, that there is none like him among all the people? And all the people shouted, and said, God save the king.
25 Then Samuel told the people the manner of the kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid it up before the LORD. And Samuel sent all the people away, every man to his house.
26 And Saul also went home to Gibeah; and there went with him a band of men, whose hearts God had touched.
27 But the children of Belial said, How shall this man save us? And they despised him, and brought him no presents. But he held his peace.

1 Samuel, Chapter 11

Then Nahash the Ammonite came up, and encamped against Jabesh-gilead: and all the men of Jabesh said unto Nahash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.
And Nahash the Ammonite answered them, On this condition will I make a covenant with you, that I may thrust out all your right eyes, and lay it for a reproach upon all Israel.
And the elders of Jabesh said unto him, Give us seven days' respite, that we may send messengers unto all the coasts of Israel: and then, if there be no man to save us, we will come out to thee.
Then came the messengers to Gibeah of Saul, and told the tidings in the ears of the people: and all the people lifted up their voices, and wept.
And, behold, Saul came after the herd out of the field; and Saul said, What aileth the people that they weep? And they told him the tidings of the men of Jabesh.
And the Spirit of God came upon Saul when he heard those tidings, and his anger was kindled greatly.
And he took a yoke of oxen, and hewed them in pieces, and sent them throughout all the coasts of Israel by the hands of messengers, saying, Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall it be done unto his oxen. And the fear of the LORD fell on the people, and they came out with one consent.
And when he numbered them in Bezek, the children of Israel were three hundred thousand, and the men of Judah thirty thousand.
And they said unto the messengers that came, Thus shall ye say unto the men of Jabesh-gilead, To morrow, by that time the sun be hot, ye shall have help. And the messengers came and shewed it to the men of Jabesh; and they were glad.
10 Therefore the men of Jabesh said, To morrow we will come out unto you, and ye shall do with us all that seemeth good unto you.
11 And it was so on the morrow, that Saul put the people in three companies; and they came into the midst of the host in the morning watch, and slew the Ammonites until the heat of the day: and it came to pass, that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them were not left together.
12 And the people said unto Samuel, Who is he that said, Shall Saul reign over us? bring the men, that we may put them to death.
13 And Saul said, There shall not a man be put to death this day: for to day the LORD hath wrought salvation in Israel.
14 Then said Samuel to the people, Come, and let us go to Gilgal, and renew the kingdom there.
15 And all the people went to Gilgal; and there they made Saul king before the LORD in Gilgal; and there they sacrificed sacrifices of peace offerings before the LORD; and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly.

1 Samuel, Chapter 12

And Samuel said unto all Israel, Behold, I have hearkened unto your voice in all that ye said unto me, and have made a king over you.
And now, behold, the king walketh before you: and I am old and grayheaded; and, behold, my sons are with you: and I have walked before you from my childhood unto this day.
Behold, here I am: witness against me before the LORD, and before his anointed: whose ox have I taken? or whose ass have I taken? or whom have I defrauded? whom have I oppressed? or of whose hand have I received any bribe to blind mine eyes therewith? and I will restore it you.
And they said, Thou hast not defrauded us, nor oppressed us, neither hast thou taken ought of any man's hand.
And he said unto them, The LORD is witness against you, and his anointed is witness this day, that ye have not found ought in my hand. And they answered, He is witness.
And Samuel said unto the people, It is the LORD that advanced Moses and Aaron, and that brought your fathers up out of the land of Egypt.
Now therefore stand still, that I may reason with you before the LORD of all the righteous acts of the LORD, which he did to you and to your fathers.
When Jacob was come into Egypt, and your fathers cried unto the LORD, then the LORD sent Moses and Aaron, which brought forth your fathers out of Egypt, and made them dwell in this place.
And when they forgat the LORD their God, he sold them into the hand of Sisera, captain of the host of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab, and they fought against them.
10 And they cried unto the LORD, and said, We have sinned, because we have forsaken the LORD, and have served Baalim and Ashtaroth: but now deliver us out of the hand of our enemies, and we will serve thee.
11 And the LORD sent Jerubbaal, and Bedan, and Jephthah, and Samuel, and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and ye dwelled safe.
12 And when ye saw that Nahash the king of the children of Ammon came against you, ye said unto me, Nay; but a king shall reign over us: when the LORD your God was your king.
13 Now therefore behold the king whom ye have chosen, and whom ye have desired! and, behold, the LORD hath set a king over you.
14 If ye will fear the LORD, and serve him, and obey his voice, and not rebel against the commandment of the LORD, then shall both ye and also the king that reigneth over you continue following the LORD your God:
15 But if ye will not obey the voice of the LORD, but rebel against the commandment of the LORD, then shall the hand of the LORD be against you, as it was against your fathers.
16 Now therefore stand and see this great thing, which the LORD will do before your eyes.
17 Is it not wheat harvest to day? I will call unto the LORD, and he shall send thunder and rain; that ye may perceive and see that your wickedness is great, which ye have done in the sight of the LORD, in asking you a king.
18 So Samuel called unto the LORD; and the LORD sent thunder and rain that day: and all the people greatly feared the LORD and Samuel.
19 And all the people said unto Samuel, Pray for thy servants unto the LORD thy God, that we die not: for we have added unto all our sins this evil, to ask us a king.
20 And Samuel said unto the people, Fear not: ye have done all this wickedness: yet turn not aside from following the LORD, but serve the LORD with all your heart;
21 And turn ye not aside: for then should ye go after vain things, which cannot profit nor deliver; for they are vain.
22 For the LORD will not forsake his people for his great name's sake: because it hath pleased the LORD to make you his people.
23 Moreover as for me, God forbid that I should sin against the LORD in ceasing to pray for you: but I will teach you the good and the right way:
24 Only fear the LORD, and serve him in truth with all your heart: for consider how great things he hath done for you.
25 But if ye shall still do wickedly, ye shall be consumed, both ye and your king.

1 Samuel, Chapter 13

Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel,
Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel; whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in mount Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent.
And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear.
And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines, and that Israel also was had in abomination with the Philistines. And the people were called together after Saul to Gilgal.
And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude: and they came up, and pitched in Michmash, eastward from Beth-aven.
When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait, (for the people were distressed,) then the people did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in high places, and in pits.
And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.
And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had appointed: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people were scattered from him.
And Saul said, Bring hither a burnt offering to me, and peace offerings. And he offered the burnt offering.
10 And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet him, that he might salute him.
11 And Samuel said, What hast thou done? And Saul said, Because I saw that the people were scattered from me, and that thou camest not within the days appointed, and that the Philistines gathered themselves together at Michmash;
12 Therefore said I, The Philistines will come down now upon me to Gilgal, and I have not made supplication unto the LORD: I forced myself therefore, and offered a burnt offering.
13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the LORD thy God, which he commanded thee: for now would the LORD have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever.
14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee.
15 And Samuel arose, and gat him up from Gilgal unto Gibeah of Benjamin. And Saul numbered the people that were present with him, about six hundred men.
16 And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were present with them, abode in Gibeah of Benjamin: but the Philistines encamped in Michmash.
17 And the spoilers came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies: one company turned unto the way that leadeth to Ophrah, unto the land of Shual:
18 And another company turned the way to Beth-horon: and another company turned to the way of the border that looketh to the valley of Zeboim toward the wilderness.
19 Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears:
20 But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines, to sharpen every man his share, and his coulter, and his axe, and his mattock.
21 Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters, and for the forks, and for the axes, and to sharpen the goads.
22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found.
23 And the garrison of the Philistines went out to the passage of Michmash.

1 Samuel, Chapter 14

Now it came to pass upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said unto the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us go over to the Philistines' garrison, that is on the other side. But he told not his father.
And Saul tarried in the uttermost part of Gibeah under a pomegranate tree which is in Migron: and the people that were with him were about six hundred men;
And Ahiah, the son of Ahitub, I-chabod's brother, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the LORD's priest in Shiloh, wearing an ephod. And the people knew not that Jonathan was gone.
And between the passages, by which Jonathan sought to go over unto the Philistines' garrison, there was a sharp rock on the one side and a sharp rock on the other side: and the name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other Seneh.
The forefront of the one was situate northward over against Michmash, and the other southward over against Gibeah.
And Jonathan said to the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us go over unto the garrison of these uncircumcised: it may be that the LORD will work for us: for there is no restraint to the LORD to save by many or by few.
And his armourbearer said unto him, Do all that is in thine heart: turn thee; behold, I am with thee according to thy heart.
Then said Jonathan, Behold, we will pass over unto these men, and we will discover ourselves unto them.
If they say thus unto us, Tarry until we come to you; then we will stand still in our place, and will not go up unto them.
10 But if they say thus, Come up unto us; then we will go up: for the LORD hath delivered them into our hand: and this shall be a sign unto us.
11 And both of them discovered themselves unto the garrison of the Philistines: and the Philistines said, Behold, the Hebrews come forth out of the holes where they had hid themselves.
12 And the men of the garrison answered Jonathan and his armourbearer, and said, Come up to us, and we will shew you a thing. And Jonathan said unto his armourbearer, Come up after me: for the LORD hath delivered them into the hand of Israel.
13 And Jonathan climbed up upon his hands and upon his feet, and his armourbearer after him: and they fell before Jonathan; and his armourbearer slew after him.
14 And that first slaughter, which Jonathan and his armourbearer made, was about twenty men, within as it were an half acre of land, which a yoke of oxen might plow.
15 And there was trembling in the host, in the field, and among all the people: the garrison, and the spoilers, they also trembled, and the earth quaked: so it was a very great trembling.
16 And the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of Benjamin looked; and, behold, the multitude melted away, and they went on beating down one another.
17 Then said Saul unto the people that were with him, Number now, and see who is gone from us. And when they had numbered, behold, Jonathan and his armourbearer were not there.
18 And Saul said unto Ahiah, Bring hither the ark of God. For the ark of God was at that time with the children of Israel.
19 And it came to pass, while Saul talked unto the priest, that the noise that was in the host of the Philistines went on and increased: and Saul said unto the priest, Withdraw thine hand.
20 And Saul and all the people that were with him assembled themselves, and they came to the battle: and, behold, every man's sword was against his fellow, and there was a very great discomfiture.
21 Moreover the Hebrews that were with the Philistines before that time, which went up with them into the camp from the country round about, even they also turned to be with the Israelites that were with Saul and Jonathan.
22 Likewise all the men of Israel which had hid themselves in mount Ephraim, when they heard that the Philistines fled, even they also followed hard after them in the battle.
23 So the LORD saved Israel that day: and the battle passed over unto Beth-aven.
24 And the men of Israel were distressed that day: for Saul had adjured the people, saying, Cursed be the man that eateth any food until evening, that I may be avenged on mine enemies. So none of the people tasted any food.
25 And all they of the land came to a wood; and there was honey upon the ground.
26 And when the people were come into the wood, behold, the honey dropped; but no man put his hand to his mouth: for the people feared the oath.
27 But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath: wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand, and dipped it in an honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his eyes were enlightened.
28 Then answered one of the people, and said, Thy father straitly charged the people with an oath, saying, Cursed be the man that eateth any food this day. And the people were faint.
29 Then said Jonathan, My father hath troubled the land: see, I pray you, how mine eyes have been enlightened, because I tasted a little of this honey.
30 How much more, if haply the people had eaten freely to day of the spoil of their enemies which they found? for had there not been now a much greater slaughter among the Philistines?
31 And they smote the Philistines that day from Michmash to Aijalon: and the people were very faint.
32 And the people flew upon the spoil, and took sheep, and oxen, and calves, and slew them on the ground: and the people did eat them with the blood.
33 Then they told Saul, saying, Behold, the people sin against the LORD, in that they eat with the blood. And he said, Ye have transgressed: roll a great stone unto me this day.
34 And Saul said, Disperse yourselves among the people, and say unto them, Bring me hither every man his ox, and every man his sheep, and slay them here, and eat; and sin not against the LORD in eating with the blood. And all the people brought every man his ox with him that night, and slew them there.
35 And Saul built an altar unto the LORD: the same was the first altar that he built unto the LORD.
36 And Saul said, Let us go down after the Philistines by night, and spoil them until the morning light, and let us not leave a man of them. And they said, Do whatsoever seemeth good unto thee. Then said the priest, Let us draw near hither unto God.
37 And Saul asked counsel of God, Shall I go down after the Philistines? wilt thou deliver them into the hand of Israel? But he answered him not that day.
38 And Saul said, Draw ye near hither, all the chief of the people: and know and see wherein this sin hath been this day.
39 For, as the LORD liveth, which saveth Israel, though it be in Jonathan my son, he shall surely die. But there was not a man among all the people that answered him.
40 Then said he unto all Israel, Be ye on one side, and I and Jonathan my son will be on the other side. And the people said unto Saul, Do what seemeth good unto thee.
41 Therefore Saul said unto the LORD God of Israel, Give a perfect lot. And Saul and Jonathan were taken: but the people escaped.
42 And Saul said, Cast lots between me and Jonathan my son. And Jonathan was taken.
43 Then Saul said to Jonathan, Tell me what thou hast done. And Jonathan told him, and said, I did but taste a little honey with the end of the rod that was in mine hand, and, lo, I must die.
44 And Saul answered, God do so and more also: for thou shalt surely die, Jonathan.
45 And the people said unto Saul, Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel? God forbid: as the LORD liveth, there shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground; for he hath wrought with God this day. So the people rescued Jonathan, that he died not.
46 Then Saul went up from following the Philistines: and the Philistines went to their own place.
47 So Saul took the kingdom over Israel, and fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, and against the children of Ammon, and against Edom, and against the kings of Zobah, and against the Philistines: and whithersoever he turned himself, he vexed them.
48 And he gathered an host, and smote the Amalekites, and delivered Israel out of the hands of them that spoiled them.
49 Now the sons of Saul were Jonathan, and Ishui, and Melchi-shua: and the names of his two daughters were these; the name of the firstborn Merab, and the name of the younger Michal:
50 And the name of Saul's wife was Ahinoam, the daughter of Ahimaaz: and the name of the captain of his host was Abner, the son of Ner, Saul's uncle.
51 And Kish was the father of Saul; and Ner the father of Abner was the son of Abiel.
52 And there was sore war against the Philistines all the days of Saul: and when Saul saw any strong man, or any valiant man, he took him unto him.

1 Samuel, Chapter 15

Samuel also said unto Saul, The LORD sent me to anoint thee to be king over his people, over Israel: now therefore hearken thou unto the voice of the words of the LORD.
Thus saith the LORD of hosts, I remember that which Amalek did to Israel, how he laid wait for him in the way, when he came up from Egypt.
Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.
And Saul gathered the people together, and numbered them in Telaim, two hundred thousand footmen, and ten thousand men of Judah.
And Saul came to a city of Amalek, and laid wait in the valley.
And Saul said unto the Kenites, Go, depart, get you down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them: for ye shewed kindness to all the children of Israel, when they came up out of Egypt. So the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites.
And Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah until thou comest to Shur, that is over against Egypt.
And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive, and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword.
But Saul and the people spared Agag, and the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, and of the fatlings, and the lambs, and all that was good, and would not utterly destroy them: but every thing that was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly.
10 Then came the word of the LORD unto Samuel, saying,
11 It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned back from following me, and hath not performed my commandments. And it grieved Samuel; and he cried unto the LORD all night.
12 And when Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning, it was told Samuel, saying, Saul came to Carmel, and, behold, he set him up a place, and is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to Gilgal.
13 And Samuel came to Saul: and Saul said unto him, Blessed be thou of the LORD: I have performed the commandment of the LORD.
14 And Samuel said, What meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine ears, and the lowing of the oxen which I hear?
15 And Saul said, They have brought them from the Amalekites: for the people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto the LORD thy God; and the rest we have utterly destroyed.
16 Then Samuel said unto Saul, Stay, and I will tell thee what the LORD hath said to me this night. And he said unto him, Say on.
17 And Samuel said, When thou wast little in thine own sight, wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel, and the LORD anointed thee king over Israel?
18 And the LORD sent thee on a journey, and said, Go and utterly destroy the sinners the Amalekites, and fight against them until they be consumed.
19 Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the LORD, but didst fly upon the spoil, and didst evil in the sight of the LORD?
20 And Saul said unto Samuel, Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and have gone the way which the LORD sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites.
21 But the people took of the spoil, sheep and oxen, the chief of the things which should have been utterly destroyed, to sacrifice unto the LORD thy God in Gilgal.
22 And Samuel said, Hath the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams.
23 For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry. Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from being king.
24 And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned: for I have transgressed the commandment of the LORD, and thy words: because I feared the people, and obeyed their voice.
25 Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin, and turn again with me, that I may worship the LORD.
26 And Samuel said unto Saul, I will not return with thee: for thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, and the LORD hath rejected thee from being king over Israel.
27 And as Samuel turned about to go away, he laid hold upon the skirt of his mantle, and it rent.
28 And Samuel said unto him, The LORD hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbour of thine, that is better than thou.
29 And also the Strength of Israel will not lie nor repent: for he is not a man, that he should repent.
30 Then he said, I have sinned: yet honour me now, I pray thee, before the elders of my people, and before Israel, and turn again with me, that I may worship the LORD thy God.
31 So Samuel turned again after Saul; and Saul worshipped the LORD.
32 Then said Samuel, Bring ye hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites. And Agag came unto him delicately. And Agag said, Surely the bitterness of death is past.
33 And Samuel said, As thy sword hath made women childless, so shall thy mother be childless among women. And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the LORD in Gilgal.
34 Then Samuel went to Ramah; and Saul went up to his house to Gibeah of Saul.
35 And Samuel came no more to see Saul until the day of his death: nevertheless Samuel mourned for Saul: and the LORD repented that he had made Saul king over Israel.

1 Samuel, Chapter 16

And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? fill thine horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Bethlehemite: for I have provided me a king among his sons.
And Samuel said, How can I go? if Saul hear it, he Will kill me. And the LORD said, Take an heifer with thee, and say, I am come to sacrifice to the LORD.
And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will shew thee what thou shalt do: and thou shalt anoint unto me him whom I name unto thee.
And Samuel did that which the LORD spake, and came to Bethlehem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou peaceably?
And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice unto the LORD: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice.
And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eliab, and said, Surely the LORD's anointed is before him.
But the LORD said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart.
Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.
Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.
10 Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD hath not chosen these.
11 And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.
12 And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.
13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.
14 But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.
15 And Saul's servants said unto him, Behold now, an evil spirit from God troubleth thee.
16 Let our lord now command thy servants, which are before thee, to seek out a man, who is a cunning player on an harp: and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee, that he shall play with his hand, and thou shalt be well.
17 And Saul said unto his servants, Provide me now a man that can play well, and bring him to me.
18 Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, that is cunning in playing, and a mighty valiant man, and a man of war, and prudent in matters, and a comely person, and the LORD is with him.
19 Wherefore Saul sent messengers unto Jesse, and said, Send me David thy son, which is with the sheep.
20 And Jesse took an ass laden with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them by David his son unto Saul.
21 And David came to Saul, and stood before him: and he loved him greatly; and he became his armourbearer.
22 And Saul sent to Jesse, saying, Let David, I pray thee, stand before me; for he hath found favour in my sight.
23 And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

1 Samuel, Chapter 17

Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephes-dammim.
And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines.
And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side: and there was a valley between them.
And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.
And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.
And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders.
And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield went before him.
And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me.
If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us.
10 And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.
11 When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid.
12 Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah, whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul.
13 And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah.
14 And David was the youngest: and the three eldest followed Saul.
15 But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem.
16 And the Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.
17 And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn, and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy brethren;
18 And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of their thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.
19 Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, were in the valley of Elah, fighting with the Philistines.
20 And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.
21 For Israel and the Philistines had put the battle in array, army against army.
22 And David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage, and ran into the army, and came and saluted his brethren.
23 And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spake according to the same words: and David heard them.
24 And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid.
25 And the men of Israel said, Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, that the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel.
26 And David spake to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the reproach from Israel? for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?
27 And the people answered him after this manner, saying, So shall it be done to the man that killeth him.
28 And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, Why camest thou down hither? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart; for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle.
29 And David said, What have I now done? Is there not a cause?
30 And he turned from him toward another, and spake after the same manner: and the people answered him again after the former manner.
31 And when the words were heard which David spake, they rehearsed them before Saul: and he sent for him.
32 And David said to Saul, Let no man's heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.
33 And Saul said to David, Thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.
34 And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father's sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock:
35 And I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him.
36 Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.
37 David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee.
38 And Saul armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; also he armed him with a coat of mail.
39 And David girded his sword upon his armour, and he assayed to go; for he had not proved it. And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these; for I have not proved them. And David put them off him.
40 And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand: and he drew near to the Philistine.
41 And the Philistine came on and drew near unto David; and the man that bare the shield went before him.
42 And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance.
43 And the Philistine said unto David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.
44 And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.
45 Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.
46 This day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel.
47 And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the LORD's, and he will give you into our hands.
48 And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.
49 And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.
50 So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David.
51 Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled.
52 And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron.
53 And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their tents.
54 And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armour in his tent.
55 And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, whose son is this youth? And Abner said, As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell.
56 And the king said, Inquire thou whose son the stripling is.
57 And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand.
58 And Saul said to him, Whose son art thou, thou young man? And David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.

1 Samuel, Chapter 18

And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.
And Saul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his father's house.
Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul.
And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle.
And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.
And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.
And the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.
And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the kingdom?
And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
10 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and there was a javelin in Saul's hand.
11 And Saul cast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David even to the wall with it. And David avoided out of his presence twice.
12 And Saul was afraid of David, because the LORD was with him, and was departed from Saul.
13 Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a thousand; and he went out and came in before the people.
14 And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the LORD was with him.
15 Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely, he was afraid of him.
16 But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.
17 And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and fight the LORD's battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.
18 And David said unto Saul, Who am I? and what is my life, or my father's family in Israel, that I should be son in law to the king?
19 But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.
20 And Michal Saul's daughter loved David: and they told Saul, and the thing pleased him.
21 And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him. Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt this day be my son in law in the one of the twain.
22 And Saul commanded his servants, saying, Commune with David secretly, and say, Behold, the king hath delight in thee, and all his servants love thee: now therefore be the king's son in law.
23 And Saul's servants spake those words in the ears of David. And David said, Seemeth it to you a light thing to be a king's son in law, seeing that I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed?
24 And the servants of Saul told him, saying, On this manner spake David.
25 And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.
26 And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to be the king's son in law: and the days were not expired.
27 Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins, and they gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king's son in law. And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.
28 And Saul saw and knew that the LORD was with David, and that Michal Saul's daughter loved him.
29 And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became David's enemy continually.
30 Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to pass, after they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by.

1 Samuel, Chapter 19

And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David.
But Jonathan Saul's son delighted much in David: and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself:
And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee.
And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to theeward very good:
For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?
And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul sware, As the LORD liveth, he shall not be slain.
And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan shewed him all those things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence, as in times past.
And there was war again: and David went out, and fought with the Philistines, and slew them with a great slaughter; and they fled from him.
And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David played with his hand.
10 And Saul sought to smite David even to the wall with the javelin; but he slipped away out of Saul's presence, and he smote the javelin into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night.
11 Saul also sent messengers unto David's house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David's wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life to night, to morrow thou shalt be slain.
12 So Michal let David down through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped.
13 And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.
14 And when Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, He is sick.
15 And Saul sent the messengers again to see David, saying, Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may slay him.
16 And when the messengers were come in, behold, there was an image in the bed, with a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster.
17 And Saul said unto Michal, Why hast thou deceived me so, and sent away mine enemy, that he is escaped? And Michal answered Saul, He said unto me, Let me go; why should I kill thee?
18 So David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth.
19 And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah.
20 And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied.
21 And when it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, and they prophesied likewise. And Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied also.
22 Then went he also to Ramah, and came to a great well that is in Sechu: and he asked and said, Where are Samuel and David? And one said, Behold, they be at Naioth in Ramah.
23 And he went thither to Naioth in Ramah: and the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Ramah.
24 And he stripped off his clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Wherefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets?

1 Samuel, Chapter 20

And David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan, What have I done? what is mine iniquity? and what is my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my life?
And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or small, but that he will shew it me: and why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so.
And David sware moreover, and said, Thy father certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, Let not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved: but truly as the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, there is but a step between me and death.
Then said Jonathan unto David, Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee.
And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even.
If thy father at all miss me, then say, David earnestly asked leave of me that he might run to Bethlehem his city: for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family.
If he say thus, It is well; thy servant shall have peace: but if he be very wroth, then be sure that evil is determined by him.
Therefore thou shalt deal kindly with thy servant; for thou hast brought thy servant into a covenant of the LORD with thee: notwithstanding, if there be in me iniquity, slay me thyself; for why shouldest thou bring me to thy father?
And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee: for if I knew certainly that evil were determined by my father to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee?
10 Then said David to Jonathan, Who shall tell me? or what if thy father answer thee roughly?
11 And Jonathan said unto David, Come, and let us go out into the field. And they went out both of them into the field.
12 And Jonathan said unto David, O LORD God of Israel, when I have sounded my father about to morrow any time, or the third day, and, behold, if there be good toward David, and I then send not unto thee, and shew it thee;
13 The LORD do so and much more to Jonathan: but if it please my father to do thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send thee away, that thou mayest go in peace: and the LORD be with thee, as he hath been with my father.
14 And thou shalt not only while yet I live shew me the kindness of the LORD, that I die not:
15 But also thou shalt not cut off thy kindness from my house for ever: no, not when the LORD hath cut off the enemies of David every one from the face of the earth.
16 So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, Let the LORD even require it at the hand of David's enemies.
17 And Jonathan caused David to swear again, because he loved him: for he loved him as he loved his own soul.
18 Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.
19 And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in hand, and shalt remain by the stone Ezel.
20 And I will shoot three arrows on the side thereof, as though I shot at a mark.
21 And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on this side of thee, take them; then come thou: for there is peace to thee, and no hurt; as the LORD liveth.
22 But if I say thus unto the young man, Behold, the arrows are beyond thee; go thy way: for the LORD hath sent thee away.
23 And as touching the matter which thou and I have spoken of, behold, the LORD be between thee and me for ever.
24 So David hid himself in the field: and when the new moon was come, the king sat him down to eat meat.
25 And the king sat upon his seat, as at other times, even upon a seat by the wall: and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul's side, and David's place was empty.
26 Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing that day: for he thought, Something hath befallen him, he is not clean; surely he is not clean.
27 And it came to pass on the morrow, which was the second day of the month, that David's place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day?
28 And Jonathan answered Saul, David earnestly asked leave of me to go to Bethlehem:
29 And he said, Let me go, I pray thee; for our family hath a sacrifice in the city; and my brother, he hath commanded me to be there: and now, if I have found favour in thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brethren. Therefore he cometh not unto the king's table.
30 Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness?
31 For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for he shall surely die.
32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain? what hath he done?
33 And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David.
34 So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did eat no meat the second day of the month: for he was grieved for David, because his father had done him shame.
35 And it came to pass in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him.
36 And he said unto his lad, Run, find out now the arrows which I shoot. And as the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him.
37 And when the lad was come to the place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, Is not the arrow beyond thee?
38 And Jonathan cried after the lad, Make speed, haste, stay not. And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.
39 But the lad knew not any thing: only Jonathan and David knew the matter.
40 And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad, and said unto him, Go, carry them to the city.
41 And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of a place toward the south, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded.
42 And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The LORD be between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city.

1 Samuel, Chapter 21

Then came David to Nob to Ahimelech the priest: and Ahimelech was afraid at the meeting of David, and said unto him, Why art thou alone, and no man with thee?
And David said unto Ahimelech the priest, The king hath commanded me a business, and hath said unto me, Let no man know any thing of the business whereabout I send thee, and what I have commanded thee: and I have appointed my servants to such and such a place.
Now therefore what is under thine hand? give me five loaves of bread in mine hand, or what there is present.
And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.
And David answered the priest, and said unto him, Of a truth women have been kept from us about these three days, since I came out, and the vessels of the young men are holy, and the bread is in a manner common, yea, though it were sanctified this day in the vessel.
So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the shewbread, that was taken from before the LORD, to put hot bread in the day when it was taken away.
Now a certain man of the servants of Saul was there that day, detained before the LORD; and his name was Doeg, an Edomite, the chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to Saul.
And David said unto Ahimelech, And is there not here under thine hand spear or sword? for I have neither brought my sword nor my weapons with me, because the king's business required haste.
And the priest said, The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom thou slewest in the valley of Elah, behold, it is here wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod: if thou wilt take that, take it: for there is no other save that here. And David said, There is none like that; give it me.
10 And David arose, and fled that day for fear of Saul, and went to Achish the king of Gath.
11 And the servants of Achish said unto him, Is not this David the king of the land? did they not sing one to another of him in dances, saying, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands?
12 And David laid up these words in his heart, and was sore afraid of Achish the king of Gath.
13 And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.
14 Then said Achish unto his servants, Lo, ye see the man is mad: wherefore then have ye brought him to me?
15 Have I need of mad men, that ye have brought this fellow to play the mad man in my presence? shall this fellow come into my house?

1 Samuel, Chapter 22

David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him.
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.
And David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab: and he said unto the king of Moab, Let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth, and be with you, till I know what God will do for me.
And he brought them before the king of Moab: and they dwelt with him all the while that David was in the hold.
And the prophet Gad said unto David, Abide not in the hold; depart, and get thee into the land of Judah. Then David departed, and came into the forest of Hareth.
When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with him, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a tree in Ramah, having his spear in his hand, and all his servants were standing about him;)
Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him, Hear now, ye Benjamites; will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards, and make you all captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds;
That all of you have conspired against me, and there is none that sheweth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse, and there is none of you that is sorry for me, or sheweth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
Then answered Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul, and said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub.
10 And he inquired of the LORD for him, and gave him victuals, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.
11 Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father's house, the priests that were in Nob: and they came all of them to the king.
12 And Saul said, Hear now, thou son of Ahitub. And he answered, Here I am, my lord.
13 And Saul said unto him, Why have ye conspired against me, thou and the son of Jesse, in that thou hast given him bread, and a sword, and hast inquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
14 Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said, And who is so faithful among all thy servants as David, which is the king's son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is honourable in thine house?
15 Did I then begin to inquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king impute any thing unto his servant, nor to all the house of my father: for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more.
16 And the king said, Thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father's house.
17 And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of the LORD; because their hand also is with David, and because they knew when he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the servants of the king would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the LORD.
18 And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod.
19 And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings, and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword.
20 And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped, and fled after David.
21 And Abiathar shewed David that Saul had slain the LORD's priests.
22 And David said unto Abiathar, I knew it that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul: I have occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father's house.
23 Abide thou with me, fear not: for he that seeketh my life seeketh thy life: but with me thou shalt be in safeguard.

1 Samuel, Chapter 23

Then they told David, saying, Behold, the Philistines fight against Keilah, and they rob the threshingfloors.
Therefore David inquired of the LORD, saying, Shall I go and smite these Philistines? And the LORD said unto David, Go, and smite the Philistines, and save Keilah.
And David's men said unto him, Behold, we be afraid here in Judah: how much more then if we come to Keilah against the armies of the Philistines?
Then David inquired of the LORD yet again. And the LORD answered him and said, Arise, go down to Keilah; for I will deliver the Philistines into thine hand.
So David and his men went to Keilah, and fought with the Philistines, and brought away their cattle, and smote them with a great slaughter. So David saved the inhabitants of Keilah.
And it came to pass, when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David to Keilah, that he came down with an ephod in his hand.
And it was told Saul that David was come to Keilah. And Saul said, God hath delivered him into mine hand; for he is shut in, by entering into a town that hath gates and bars.
And Saul called all the people together to war, to go down to Keilah, to besiege David and his men.
And David knew that Saul secretly practised mischief against him; and he said to Abiathar the priest, Bring hither the ephod.
10 Then said David, O LORD God of Israel, thy servant hath certainly heard that Saul seeketh to come to Keilah, to destroy the city for my sake.
11 Will the men of Keilah deliver me up into his hand? will Saul come down, as thy servant hath heard? O LORD God of Israel, I beseech thee, tell thy servant. And the LORD said, He will come down.
12 Then said David, Will the men of Keilah deliver me and my men into the hand of Saul? And the LORD said, They will deliver thee up.
13 Then David and his men, which were about six hundred, arose and departed out of Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go. And it was told Saul that David was escaped from Keilah; and he forbare to go forth.
14 And David abode in the wilderness in strong holds, and remained in a mountain in the wilderness of Ziph. And Saul sought him every day, but God delivered him not into his hand.
15 And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life: and David was in the wilderness of Ziph in a wood.
16 And Jonathan Saul's son arose, and went to David into the wood, and strengthened his hand in God.
17 And he said unto him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee; and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee; and that also Saul my father knoweth.
18 And they two made a covenant before the LORD: and David abode in the wood, and Jonathan went to his house.
19 Then came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself with us in strong holds in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, which is on the south of Jeshimon?
20 Now therefore, O king, come down according to all the desire of thy soul to come down; and our part shall be to deliver him into the king's hand.
21 And Saul said, Blessed be ye of the LORD; for ye have compassion on me.
22 Go, I pray you, prepare yet, and know and see his place where his haunt is, and who hath seen him there: for it is told me that he dealeth very subtilly.
23 See therefore, and take knowledge of all the lurking places where he hideth himself, and come ye again to me with the certainty, and I will go with you: and it shall come to pass, if he be in the land, that I will search him out throughout all the thousands of Judah.
24 And they arose, and went to Ziph before Saul: but David and his men were in the wilderness of Maon, in the plain on the south of Jeshimon.
25 Saul also and his men went to seek him. And they told David: wherefore he came down into a rock, and abode in the wilderness of Maon. And when Saul heard that, he pursued after David in the wilderness of Maon.
26 And Saul went on this side of the mountain, and David and his men on that side of the mountain: and David made haste to get away for fear of Saul; for Saul and his men compassed David and his men round about to take them.
27 But there came a messenger unto Saul, saying, Haste thee, and come; for the Philistines have invaded the land.
28 Wherefore Saul returned from pursuing after David, and went against the Philistines: therefore they called that place Sela-hammahlekoth.
29 And David went up from thence, and dwelt in strong holds at En-gedi.

1 Samuel, Chapter 24

And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David is in the wilderness of En-gedi.
Then Saul took three thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats.
And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where was a cave; and Saul went in to cover his feet: and David and his men remained in the sides of the cave.
And the men of David said unto him, Behold the day of which the LORD said unto thee, Behold, I will deliver thine enemy into thine hand, that thou mayest do to him as it shall seem good unto thee. Then David arose, and cut off the skirt of Saul's robe privily.
And it came to pass afterward, that David's heart smote him, because he had cut off Saul's skirt.
And he said unto his men, The LORD forbid that I should do this thing unto my master, the LORD's anointed, to stretch forth mine hand against him, seeing he is the anointed of the LORD.
So David stayed his servants with these words, and suffered them not to rise against Saul. But Saul rose up out of the cave, and went on his way.
David also arose afterward, and went out of the cave, and cried after Saul, saying, My lord the king. And when Saul looked behind him, David stooped with his face to the earth, and bowed himself.
And David said to Saul, Wherefore hearest thou men's words, saying, Behold, David seeketh thy hurt?
10 Behold, this day thine eyes have seen how that the LORD had delivered thee to day into mine hand in the cave: and some bade me kill thee: but mine eye spared thee; and I said, I will not put forth mine hand against my lord; for he is the LORD's anointed.
11 Moreover, my father, see, yea, see the skirt of thy robe in my hand: for in that I cut off the skirt of thy robe and killed thee not, know thou and see that there is neither evil nor transgression in mine hand, and I have not sinned against thee; yet thou huntest my soul to take it.
12 The LORD judge between me and thee, and the LORD avenge me of thee: but mine hand shall not be upon thee.
13 As saith the proverb of the ancients, Wickedness proceedeth from the wicked: but mine hand shall not be upon thee.
14 After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea.
15 The LORD therefore be judge, and judge between me and thee, and see, and plead my cause, and deliver me out of thine hand.
16 And it came to pass, when David had made an end of speaking these words unto Saul, that Saul said, Is this thy voice, my son David? And Saul lifted up his voice, and wept.
17 And he said to David, Thou art more righteous than I: for thou hast rewarded me good, whereas I have rewarded thee evil.
18 And thou hast shewed this day how that thou hast dealt well with me: forasmuch as when the LORD had delivered me into thine hand, thou killedst me not.
19 For if a man find his enemy, will he let him go well away? wherefore the LORD reward thee good for that thou hast done unto me this day.
20 And now, behold, I know well that thou shalt surely be king, and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in thine hand.
21 Swear now therefore unto me by the LORD, that thou wilt not cut off my seed after me, and that thou wilt not destroy my name out of my father's house.
22 And David sware unto Saul. And Saul went home; but David and his men gat them up unto the hold.

1 Samuel, Chapter 25

And Samuel died; and all the Israelites were gathered together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah. And David arose, and went down to the wilderness of Paran.
And there was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats: and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel.
Now the name of the man was Nabal; and the name of his wife Abigail: and she was a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance: but the man was churlish and evil in his doings; and he was of the house of Caleb.
And David heard in the wilderness that Nabal did shear his sheep.
And David sent out ten young men, and David said unto the young men, Get you up to Carmel, and go to Nabal, and greet him in my name:
And thus shall ye say to him that liveth in prosperity, Peace be both to thee, and peace be to thine house, and peace be unto all that thou hast.
And now I have heard that thou hast shearers: now thy shepherds which were with us, we hurt them not, neither was there ought missing unto them, all the while they were in Carmel.
Ask thy young men, and they will shew thee. Wherefore let the young men find favour in thine eyes: for we come in a good day: give, I pray thee, whatsoever cometh to thine hand unto thy servants, and to thy son David.
And when David's young men came, they spake to Nabal according to all those words in the name of David, and ceased.
10 And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, Who is David? and who is the son of Jesse? there be many servants now a days that break away every man from his master.
11 Shall I then take my bread, and my water, and my flesh that I have killed for my shearers, and give it unto men, whom I know not whence they be?
12 So David's young men turned their way, and went again, and came and told him all those sayings.
13 And David said unto his men, Gird ye on every man his sword. And they girded on every man his sword; and David also girded on his sword: and there went up after David about four hundred men; and two hundred abode by the stuff.
14 But one of the young men told Abigail, Nabal's wife, saying, Behold, David sent messengers out of the wilderness to salute our master; and he railed on them.
15 But the men were very good unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them, when we were in the fields:
16 They were a wall unto us both by night and day, all the while we were with them keeping the sheep.
17 Now therefore know and consider what thou wilt do; for evil is determined against our master, and against all his household: for he is such a son of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him.
18 Then Abigail made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready dressed, and five measures of parched corn, and an hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid them on asses.
19 And she said unto her servants, Go on before me; behold, I come after you. But she told not her husband Nabal.
20 And it was so, as she rode on the ass, that she came down by the covert of the hill, and, behold, David and his men came down against her; and she met them.
21 Now David had said, Surely in vain have I kept all that this fellow hath in the wilderness, so that nothing was missed of all that pertained unto him: and he hath requited me evil for good.
22 So and more also do God unto the enemies of David, if I leave of all that pertain to him by the morning light any that pisseth against the wall.
23 And when Abigail saw David, she hasted, and lighted off the ass, and fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground,
24 And fell at his feet, and said, Upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be: and let thine handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thine audience, and hear the words of thine handmaid.
25 Let not my lord, I pray thee, regard this man of Belial, even Nabal: for as his name is, so is he; Nabal is his name, and folly is with him: but I thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send.
26 Now therefore, my lord, as the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, seeing the LORD hath withholden thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thine own hand, now let thine enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Nabal.
27 And now this blessing which thine handmaid hath brought unto my lord, let it even be given unto the young men that follow my lord.
28 I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thine handmaid: for the LORD will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fighteth the battles of the LORD, and evil hath not been found in thee all thy days.
29 Yet a man is risen to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul: but the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of life with the LORD thy God; and the souls of thine enemies, them shall he sling out, as out of the middle of a sling.
30 And it shall come to pass, when the LORD shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he hath spoken concerning thee, and shall have appointed thee ruler over Israel;
31 That this shall be no grief unto thee, nor offence of heart unto my lord, either that thou hast shed blood causeless, or that my lord hath avenged himself: but when the LORD shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember thine handmaid.
32 And David said to Abigail, Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, which sent thee this day to meet me:
33 And blessed be thy advice, and blessed be thou, which hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with mine own hand.
34 For in very deed, as the LORD God of Israel liveth, which hath kept me back from hurting thee, except thou hadst hasted and come to meet me, surely there had not been left unto Nabal by the morning light any that pisseth against the wall.
35 So David received of her hand that which she had brought him, and said unto her, Go up in peace to thine house; see, I have hearkened to thy voice, and have accepted thy person.
36 And Abigail came to Nabal; and, behold, he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king; and Nabal's heart was merry within him, for he was very drunken: wherefore she told him nothing, less or more, until the morning light.
37 But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, and he became as a stone.
38 And it came to pass about ten days after, that the LORD smote Nabal, that he died.
39 And when David heard that Nabal was dead, he said, Blessed be the LORD, that hath pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Nabal, and hath kept his servant from evil: for the LORD hath returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head, And David sent and communed with Abigail, to take her to him to wife.
40 And when the servants of David were come to Abigail to Carmel, they spake unto her, saying, David sent us unto thee to take thee to him to wife.
41 And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth, and said, Behold, let thine handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord.
42 And Abigail hasted, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five damsels of hers that went after her; and she went after the messengers of David, and became his wife.
43 David also took Ahinoam of Jezreel; and they were also both of them his wives.
44 But Saul had given Michal his daughter, David's wife, to Phalti the son of Laish, which was of Gallim.

1 Samuel, Chapter 26

And the Ziphites came unto Saul to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide himself in the hill of Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon?
Then Saul arose, and went down to the wilderness of Ziph, having three thousand chosen men of Israel with him, to seek David in the wilderness of Ziph.
And Saul pitched in the hill of Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon, by the way. But David abode in the wilderness, and he saw that Saul came after him into the wilderness.
David therefore sent out spies, and understood that Saul was come in very deed.
And David arose, and came to the place where Saul had pitched: and David beheld the place where Saul lay, and Abner the son of Ner, the captain of his host: and Saul lay in the trench, and the people pitched round about him.
Then answered David and said to Ahimelech the Hittite, and to Abishai the son of Zeruiah, brother to Joab, saying, Who will go down with me to Saul to the camp? And Abishai said, I will go down with thee.
So David and Abishai came to the people by night: and, behold, Saul lay sleeping within the trench, and his spear stuck in the ground at his bolster: but Abner and the people lay round about him.
Then said Abishai to David, God hath delivered thine enemy into thine hand this day: now therefore let me smite him, I pray thee, with the spear even to the earth at once, and I will not smite him the second time.
And David said to Abishai, Destroy him not: for who can stretch forth his hand against the LORD's anointed, and be guiltless?
10 David said furthermore, As the LORD liveth, the LORD shall smite him; or his day shall come to die; or he shall descend into battle, and perish.
11 The LORD forbid that I should stretch forth mine hand against the LORD's anointed: but, I pray thee, take thou now the spear that is at his bolster, and the cruse of water, and let us go.
12 So David took the spear and the cruse of water from Saul's bolster; and they gat them away, and no man saw it, nor knew it, neither awaked: for they were all asleep; because a deep sleep from the LORD was fallen upon them.
13 Then David went over to the other side, and stood on the top of an hill afar off; a great space being between them:
14 And David cried to the people, and to Abner the son of Ner, saying, Answerest thou not, Abner? Then Abner answered and said, Who art thou that criest to the king?
15 And David said to Abner, Art not thou a valiant man? and who is like to thee in Israel? wherefore then hast thou not kept thy lord the king? for there came one of the people in to destroy the king thy lord.
16 This thing is not good that thou hast done. As the LORD liveth, ye are worthy to die, because ye have not kept your master, the LORD's anointed. And now see where the king's spear is, and the cruse of water that was at his bolster.
17 And Saul knew David's voice, and said, Is this thy voice, my son David? And David said, It is my voice, my lord, O king.
18 And he said, Wherefore doth my lord thus pursue after his servant? for what have I done? or what evil is in mine hand?
19 Now therefore, I pray thee, let my lord the king hear the words of his servant. If the LORD have stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering: but if they be the children of men, cursed be they before the LORD; for they have driven me out this day from abiding in the inheritance of the LORD, saying, Go, serve other gods.
20 Now therefore, let not my blood fall to the earth before the face of the LORD: for the king of Israel is come out to seek a flea, as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains.
21 Then said Saul, I have sinned: return, my son David: for I will no more do thee harm, because my soul was precious in thine eyes this day: behold, I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly.
22 And David answered and said, Behold the king's spear! and let one of the young men come over and fetch it.
23 The LORD render to every man his righteousness and his faithfulness: for the LORD delivered thee into my hand to day, but I would not stretch forth mine hand against the LORD's anointed.
24 And, behold, as thy life was much set by this day in mine eyes, so let my life be much set by in the eyes of the LORD, and let him deliver me out of all tribulation.
25 Then Saul said to David, Blessed be thou, my son David: thou shalt both do great things, and also shalt still prevail. So David went on his way, and Saul returned to his place.

1 Samuel, Chapter 27

And David said in his heart, I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul: there is nothing better for me than that I should speedily escape into the land of the Philistines; and Saul shall despair of me, to seek me any more in any coast of Israel: so shall I escape out of his hand.
And David arose, and he passed over with the six hundred men that were with him unto Achish, the son of Maoch, king of Gath.
And David dwelt with Achish at Gath, he and his men, every man with his household, even David with his two wives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the Carmelitess, Nabal's wife.
And it was told Saul that David was fled to Gath: and he sought no more again for him.
And David said unto Achish, If I have now found grace in thine eyes, let them give me a place in some town in the country, that I may dwell there: for why should thy servant dwell in the royal city with thee?
Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day: wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day.
And the time that David dwelt in the country of the Philistines was a full year and four months.
And David and his men went up, and invaded the Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those nations were of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt.
And David smote the land, and left neither man nor woman alive, and took away the sheep, and the oxen, and the asses, and the camels, and the apparel, and returned, and came to Achish.
10 And Achish said, Whither have ye made a road to day? And David said, Against the south of Judah, and against the south of the Jerahmeelites, and against the south of the Kenites.
11 And David saved neither man nor woman alive, to bring tidings to Gath, saying, Lest they should tell on us, saying, So did David, and so will be his manner all the while he dwelleth in the country of the Philistines.
12 And Achish believed David, saying, He hath made his people Israel utterly to abhor him; therefore he shall be my servant for ever.

1 Samuel, Chapter 28

And it came to pass in those days, that the Philistines gathered their armies together for warfare, to fight with Israel. And Achish said unto David, Know thou assuredly, that thou shalt go out with me to battle, thou and thy men.
And David said to Achish, Surely thou shalt know what thy servant can do. And Achish said to David, Therefore will I make thee keeper of mine head for ever.
Now Samuel was dead, and all Israel had lamented him, and buried him in Ramah, even in his own city. And Saul had put away those that had familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land.
And the Philistines gathered themselves together, and came and pitched in Shunem: and Saul gathered all Israel together, and they pitched in Gilboa.
And when Saul saw the host of the Philistines, he was afraid, and his heart greatly trembled.
And when Saul inquired of the LORD, the LORD answered him not, neither by dreams nor by Urim, nor by prophets.
Then said Saul unto his servants, Seek me a woman that hath a familiar spirit, that I may go to her, and inquire of her. And his servants said to him, Behold, there is a woman that hath a familiar spirit at Endor.
And Saul disguised himself, and put on other raiment, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine unto me by the familiar spirit, and bring me him up, whom I shall name unto thee.
And the woman said unto him, Behold, thou knowest what Saul hath done, how he hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land: wherefore then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause me to die?
10 And Saul sware to her by the LORD, saying, As the LORD liveth, there shall no punishment happen to thee for this thing.
11 Then said the woman, Whom shall I bring up unto thee? And he said, Bring me up Samuel.
12 And when the woman saw Samuel, she cried with a loud voice: and the woman spake to Saul, saying, Why hast thou deceived me? for thou art Saul.
13 And the king said unto her, Be not afraid: for what sawest thou? And the woman said unto Saul, I saw gods ascending out of the earth.
14 And he said unto her, What form is he of? And she said, An old man cometh up; and he is covered with a mantle. And Saul perceived that it was Samuel, and he stooped with his face to the ground, and bowed himself.
15 And Samuel said to Saul, Why hast thou disquieted me, to bring me up? And Saul answered, I am sore distressed; for the Philistines make war against me, and God is departed from me, and answereth me no more, neither by prophets, nor by dreams: therefore I have called thee, that thou mayest make known unto me what I shall do.
16 Then said Samuel, Wherefore then dost thou ask of me, seeing the LORD is departed from thee, and is become thine enemy?
17 And the LORD hath done to him, as he spake by me: for the LORD hath rent the kingdom out of thine hand, and given it to thy neighbour, even to David:
18 Because thou obeyedst not the voice of the LORD, nor executedst his fierce wrath upon Amalek, therefore hath the LORD done this thing unto thee this day.
19 Moreover the LORD will also deliver Israel with thee into the hand of the Philistines: and to morrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me: the LORD also shall deliver the host of Israel into the hand of the Philistines.
20 Then Saul fell straightway all along on the earth, and was sore afraid, because of the words of Samuel: and there was no strength in him; for he had eaten no bread all the day, nor all the night.
21 And the woman came unto Saul, and saw that he was sore troubled, and said unto him, Behold, thine handmaid hath obeyed thy voice, and I have put my life in my hand, and have hearkened unto thy words which thou spakest unto me.
22 Now therefore, I pray thee, hearken thou also unto the voice of thine handmaid, and let me set a morsel of bread before thee; and eat, that thou mayest have strength, when thou goest on thy way.
23 But he refused, and said, I will not eat. But his servants, together with the woman, compelled him; and he hearkened unto their voice. So he arose from the earth, and sat upon the bed.
24 And the woman had a fat calf in the house; and she hasted, and killed it, and took flour, and kneaded it, and did bake unleavened bread thereof:
25 And she brought it before Saul, and before his servants; and they did eat. Then they rose up, and went away that night.

1 Samuel, Chapter 29

Now the Philistines gathered together all their armies to Aphek: and the Israelites pitched by a fountain which is in Jezreel.
And the lords of the Philistines passed on by hundreds, and by thousands: but David and his men passed on in the rereward with Achish.
Then said the princes of the Philistines, What do these Hebrews here? And Achish said unto the princes of the Philistines, Is not this David, the servant of Saul the king of Israel, which hath been with me these days, or these years, and I have found no fault in him since he fell unto me unto this day?
And the princes of the Philistines were wroth with him; and the princes of the Philistines said unto him, Make this fellow return, that he may go again to his place which thou hast appointed him, and let him not go down with us to battle, lest in the battle he be an adversary to us: for wherewith should he reconcile himself unto his master? should it not be with the heads of these men?
Is not this David, of whom they sang one to another in dances, saying, Saul slew his thousands, and David his ten thousands?
Then Achish called David, and said unto him, Surely, as the LORD liveth, thou hast been upright, and thy going out and thy coming in with me in the host is good in my sight: for I have not found evil in thee since the day of thy coming unto me unto this day: nevertheless the lords favour thee not.
Wherefore now return, and go in peace, that thou displease not the lords of the Philistines.
And David said unto Achish, But what have I done? and what hast thou found in thy servant so long as I have been with thee unto this day, that I may not go fight against the enemies of my lord the king?
And Achish answered and said to David, I know that thou art good in my sight, as an angel of God: notwithstanding the princes of the Philistines have said, He shall not go up with us to the battle.
10 Wherefore now rise up early in the morning with thy master's servants that are come with thee: and as soon as ye be up early in the morning, and have light, depart.
11 So David and his men rose up early to depart in the morning, to return into the land of the Philistines. And the Philistines went up to Jezreel.

1 Samuel, Chapter 30

And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;
And had taken the women captives, that were therein: they slew not any, either great or small, but carried them away, and went on their way.
So David and his men came to the city, and, behold, it was burned with fire; and their wives, and their sons, and their daughters, were taken captives.
Then David and the people that were with him lifted up their voice and wept, until they had no more power to weep.
And David's two wives were taken captives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite.
And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God.
And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither the ephod to David.
And David inquired at the LORD, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all.
So David went, he and the six hundred men that were with him, and came to the brook Besor, where those that were left behind stayed.
10 But David pursued, he and four hundred men: for two hundred abode behind, which were so faint that they could not go over the brook Besor.
11 And they found an Egyptian in the field, and brought him to David, and gave him bread, and he did eat; and they made him drink water;
12 And they gave him a piece of a cake of figs, and two clusters of raisins: and when he had eaten, his spirit came again to him: for he had eaten no bread, nor drunk any water, three days and three nights.
13 And David said unto him, To whom belongest thou? and whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant to an Amalekite; and my master left me, because three days agone I fell sick.
14 We made an invasion upon the south of the Cherethites, and upon the coast which belongeth to Judah, and upon the south of Caleb; and we burned Ziklag with fire.
15 And David said to him, Canst thou bring me down to this company? And he said, Swear unto me by God, that thou wilt neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands of my master, and I will bring thee down to this company.
16 And when he had brought him down, behold, they were spread abroad upon all the earth, eating and drinking, and dancing, because of all the great spoil that they had taken out of the land of the Philistines, and out of the land of Judah.
17 And David smote them from the twilight even unto the evening of the next day: and there escaped not a man of them, save four hundred young men, which rode upon camels, and fled.
18 And David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away: and David rescued his two wives.
19 And there was nothing lacking to them, neither small nor great, neither sons nor daughters, neither spoil, nor any thing that they had taken to them: David recovered all.
20 And David took all the flocks and the herds, which they drave before those other cattle, and said, This is David's spoil.
21 And David came to the two hundred men, which were so faint that they could not follow David, whom they had made also to abide at the brook Besor: and they went forth to meet David, and to meet the people that were with him: and when David came near to the people, he saluted them.
22 Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us, we will not give them ought of the spoil that we have recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they may lead them away, and depart.
23 Then said David, Ye shall not do so, my brethren, with that which the LORD hath given us, who hath preserved us, and delivered the company that came against us into our hand.
24 For who will hearken unto you in this matter? but as his part is that goeth down to the battle, so shall his part be that tarrieth by the stuff: they shall part alike.
25 And it was so from that day forward, that he made it a statute and an ordinance for Israel unto this day.
26 And when David came to Ziklag, he sent of the spoil unto the elders of Judah, even to his friends, saying, Behold a present for you of the spoil of the enemies of the LORD;
27 To them which were in Bethel, and to them which were in south Ramoth, and to them which were in Jattir,
28 And to them which were in Aroer, and to them which were in Siphmoth, and to them which were in Eshtemoa,
29 And to them which were in Rachal, and to them which were in the cities of the Jerahmeelites, and to them which were in the cities of the Kenites,
30 And to them which were in Hormah, and to them which were in Chor-ashan, and to them which were in Athach,
31 And to them which were in Hebron, and to all the places where David himself and his men were wont to haunt.

1 Samuel, Chapter 31

Now the Philistines fought against Israel: and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down slain in mount Gilboa.
And the Philistines followed hard upon Saul and upon his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchi-shua, Saul's sons.
And the battle went sore against Saul, and the archers hit him; and he was sore wounded of the archers.
Then said Saul unto his armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and thrust me through, and abuse me. But his armourbearer would not; for he was sore afraid. Therefore Saul took a sword, and fell upon it.
And when his armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise upon his sword, and died with him.
So Saul died, and his three sons, and his armourbearer, and all his men, that same day together.
And when the men of Israel that were on the other side of the valley, and they that were on the other side Jordan, saw that the men of Israel fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook the cities, and fled; and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.
And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his three sons fallen in mount Gilboa.
And they cut off his head, and stripped off his armour, and sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to publish it in the house of their idols, and among the people.
10 And they put his armour in the house of Ashtaroth: and they fastened his body to the wall of Beth-shan.
11 And when the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead heard of that which the Philistines had done to Saul;
12 All the valiant men arose, and went all night, and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan, and came to Jabesh, and burnt them there.
13 And they took their bones, and buried them under a tree at Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
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10  The anointing of Saul, Sa1 10:1.
Samuel gives him signs and instruction, Sa1 10:2-8.
The signs accomplished, Sa1 10:9-13.
His return to his father's house, Sa1 10:14-16.
He is elected, solemnly inaugurated, and returns to his own city, Sa1 10:17-27.

10:5 Prophets - By prophets he understands persons that wholly devoted themselves to religious studies and exercises. For the term of prophesying is not only given to the most eminent act of it, foretelling things to come; but also to preaching, and to the making or singing of psalms, or songs of praise to God. And they that wholly attended upon these things, are called sons of the prophets, who were commonly combined into companies or colleges, that they might more conveniently assist one another in God's work. This institution God was pleased so far to honour and bless, that sometimes he communicated unto those persons the knowledge of future things. Psaltery - Such instruments of musick being then used by prophets and other persons, for the excitation of their spirits in God's service.Prophesy - Either sing God's praises, or speak of the things of God, by a peculiar impulse of his spirit.

10:6 Will come - Heb. will leap, or rush upon thee.Another man - That is, thou shalt be suddenly endowed with another spirit, filled with skill of divine things, with courage, and wisdom, and magnanimity; and other qualifications befitting thy dignity.

10:7 Thou do - Heb. do what they hand findeth to do; that is, as thou shalt have a call and opportunity. He doth not intend that he should take the kingly government upon him, before his call to it was owned by the people, but that he should dispose his mind to a readiness of undertaking any public service when he should be called to his office.

10:8 Till I come - This, though now mentioned and commanded, was not immediately to be performed; as is evident, partly from the whole course of the story, (which shews, that Saul and Samuel, and the people, first met at Mizpeh, ver. Sa1 10:17, etc where Saul was chosen by God, and accepted by the people as king; and afterwards went to Gilgal once before the time here spoken of, chap.Sa1 11:14-15) and partly, by comparing this place with chap.Sa1 13:8, etc where we find Saul charged with the violation of this command, two years after the giving of it. It seems this is given as a standing rule for Saul to observe while Samuel and he lived; that in case of any great future difficulties, as the invasion of enemies, Saul should resort to Gilgal, and call the people thither, and tarry there seven days, which was but a necessary time for gathering the people, and for the coming of Samuel thither. And Gilgal was chosen for this purpose, because that place was famous for the solemn renewing of the covenant between God and Israel, Jos 4:19-24, and for other eminent instances of God's favour to them, the remembrance whereof was a confirmation of their faith; and because it was a very convenient place for he tribes within and without Jordan to assemble, and consult, and unite their forces together upon such occasions.

10:10 Prophesied - The accomplishment of the two former signs is supposed, and this only is expressed, because this was more eminent than the former; the other were only transient acts, which passed in private between two or three persons meeting together; but this was a more permanent and notorious sign, done in a more solemn manner, and before many witnesses.

10:11 Is Saul - A man never instructed, nor exercised in, nor inclined to these matters.

10:12 Who is, etc - Who is the father of all these prophets, among whom Saul now is one? Who is it that instructs and inspires them but God?They have it not from their parents, nor from their education, but by inspiration from God, who, when he pleaseth, can inspire Saul, or any other man with the same skill. And therefore wonder not at this matter, but give God the glory of it. A proverb - Used when any strange, or unexpected thing happened.

10:13 High place - Returning thither with the prophets, to praise God for these wonderful favours, and to beg counsel and help from God in this high business.

10:16 Told not - In obedience to Samuel, who obliged him to secrecy: and from an humble modesty.

10:19 Now therefore, etc - He puts them upon chusing their king by lot, that all might know God had chosen Saul (for the disposal of the lot is of the Lord) and to prevent all dispute and exception.

10:20 Benjamin - Which tribe was now preferred before Judah, because the kingdom was freely promised by God to Judah, and was to be given to him in love; but now the kingdom was in a manner forced from God, and given them in anger and therefore conferred upon an obscure tribe.

10:22 Enquired - Either by Urim or Thummim, which was the usual way of enquiry. Or, by Samuel, who by his prayer procured an answer.Stuff - Among the carriages or baggage of the people there assembled.This he probably did, from a sense of his own unworthiness.

10:24 None like him - As to the height of his bodily stature, which was in itself, commendable in a king, and some kind of indication of great endowments of mind. God save the king - Heb. let the king live; that is, long and prosperously. Hereby they accept him for their king, and promise subjection to him. None will be losers in the end by their humility and modesty. Honour, like the shadows, follows them that flee from it, but flees from them that pursue it.

10:25 Manner of the kingdom - The laws and rules by which the kingly government was to be managed; agreeable to those mentioned Deu 17:16, etc Before the Lord - Before the ark, where it was kept safe fromdepravation.

10:26 Went home - Not being actually inaugurated into his kingdom, he thought fit to retire to his former habitation, and to live privately 'till he had an occasion to shew himself in a more illustrious manner.Then went - To give him safe and honourable conduct to his house, though not to abide with him there, which did not suit his present circumstance.

10:27 No presents - As subjects in those times used to do to their kings. This was an evidence both of his humility, and the mercifulness of his disposition. So Christ held his peace, in the day of his patience.But there is a day of recompense coming.

11  The distress of Jabesh - gilead, Sa1 11:1-3.
Saul's readiness to relieve them, and success, Sa1 11:4-11.
His tenderness to them that opposed him, Sa1 11:12-13.
He is confirmed in his kingdom, Sa1 11:14-15.

11:1 Then - That is, about that time; for that this happened before, and was the occasion of their desire of a king, may seem from chap.Sa1 12:12, although it is possible, that Nahash's preparation, might cause that desire, and that he did not actually come 'till their king was chosen. Will serve - The occasion of this offer was, that they saw no likelihood of relief from their brethren in Canaan.

11:2 Thrust out, etc - Partly for a reproach, as it here follows; and partly, to disable them. He leaves them one eye, that they might be fit to serve in any mean and base office.

11:5 After the herd - For being only anointed king, and not publickly inaugurated, nor having yet had opportunity of doing any thing worthy of his place, he thought fit to forbear all royal state, and to retire to his former private life, which, howsoever despised in this latter ages, was anciently in great esteem. Good magistrates are in pain, if their subjects are in tears.

11:7 Sent them - Wisely considering, that the sight of mens eyes does much more affect their hearts, than what they only hear with their ears.Samuel - Whom he joins with himself, both because he was present with him; and that hereby he might gain the more authority. Fear - A fear sent upon them by God, that they should not dare to deny their help. The fear of God will make men good subjects, good soldiers, and good friends to their country. They that fear God will make conscience of their duty to all men, particularly to their rulers.

11:8 Men of Judah - Who are numbered apart to their honour, to shew how readily they, to whom the kingdom was promised, Gen 49:10, submitted to their king, though of another tribe; and how willing they were to hazard themselves for their brethren although they might have excused themselves from the necessity of defending their own country from their dangerous neighbours the Philistines.

11:14 Then - While the people were together by Jabesh - gilead, wherein Samuel's great prudence and fidelity to Saul is evident.He suspended the confirmation of Saul at first, whilst the generality of the people were disaffected, and now when he had given such eminent proof of his princely virtues, and when the peoples hearts were eagerly set upon him, he takes this as the fittest season for that work. Renew - That is, confirm our former choice.

11:15 Made - They owned and accepted him for their king.

12  Samuel clears himself from all imputation of abusing the power which he now resigns to Saul, Sa1 12:1-5.
He reminds them of the great things God had done, Sa1 12:6-13.
He sets before them the blessing and the curse, Sa1 12:14-15.
He calls upon God for thunder, Sa1 12:16-19.
He encourages and exhorts them, Sa1 12:20-25.

12:1 Said - While they were assembled together in Gilgal. And this is another instance of Samuel's great wisdom and integrity. He would not reprove the people for their sin, in desiring a king, whilst Saul was unsettled in his kingdom; lest through their accustomed levity, they should as hastily cast off their king, as they had passionately desired him, and therefore he chuseth this season for it; because Saul's kingdom was now confirmed by an eminent victory; and because the people rejoiced greatly, applauded themselves for their desires of a king; and interpreted the success which God had given them, as a divine approbation of those desires. Samuel therefore thinks fit to temper their joys, and to excite them to that repentance which he saw wanting in them, and which he knew to be necessary, to prevent the curse of God upon their new king, and the whole kingdom.

12:2 Walketh - Ruleth over you. To him I have fully resigned my power, and own myself one of his subjects. Old - And therefore unable to bear the burden of government. My sons - Or, among you, in the same states private persons, as you are; if they have injured any of you, the law is now open against them; any of you may accuse them, your king can punish them, I do not intercede for them. Walked before you - That is, been your guide and governor; partly, as a prophet; and partly, as a judge.

12:3 Behold - I here present myself before the Lord, and before your king, ready to give an account of all my administrations. And this protestation Samuel makes of his integrity, not out of ostentation; but for his own just vindication, that the people might not hereafter for the defence of their own irregularities, reproach his government, and that being publickly acquitted from all faults in his government, he might more freely reprove the sins of the people, and, particularly, that sin of theirs in desiring a king, when they had so little reason for it.

12:7 Righteous acts - Heb. the righteousnesses; that is, mercies or benefits the chief subject of the following discourse; some of their calamities being but briefly named, and that for the illustration of God's mercy in their deliverances.

12:8 This place - In this land: in which Moses and Aaron are said to settle them; because they brought them into, and seated them in part of it, that without Jordan; because they were, under God, the principal authors of their entering into the land of Canaan; inasmuch as they brought them out of Egypt, conducted them through the wilderness; and thereby their prayers to God, and counsel to them, preserved them from ruin, and gave command from God for the distribution of the land among them, and encouraged them to enter into it. And lastly, Moses substituted Joshua in his stead, and commanded him to seat them there, which he did.

12:9 Forgat - That is, they revolted from him, and carried themselves, as if they had wholly forgotten his innumerable favours. This he saith to answer an objection, that the reason why they desired a king, was, because in the time of the judges they were at great uncertainties, and often exercised with sharp afflictions: to which he answereth by concession that they were so; but adds, by way of retortion, that they themselves were the cause of it, by their forgetting God: so that it was not the fault of that kind of government, but their transgressing the rules of it.Fought - With success, and subdued them.

12:11 Bedan - This was either Samson, as most interpreters believe, who is called Bedan; that is, in Dan, or of Dan, one of that tribe, to signify that they had no reason to distrust that God, who could raise so eminent a saviour out of so obscure a tribe: or, Jair the Gileadite, which may seem best to agree, first, with the time and order of the judges; for Jair was before Jephthah, but Samson was after him. Secondly, with other scriptures: for among the sons of a more ancient Jair, we meet with one called Bedan, Ch1 7:17, which name seems here given to Jair the judge, to distinguish him from that first Jair. Safe - So that it was no necessity, but mere wantonness, that made you desire a change.

12:12 Your king - That is, when God was your immediate king and governor, who was both able and willing to deliver you, if you had cried to him, whereof you and your ancestors have had plentiful experience; so that you did not at all need any other king; and your desire of another, was a manifest reproach against God.

12:13 Ye have chosen - Though God chose him by lot, yet the people are said to chuse him; either generally, because they chose that form of government; or particularly, because they approved of God's choice, and confirmed it. The Lord - He hath yielded to your inordinate desire.

12:14 Then, etc - Heb. then shall - ye - be, (that is, walk, or go) after the Lord; that is, God shall still go before you, as he hath hitherto done, as your leader or governor, to direct, protect, and deliver you; and he will not forsake you, as you have given him just cause to do.Sometimes this phrase of going after the Lord, signifies a man's obedience to God; but here it is otherwise to be understood, and it notes not a duty to be performed, but a privilege to be received upon the performance of their duty; because it is opposed to a threatening denounced in case of disobedience, in the next verse.

12:15 Your fathers - Who lived under the judges; and you shall have no advantage by the change of government, nor shall your kings be able to protect you against God's displeasure. The mistake, if we think we can evade God's justice, by shaking off his dominion. If we will not let God rule us, yet he will judge us.

12:17 Wheat - harvest - At which time it was a rare thing in those parts to have thunder or rain; the weather being more constant in its seasons there, than it is with us. Rain - That you may understand that God is displeased with you; and also how foolishly and wickedly you have done in rejecting the government of that God, at whose command are all things both in heaven and in earth.

12:18 Samuel - Who had such power and favour with God. By this thunder and rain, God shewed them their folly in desiring a king to save them, rather than God or Samuel, expecting more from an arm of flesh than from the arm of God, or from the power of prayer. Could their king thunder with a voice like God? Could their prince command such forces as the prophet could by his prayers? Likewise he intimates, that how serene soever their condition was now, (like the weather in wheat harvest) yet if God pleased, he could soon change the face of their heavens, and persecute them with his storms.

12:19 Thy God - Whom thou hast so great an interest in, while we are ashamed and afraid to call him our God.

12:20 Fear not - With a desponding fear, as if there were no hope left for you.

12:21 Turn aside - After idols; as they had often done before; and, notwithstanding this warning, did afterwards.Vain things - So idols are called, Deu 32:21 Sa1 12, Jer 2:5, and so they are, being mere nothings, having no power in them; no influence upon us, nor use or benefit to us.

12:22 His name's sake - That is, for his own honour, which would suffer much among men, if he should not preserve and deliver his people in eminent dangers. And this reason God alledgeth to take them off from all conceit of their own merit; and to assure them, that if they did truly repent of all their sins, and serve God with all their heart; yet even in that case their salvation would not be due to their merits; but the effect of God's free mercy. To make - Out of his own free grace, without any desert of yours, and therefore he will not forsake you, except you thrust him away.

12:24 Only, etc - Otherwise neither my prayer nor counsels will stand you in any stead.

13  Saul and Jonathan's life - guard, Sa1 13:1-2.
Jonathan smites a garrison, and the people are called together, Sa1 13:3-4.
The Philistines come up, and the Israelites are terrified, Sa1 13:5-7.
Saul sacrifices, Sa1 13:8-10.
Is reproved by Samuel, Sa1 13:11-14.
The people diminished, plundered, and disarmed, Sa1 13:15-23.

13:3 Blew - That is, he sent messengers to tell them all what Jonathan had done, and how the Philistines were enraged at it, and therefore what necessity there was of gathering themselves together for their own defence.

13:4 Saul - Perhaps contrary to some treaty.

13:5 Thirty thousand chariots, etc - Most of them, we may suppose, carriages for their baggage, not chariots of war, tho' all their allies were joined with them.

13:6 Strait - Notwithstanding their former presumption that if they had a king, they should be free from all such straits. And hereby God intended to teach them the vanity of confidence in men; and that they did not one jot less need the help of God now, than they did when they had no king.And probably they were the more discouraged, because they did not find Samuel with Saul. Sooner or later men will be made to see, that God and his prophets are their best friends.

13:7 All the people - That is, all that were left.

13:8 Seven days - Not seven compleat days; for the last day was not finished.

13:11 Camest not - That is, when the seventh day was come, and a good part of it past, whence I concluded thou wouldst not come that day.

13:12 Supplication - Thence it appears, that sacrifices were accompanied with solemn prayers. Forced myself - I did it against my own mind and inclination.

13:13 For ever - The phrase, for ever, in scripture often signifies only a long time. So this had been abundantly verified, if the kingdom had been enjoyed by Saul, and by his son, and by his son's son; after whom the kingdom might have come to Judah.

13:14 A man - That is, such a man as will fulfil all the desires of his heart, and not oppose them, as thou dost. Commanded - That is, hath appointed, as the word command is sometimes used: but though God threatened but Saul with the loss of his kingdom for his sin; yet it is not improbable, there was a tacit condition implied, to wit, if he did not repent of this; and of all his sins; for the full, and final, and peremptory sentence of Saul's rejection, is plainly ascribed to another cause, chap.Sa1 15:11, Sa1 15:23, Sa1 15:26, Sa1 15:28-29, and 'till that second offence, neither the spirit of the Lord departed from him, nor was David anointed in his stead. "But was it not hard, to punish so little a sin so severely?" It was not little: disobedience to an express command, tho' in a small matter, is a great provocation. And indeed, there is no little sin, because there is no little god to sin against. In general, what to men seems a small offence, to him who knows the heart may appear a heinous crime. We are taught hereby, how necessary it is, that we wait on our God continually.For Saul is sentenced to lose his kingdom for want of two or three hours patience.

13:20 Philistines - Not to the land of the Philistines, but to the stations and garrisons which the Philistines retained in several parts of Israel's land, though Samuel's authority had so far over - awed them, that they durst not give the Israelites much disturbance.In these, therefore, the Philistines kept all the smiths; and here they allowed them the exercise of their art for the uses following.

13:22 Sword - It seems restrained to the six hundred that were with Saul and Jonathan; for there were no doubt a considerable number of swords and spears among the Israelites, but they generally hid them, as now they did their persons, from the Philistines. And the Philistines had not yet attained to so great a power over them, as wholly to disarm them, but thought it sufficient to prevent the making of new arms; knowing that the old ones would shortly be decayed, and useless.There were likewise other arms more common in those times and places, than swords and spears; to wit, bows and arrows, and slings and stones.

14  Jonathan proposes to his armour - bearer the attacking of the Philistine's army, Sa1 14:1-10.
They make the attack; the Philistines are terrified, Sa1 14:11-15.
They slay one another, and are pursued by the Israelites, Sa1 14:16-23.
Saul adjures the people to eat nothing 'till night; Jonathan eats honey, Sa1 14:24-30.
The people smite the Philistines, and eat the spoil with the blood, Sa1 14:31-32.
Saul remedies this, Sa1 14:33-35.
Dooms Jonathan to death, who is rescued by the people, Sa1 14:36-46.
A general account of Saul's exploits and family, Sa1 14:47-52.

14:2 Tarried - In the outworks of the city where he had entrenched himself to observe the motion of the Philistines.In - Or, towards Migron, which was near Gibeah.

14:3 Ahiah - The same who is called Abimelech, chap.Sa1 22:9, Sa1 22:11, Sa1 22:20, the high - priest, who was here to attend upon the ark which was brought thither, ver. Sa1 14:18.Ephod - The high - priest's ephod, wherein the Urim and Thummim was.

14:4 Passages - Two passages, both which Jonathan must cross, to go to the Philistines, between which the following rocks lay, but the words may be rendered, in the middle of the passage, the plural number being put for the singular. Rock - Which is not to be understood, as if in this passage one rock was on the right hand, and the other on the left; for so he might have gone between both: and there was no need of climbing up to them.But the meaning is, that the tooth (or prominency) of one rock, (as it is in the Hebrew) was on the side; that is northward, lookingtowards Michmash (the garrison of the Philistines) and the tooth of the other rock was on the other side; that is, southward, looking towards Gibeah, (where Saul's camp lay): and Jonathan was forced to climb over these two rocks, because the common ways from one town to the other were obstructed.

14:6 Uncircumcised - So he calls them, to strengthen his faith by this consideration, that his enemies were enemies to God; whereas he was circumcised, and therefore in covenant with God, who was both able, and engaged to assist his people. It way be - He speaks doubtfully: for tho' he felt himself stirred up by God to this exploit, and was assured that God would deliver his people; yet he was not certain that he would do it at this time, and in this way. Work - Great and wonderful things.

14:10 A sign - Jonathan not being assured of the success of this exploit, desires a sign; and by the instinct of God's Spirit, pitches upon this. Divers such motions and extraordinary impulses there were among great and good men in ancient times. Observe; God has the governing of the hearts and tongues of all men, even of those that know him not, and serves his own purposes by them, tho' they mean not so, neither does their hearts think so.

14:12 Come up, etc - A speech of contempt and derision.The Lord - He piously and modestly ascribes the success which he now foresees, to God only. And he does not say, into our hand, but into the hand of Israel; for he fought not his own glory, but the public good.His faith being thus strengthened, nothing can stand against him: he climbs the rock upon all four, though he had nothing to cover him, none to second him, but his servant, nor any probability of any thing but death before him.

14:13 They fell - For being endowed with extraordinary strength and courage, and having with incredible boldness killed the first they met with, it is not strange if the Philistines were both astonished and intimidated; God also struck them with a panic; and withal, infatuated their minds, and possibly, put an evil spirit among them, which in this universal confusion made them conceive that there was treachery among themselves, and therefore caused them to sheathe their swords in one anothers bowels.

14:15 Field - That is, in the whole host which was in the field.All - That is, among all the rest of their forces, as well as those in the garrison at Michmash, as the spoilers, mentioned chap.Sa1 13:17, the report of this prodigy, and with it the terror of God speedily passing from one to another. Trembling - The Hebrew is, a trembling of God, signifying not only a very great trembling, but such as was supernatural, and came immediately from the hand of God. He that made the heart knows how to make it tremble. To complete their confusion, even the earth quaked; it shook under them, and made them fear it was just going to swallow them up. Those who will not fear the eternal God, he can make afraid of a shadow.

14:19 Withdraw - Trouble not thyself to enquire; for I now plainly discern the matter.

14:21 Which went - Either by constraint, as servants; or in policy, to gain their favour and protection.

14:23 The battle - That is, the warriors who were engaged in the battle, and were pursuing the Philistines. Yet it is said, the Lord saved Israel that day: he did it by them: for without him they could do nothing. Salvation is of the Lord.

14:24 Distressed - With hunger, and weakness, and faintness, and all by reason of the following oath. Avenged - As Saul's intention was good, so the matter of the obligation was not simply unlawful, if it had not been so rigorous in excluding all food, and in obliging the people to it under pain of an accursed death, which was a punishment far exceeding the fault.

14:26 Honey - Bees often make their hives in the trunks of trees, or clefts of rocks, or holes of the earth; and this in divers countries, but eminently in Canaan.

14:27 Enlightened - He was refreshed, and recovered his lost spirits.This cleared his sight, which was grown dim by hunger and faintness.

14:28 People - They that came with Saul, whose forces were now united with Jonathan's.

14:32 Slew - At evening, when the time prefixed by Saul was expired.With blood - Not having patience to tarry 'till the blood was perfectly gone out of them, as they should have done. So they who made conscience of the king's commandment for fear of the curse, make no scruple of transgressing God's command.

14:33 Transgressed - He sees their fault, but not his own, in giving the occasion of it.

14:36 Draw near - To the ark, in order to enquire of God.

14:39 Answered - None of those who saw Jonathan eating, informed against him; because they were satisfied that his ignorance excused him; and from their great love to Jonathan, whom they would not expose to death for so small an offence.

14:41 Perfect lot - Or, declare the perfect, or guiltless person. That is, O Lord, so guide the lot, that it may discover who is guilty in his matter, and who innocent. Escaped - They were pronounced guiltless.

14:42 Jonathan - God so ordered the lot; not that he approved Saul's execration, ver. Sa1 14:24, or his oath that the transgressor should die, ver. Sa1 14:39, nor that he would expose Jonathan to death; but that Saul's folly might be chastised, when he saw what danger it had brought upon his eldest and excellent son; and that Jonathan's innocency might be cleared.

14:44 For thou, etc - We have no proof, that Saul did not act in this whole affair from a real fear of God.

14:45 With God - In concurrence with God, he hath wrought this salvation. God is so far from being offended with Jonathan, that he hath graciously owned him in the great service of this day.

14:47 Took the kingdom - That is, resumed the administration of it, after he had in a manner lost it by the Philistines, who had almost turned him out of it.

14:49 Ishui - Called also Abinadab. chap.Sa1 31:2.Ishbosheth, Saul's other son is here omitted, because he intended to mention only those of his sons who went with him into the battles here mentioned, and who were afterwards slain with him.

15  God commands Saul utterly to destroy the Amalekites, Sa1 15:1-3.
He destroys them, but not utterly, Sa1 15:4-9.
Samuel pronounces sentence upon him for his disobedience, yet consents to honour him before the people, Sa1 15:10-31.
Slays Agag, Sa1 15:32-33.
Takes his leave of Saul, yet mourns for him, Sa1 15:34-35.

15:1 Hearken - Thou hast committed error already, now regain God's favour by thy exact obedience to what he commands.

15:2 I remember - Now I will revenge those old injuries of the Amalekites on their children: who continue in their parents practices.Came from Egypt - When he was newly come out of cruel and long bondage, and was now weak, and weary, and faint, and hungry, Deu 25:18, and therefore it was barbarous instead of that pity which even Nature prompted them to afford, to add affliction to the afflicted; it was also horrid impiety to fight against God himself and to lift up their hand in a manner against the Lord's throne, whilst they struck at that people which God had brought forth in so stupendous a way.

15:3 Destroy - Both persons and goods, kill all that live, and consume all things without life, for I will have no name nor remnant of that people left, whom long since I have devoted to utter destruction.Spare not - Shew no compassion or favour to any of them. The same thing repeated to prevent mistake, and oblige Saul to the exact performance hereof. Slay, etc - Which was not unjust, because God is the supreme Lord of life, and can require his own when he pleaseth; infants likewise are born in sin, and therefore liable to God's wrath. Their death also was rather a mercy than a curse, as being the occasion of preventing their sin and punishment. Ox, etc - Which being all made for man's benefit, it is not strange if they suffer with him, for the instruction of mankind.

15:6 Kenites - A people descending from, or nearly related to Jethro, who anciently dwelt in rocks near the Amalekites, Num 24:21, and afterwards some of them dwelt inJudah, Jdg 1:16, whence it is probable they removed, (which, dwelling in tents, they could easily do) and retired to their oldhabitation, because of the wars and troubles wherewith Judah was annoyed.Shewed kindness - Some of your progenitors did so, and for their sakes all of you shall fare the better. You were not guilty of that sin for which Amalek is now to be destroyed. When destroying judgments are abroad God takes care to separate the precious from the vile. It is then especially dangerous to be found in the company of God's enemies. The Jews have a saying, Wo to a wicked man, and to his neighbour.

15:7 To Shur - That is, from one end of their country to the other; he smote all that he met with: but a great number of them fled away upon the noise of his coming, and secured themselves in other places, 'till the storm was over.

15:8 All - Whom he found. Now they paid dear for the sin of their ancestors. They were themselves guilty of idolatry and numberless sins, for which they deserved to be cut off. Yet when God would reckon with them, he fixes upon this as the ground of his quarrel.

15:9 Vile - Thus they obeyed God only so far as they could without inconvenience to themselves.

15:11 Repenteth - Repentance implies grief of heart, and change of counsels, and therefore cannot be in God: but it is ascribed to God when God alters his method of dealing, and treats a person as if be did indeed repent of the kindness he had shewed him. All night - To implore his pardoning mercy for Saul, and for the people. Is turned back - Therefore he did once follow God. Otherwise it would have been impossible, he should turn back from following him.

15:12 A place - That is, a monument or trophy of his victory.

15:13 They - That is, the people. Thus, he lays the blame upon the people; whereas they could not do it without his consent; and he should have used his power to over - rule them.

15:18 A journey - So easy was the service, and so certain the success, that it was rather to be called a journey than a war.

15:20 The king - To be dealt with as God pleaseth.

15:21 But the people, etc - Here the conscience of Saul begins to awake, tho' but a little: for he still lays the blame on the people.

15:22 Sacrifice - Because obedience to God is a moral duty, constantly and indispensably necessary; but sacrifice is but a ceremonial institution, sometimes unnecessary, as it was in the wilderness: and sometimes sinful, when it is offered by a polluted hand, or in an irregular manner.Therefore thy gross disobedience to God's express command, is not to be compensated with sacrifice. Hearken - That is, to obey.Fat - Then the choicest part of all the sacrifice.

15:23 Rebellion - Disobedience to God's command.Stubbornness - Contumacy in sin, justifying it, and pleading for it.Iniquity - Or, the iniquity of idolatry. Rejected - Hath pronounced the sentence of rejection: for that he was not actually deposed by God before, plainly appears, because not only the people, but even David, after this, owned him as king. Those are unworthy to rule over men, who are not willing that God should rule over them.

15:24 I have sinned - It does by no means appear, that Saul acts the hypocrite herein, in assigning a false cause of his disobedience.Rather, he nakedly declares the thing as it was.

15:25 Pardon my sin - Neither can it be proved that there was any hypocrisy in this. Rather charity requires us to believe, that he sincerely desired pardon, both from God and man, as he now knew, he had sinned against both.

15:26 I will not - This was no lie, though he afterwards returned, because he spoke what he meant; his words and his intentions agreed together, though afterwards he saw reason to change his intentions.Compare Gen 19:2-3. This may relieve many perplexed consciences, who think themselves obliged to do what they have said they would do, though they see just cause to change their minds. Hath rejected thee, etc - But he does not say, he "hath rejected thee from salvation." And who besides hath authority to say so?

15:29 Strength of Israel - So he calls God here, to shew the reason why God neither will nor can lie; because lying proceeds from the sense of a man's weakness, who cannot many times accomplish his design without lying and dissimulation; therefore many princes have used it for this very reason.But God needs no such artifices; he can do whatsoever he pleaseth by his absolute power. Repent - That is, nor change his counsel; which also is an effect of weakness and imperfection, either of wisdom or power. So that this word is not here used in the sense it commonly is when applied to God, as in Jer 11:1-23, and elsewhere.

15:31 Turned - First, that the people might not upon pretence of this sentence of rejection, withdraw their obedience to their sovereign; whereby they would both have sinned against God, and have been as sheep without a shepherd. Secondly, that he might rectify Saul's error, and execute God's judgment upon Agag.

15:33 As, etc - Whereby it appears, that he was a tyrant, and guilty of many bloody actions. And this seems to be added for the fuller vindication of God's justice, and to shew, that although God did at this time revenge a crime committed by this man's ancestors four hundreds years ago, yet he did not punish an innocent son for his father's crimes, but one that persisted in the same evil courses. Hewed - This he did by divine instinct, and in pursuance of God's express command, which being sinfully neglected by Saul, is now executed by Samuel. But these are no precedents for private persons to take the sword of justice into their hands. For we must live by the laws of God, and not by extraordinary examples.

15:35 To see Saul - That is, to visit him, in token of respect or friendship: or, to seek counsel from God for him. Otherwise he did see him chap.Sa1 19:24.Though indeed it was not Samuel that came thither with design to see Saul, but Saul went thither to see Samuel, and that accidentally.

16  Samuel is appointed to anoint one of the sons of Jesse king, Sa1 16:1-5.
The elder sons are passed by, and David anointed, Sa1 16:6-13.
Saul growing melancholy is eased by David's music, Sa1 16:14-23.

16:1 Mourn - And pray for his restitution, which the following words imply he did. Oil - Which was used in the inauguration of kings. But here it is used in the designation of a king; for David was not actually made king by it, but still remained a subject. And the reason of this anticipation was the comfort of Samuel, and other good men, against their fears in case of Saul's death, and the assurance of David's title, which otherwise would have been doubtful. I have provided - This phrase is very emphatical, and implies the difference between this and the former king. Saul was a king of the people's providing, he was the product of their sinful desires: but this is a king of my own providing, to fulfil all my will, and to serve my glory.

16:4 Trembled - Because it was strange and unexpected to them, this being but an obscure town, and remote from Samuel, and therefore they justly thought there was some extraordinary reason for it.Peaceable - The Hebrew phrase, comest thou in peace, is as much as to say (in our phrase) is all well?

16:5 He sanctified - It seems evident that there was something peculiar in Jesse's invitation. For first, both he and his sons were invited, whereas the others were only invited for their own persons. Secondly, the different phrase here used, that he sanctified these, when he only bade the other sanctify themselves; argues a singular care of Samuel in their sanctification. Which makes it probable, that the rest were only to join with them in the act of sacrificing; but these, and only these, were invited to feast upon the remainders of the sacrifices.

16:6 Before him - That is, in this place where God is now present.For it is observable, that not only the sacrifice is said to be offered, but even the feast upon the remainders of it is said, to be eaten before the Lord, Deu 12:7, that is, before or near his altar, where God was present in a special manner. This I take to be the person I am sent to anoint: wherein yet be was mistaken, as other prophets sometimes were, when they hastily spake their own thoughts, before they had consulted God.

16:10 Seven - There are but seven named, Ch1 2:13-15, because one of them was either born of a concubine: or, died immediately after this time.

16:11 Keepeth sheep - And consequently is the most unfit of all my sons for that high employment. Either therefore he did not understand David's wisdom and valour, or he judged him unfit, by reason of his mean education.And God so ordered it by his providence, that David's choice might plainly appear to be God's work, and not Samuel's, or Jesse's.David signifies beloved: a fit name for so eminent a type of the Beloved Son. It is supposed, David was now about twenty years old.If so, his troubles by Saul lasted near ten years: for he was thirty years old when Saul died. Samuel having done this went to Ramah.He retired to die in peace, since his eyes had seen the salvation, even the sceptre brought into the tribe of Judah.

16:13 Anointed him - David's brethren saw David's unction, yet did not understand, that he was anointed to the kingdom; but were only told by Samuel, that he was anointed to some great service, which hereafter they should know. Thus Jesse only, and David, understood the whole business, and his brethren were able to attest to that act of Samuel's anointing him, which, with other collateral evidences, was abundantly sufficient to prove David's right to the kingdom, if need should be.The spirit, etc, - That is, he was immediately endowed with extraordinary gifts of God's Spirit, as strength, and courage, and wisdom, and other excellent qualities which fitted him for, and put him upon noble attempts.

16:14 Departed - God took away that prudence, and courage, and alacrity, and other gifts wherewith be had qualified him for his public employment.From the Lord - That is, by God's permission, who delivered him up to be buffeted of Satan. Troubled - Stirred up in him unruly and tormenting passions; as envy, rage, fear, or despair. He grew fretful, and peevish, and discontented, timorous and suspicious, frequently starting and trembling.

16:16 Be well - And the success confirms their opinion. For although music cannot directly have an influence upon an evil spirit to drive him away; yet, because the devil, as it seems, had not possession of him, but only made use of the passions of his mind, and humours of his body to molest him: and because it is manifest, that music hath a mighty power to qualify and sweeten these, and to make a man sedate and chearful; it is not strange, if the devil had not that power over him when his mind was more composed, which he had when it was disordered; as the devil had less power over lunaticks in the decrease, than in the increase of the moon: Mat 17:15, Mat 17:18. And seeing music prepared the Lord's prophets for theentertainment of the good Spirit, as Ki2 3:15. Why might it not dispose Saul to the resistance of the evil spirit? And why might not the chearing of his heart, in some measure strengthen him against those temptations of the devil, which were fed by his melancholy humour?And by this means, David without any contrivance of him or his friends, is brought to court, soon after he was anointed to the kingdom. Those whom God designs for any service, his providence will concur with his grace, to prepare and qualify them for it.

16:18 Prudent - Wonder not, that David was so suddenly advanced, from a poor shepherd, to so great a reputation; for these were the effects of that Spirit of the Lord which he received when he was anointed.The Lord, etc - That is, directs and prospers all his undertakings.

16:20 Sent him - This present, though in our times it would seem contemptible, yet was very agreeable to the usage of those times, and to the condition of Jesse, which was but mean in the world. And it seems to have been the custom of those times, (as it is yet in the eastern countries) when they made their appearance before princes, or great persons, to bring a present.

16:21 Stood before him - That is, waited upon him. And he loved him greatly - So there was something good in Saul still: he had not lost all, tho' he had lost the kingdom. Armour - bearer - He had that place conferred upon him, though we do not read that he ever exercised it; for it seems he was gone back to his father upon some occasion not related; and had abode with him some considerable time before the war described, chap.Sa1 17:1-53, happened.

16:23 Departed - Namely, for a season. And the reason of this success, may be, partly natural, and partly, supernatural, respecting David; whom God designed by this means to bring into favour with the king, and so to smooth the way for his advancement.

17  Goliath challenges the armies of Israel, Sa1 17:1-11.
David coming into the camp, hears his challenge, Sa1 17:12-27.
Eliab chides David, whose words are related to Saul, Sa1 17:28-31.
David undertakes to fight Goliath, Sa1 17:32-37.
He rejects Saul's armour, and goes with his sling, Sa1 17:38-40.
He attacks and slays Goliath, Sa1 17:41-51.
The Israelites pursue the Philistines, Sa1 17:52-53.
David returns: the notice taken of him by Saul, Sa1 17:54-58.

17:1 Gathered, etc - Probably they had heard, that Samuel had forsaken Saul, and that Saul himself was unfit for business.The enemies of the church are watchful to take all advantages, and they never have greater advantage, than when her protectors have provoked God's Spirit and prophets to leave them.

17:4 Six cubits - At least, nine feet, nine inches high. And this is not strange; for besides the giants mentioned in Scripture, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, and Pliny, make mention of persons seven cubits high.

17:5 Coat of mail - Made of brass plates laid over one another, like the scales of a fish. The weight, etc - The common shekel contained a fourth part of an ounce; and so five thousand shekels made one thousand two hundred and fifty ounces, or seventy - eight pounds: which weight is not unsuitable to a man of such vast strength as his height speaks him to be.

17:6 Greaves - Boots.

17:7 Beam - On which the weavers fasten their web. It was like this for thickness. And though the whole weight of Goliath's armour may seem prodigious; yet it is not so much by far as one Athanatus did manage: of whom Pliny relates, That he saw him come into the theatre with arms weighing twelve thousand ounces. A shield - Probably for state: for he that was clad in brass, little needed a shield.

17:8 Come down - That the battle may be decided by us two alone.

17:11 Afraid - This may seem strange, considering the glorious promises, and their late experience of divine assistance. And where was Jonathan, who in the last war had so bravely engaged an whole army of the Philistines? Doubtless he did not feel himself so stirred up of God as he did at that time. As the best, so the bravest of men, are no more than what God makes them. Jonathan must sit still now, because this honour is reserved for David.

17:12 Old man - Therefore he went not himself to the camp.

17:15 Went - From Saul's court: where having relieved Saul, he was permitted to go to his father's house, to be sent for again upon occasion.

17:18 Pledge - That is, bring me some token of their welfare.

17:19 Fighting - That is, in a posture and readiness to fight with them; as it is explained, ver. Sa1 17:20-21.

17:20 Went, etc - Jesse little thought of sending his son to the camp, just at that critical juncture. But the wise God orders the time and all the circumstances of affairs, so as to serve the designs of his own glory.

17:24 Fled - One Philistine could never have thus put ten thousand Israelites to flight, unless their rock, being forsaken by them, had justly sold them and shut them up.

17:25 Free - Free from all those tributes and charges which either the court or the camp required.

17:28 Naughtiness - Thy false - confidence, and vain gloried curiosity.See the folly and wickedness of envy! How groundless its jealousies are, how unjust its censures, how unfair it representations? God preserve us from such a spirit!

17:29 A cause - Of my thus speaking? Is this giant invincible? Is our God unable to oppose him, and subdue him? However David is not deterred from his undertaking, by the hard words of Eliab. They that undertake public services must not think it strange, if they be opposed by those from whom they had reason to expect assistance, but must humbly go on with their work, in the face, not only of their enemies threats, but of their friends slights, suspicions, and censures.

17:30 He tarried - For being secretly moved by God's spirit to undertake the combat. He speaks with divers persons about it, that it might come to the king's ear.

17:32 Let no man's heart, etc - It would have reflected upon his prince to say, Let not thy heart fail: therefore he speaks in general terms, Let no man's heart fail. A little shepherd, come but this morning from keeping sheep, has more courage than all the mighty men of Israel!Thus doth God often do great things for his people by the weak things of the world.

17:33 A youth - Not above 20 years old; and a novice, a raw and unexperienced soldier.

17:37 The Lord, etc - The lion and the bear were only enemies to me and my sheep, and it was in defence of them I attacked them. But this Philistine is an enemy to my God and his people, and it is for their honour that I attack him.

17:38 Armour - With armour taken out of his armoury. He seems to speak of some military vestments which were then used in war, and were contrived for defence; such as buff - coats are now.

17:39 Proved them - I have no skill or experience in the managements of this kind of arms.

17:40 Staff - His shepherd's staff. These arms in themselves were contemptible, yet chosen by David; because he had no skill to use other arms; because he had inward assurance of the victory, even by these weapons; and because such a conquest would be more honourable to God, and most shameful, and discouraging to the Philistines.

17:41 Drew near - Probably a signal was made, that his challenge was accepted.

17:42 Fair - Not having so much as the countenance of a martial person.

17:43 Dog - Dost thou think to beat me as easily as thou wouldst thy dog?

17:46 A God - Heb. that God, the only true God, is for Israel; or on Israel's side, and against you. Or, that Israel hath a God, a God indeed, one who is able to help them; and not such an impotent idol as you serve.

17:47 Saveth - That is, that he can save without these arms, and with the most contemptible weapons. The battle - That is, the events of war are wholly in his power. He will - David speaks thus confidently, because he was assured of it by a particular inspiration.

17:48 Drew nigh - Like a stalking mountain.Ran - So far was he from fear!

17:49 Forehead - Probably the proud giant had lift up that part of his helmet which covered his fore - head; in contempt of David and his weapons, and by the singular direction of providence.

17:51 David took - Hence it appears, that David was not a little man, as many fancy; but a man of considerable bulk and strength, because he was able to manage a giant's sword. The stone threw him down to the earth, and bereaved him of sense and motion; but there remained some life in him, which the sword took away, and so compleated the work. God is greatly glorified, when his proud enemies are cut off with their own sword.

17:55 Whose son - David had been some considerable time dismissed from Saul's court, and was returned home. And therefore it is not strange, if Saul for the present had forgot David. Besides the distemper of Saul's mind might make him forgetful; and that David might be now much changed, both in his countenance and in his habit.I cannot tell - Abner's employment was generally in the camp, when David was at the court; and when Abner was there, he took little notice of a person so much inferior to him as David was.

18  David becomes the friend of Jonathan, the constant attendant of Saul, and the favourite of all the people, Sa1 18:1-5.
Saul's envy raised, Sa1 18:6-9.
He seeks to kill David, Sa1 18:10-11.
Is afraid of him, Sa1 18:12-16.
Promises to give him his elder daughter, and gives him the younger, hoping to destroy him thereby, but in vain, Sa1 18:17-27.
He is more feared by Saul and esteemed by the people, Sa1 18:28-30.

18:1 Loved him - For his excellent virtues and endowments, which shone forth both in his speeches and actions; for the service he had done to God and to his people; and for the similitude of their age and qualities.

18:2 Took him, etc - By which it appears, that before this David had not his constant residence at court.

18:5 Went - Upon military expeditions, of which that word is often used.

18:10 The evil spirit, etc - His fits of frenzy returned upon him.The very next day after he conceived envy at David, the evil spirit was permitted by God to seize him again. Such is the fruit of envy and uncharitableness. Prophesied - That is, he used uncouth gestures, and signs, as the prophets often did.

18:11 And Saul cast the javelin - Being now quite under the power of that evil spirit. Twice - Once now, and another time upon a like occasion, chap.Sa1 19:10.

18:12 Afraid - Lest as he had gained the favour of God and of all the people, he should also take away his kingdom.

18:13 Removed him from him - From his presence and court; which he did, because he feared lest David should find an opportunity to kill him, as he had designed to kill David; because his presence now made him more sad than ever his musick made him chearful: and principally, that hereby he might expose him to the greatest hazards.

18:18 What is my life - How little is my life worth, that by the exposing of that to some hazard, I should purchase a king's daughter!In these expressions David sheweth not only his humility, but also his wisdom, in discovering so deep a sense of his own meanness, that Saul might see how far he was from aspiring at the kingdom.

18:19 Adriel - The son of Bar - zillai, as he is called, Sa1 21:8. This was an act of great injustice; and accordingly thismarriage was accursed by God, and the children begotten in it, were, by God's appointment cut off, Sa1 21:8-9.

18:26 The days - That is, the time allowed by Saul to David for the execution of this exploit.

18:27 Two hundred - He doubled the number required; to oblige Saul the more to the performance of his promise; and to shew his great respect and affection to Saul's daughter.

18:30 Went forth - To war against the Israelites, being provoked by their former losses, and especially by that act of David's.

19  Saul is pacified by Jonathan, Sa1 19:1-7.
Attempts again to kill David, Sa1 19:8-10.
Is deceived by Michal, who sends David away, Sa1 19:11-17.
David flies to Ramah, and Saul prophesies, Sa1 19:18-24.

19:4 Spake good - Which he could not do without hazard to himself.Herein therefore he performed the duty of a true friend, and of a valiant man.

19:6 As the Lord, etc - And without all doubt, he intended what he said, feeling a real change in himself for the present. "God," says Mr. Henry, "inclined the heart of Saul to hearken to the voice of Jonathan."

19:8 And David, etc - So David continues his good service, tho' it was ill requited. They who are ill paid for doing good, yet must not be weary of well doing, remembering how bountiful a benefactor God is, even to the evil and unthankful.

19:9 The evil spirit - David's successes against the Philistines revived his envy, and the devil watched the opportunity, as he had done before.

19:13 Goats hair - Or, put great goats hair upon his bolster; upon the head and face of the image, which lay upon his bolster, that it might have some kind of resemblance of David's head and hair, at least in a sick man's bed, where there useth to be but a glimmering light.Covered it - Upon pretence of his being sick, and needing some such covering.

19:18 To Samuel - Both for comfort and direction in his distress; and for safety, supposing that Saul would be ashamed to execute his bloody designs in the presence of so venerable a person as Samuel.

19:20 Over them - To instruct and direct them in those holy exercises.For though they prophesied by Divine inspiration, yet they were both to prepare themselves for it before hand, and to make good improvement of it afterwards, in both which they needed Samuel's counsel and assistance.And whereas some might falsely pretend to those raptures; or the devil might transform himself into an angel of light, Samuel's presence and judgment was necessary to prevent and to detect such impostures. Besides, Samuel would by his present conjunction with them in those holy exercises, encourage them, and stir up others to the coveting of those gifts, and to the performance of such religious duties. Prophesied - Being inspired by God as Balaam was; that being wrapt up into such an extasy, their minds might be wholly taken off from their design of seizing David.

19:23 The spirit - It came upon him in the way; whereas it came not upon his messengers 'till they came to the place. Hereby God would convince Saul of the vanity of his designs against David, and that in them he fought against God himself.

19:24 Lay down - Heb. fell, down upon the earth; for his mind being in an extasy, he had not the use of his senses. God so ordering it, that David might have an opportunity to escape. Naked - That is, stript of his upper garments, as the word naked is often used; and it is here repeated to signify how long he lay in that posture. Day and night - So God kept him as it were in chains, 'till David was got out of his reach.Is Saul - The same proverb which was used before, is here revived, as an evidence of God's wonderful care over David; he made Saul in some sort a prophet, that he mightst make David a king.

20  David complains to Jonathan; and desires his help, Sa1 20:1-5.
Jonathan promises to give him intelligence, and confirms his friendship, Sa1 20:9-23.
He finds his father implacable, Sa1 20:24-34.
He gives David notice of it, in the manner they had agreed on, Sa1 20:35-42.

20:2 Is it not so - For Jonathan gave credit to his father's oath, chap.Sa1 19:6.

20:3 David sware - The matter being of great moment, and Jonathan doubting the truth of it, he confirms his word with an oath, which follows in the end of the verse. Only he interposeth a reason why Saul concealed it from Jonathan.

20:5 To the third day - That is, unto the next day, but one after the new moon. His meaning is not, that he would hide himself in any certain place all the three days, but that he would secure himself either at Bethlehem with his friends, or in any other place 'till the third day.

20:6 Asked me - Who being the king's son and deputy, used to give license to military men to depart for a season upon just occasions.

20:8 Deal kindly - In giving me timely notice, and a true account of Saul's disposition and intention towards me.A covenant of the Lord - That is, a solemn covenant, not lightly undertaken, but seriously entered into, in the name and fear of God, and in his presence, calling him to be the witness of our sincerity therein, and the avenger of perfidiousness in him that breaks it.Slay me - I am contented thou shouldst kill me. For why - Why shouldst thou betray me to thy father, by concealing his evil intentions from me?

20:12 O Lord God - Do thou hear and judge between us. It is an abrupt speech which is usual in great passions.

20:14 Kindness as the Lord - That kindness to which thou hast engaged thyself, in the covenant sworn between thee and me in God's presence.I die not - That thou do not kill me or mine, as princes of another line use to kill the nearest relations of the former line, from whom the kingdom was translated to them.

20:16 A covenant - The covenant which before was personal, he now extends to the whole house of David, expecting a reciprocal enlargement of it on David's side, which doubtless he obtained. Enemies - If either I or any of my house shall break this covenant, and shall prove enemies to David or to his house, let the Lord, the witness of this covenant, severely punish the violators of it.

20:17 Swear again - Heb. and Jonathan added or proceeded to make David swear; that is, having himself sworn to David or adjured David, in the foregoing verse, he here requires David's oath to him, by way of restipulation or confirmation. Loved him - Because he had a true friendship for David, he desired that the covenant might be inviolably observed through all their generations.

20:19 Was in hand - When this same business which now they were treating about, was in agitation formerly; namely, to discover Saul's mind and purpose towards him, chap.Sa1 19:2-3. Ezel - By that stone which directs travellers in the way; namely, in some cave, or convenient place, which was near it.

20:21 I will send - I will send him out before I shoot, to find out, and take up the arrows which I shall shoot. And I shall shoot them either short of him, or beyond him, as I shall see occasion.

20:23 Between - As a witness and a judge between us and our families for ever, if on either side this league of friendship be violated.

20:24 Hid himself - Namely, at the time appointed: for it seems probable, that he went first to Bethlehem, and thence returned to the field, when the occasion required.

20:25 Arose - He rose from his seat where he was sat next the king, and stood at Abner's coming, to do honour to him, who was his father's cousin, and the general of the army.

20:26 Something - Some accident which has rendered him unclean, and so unfit to partake of this feast, which consisted in part of the remainders of the peace - offerings, according to the law, Lev 7:20.Unfit also to come into any company, much more, into the king's company, lest he should pollute them also.

20:27 Son of Jesse - So he calls him in scorn, to note the meanness of his original; and as not deigning to call him by his proper name.To day - For the uncleanness which came by some chance, usually lasted but for one day.

20:30 Thy confusion - Men will conclude that thou hast no royal blood in thy veins, that canst so tamely give up thy crown to so contemptible a person.

20:33 To smite him - Saul seemed to be in great care, that Jonathan should be established in his kingdom: and now he himself aims at his life! What fools, what worse than savage beasts does anger make.

20:37 To - That is, near the place. For the words following shew, that he was not yet come thither.

20:40 Artillery - His bow, and arrows, and quiver.

21  David coming to Nob, takes the shew - bread, and Goliath's sword, Sa1 21:1-9.
Goes to Achish, and feigns himself mad, Sa1 21:10-13.
Is dismissed by Achish, Sa1 21:14-15.

21:1 Nob - A city of priests, where the tabernacle now was. Hither David resorted, for a supply of his necessities, which he supposed he might receive here, without danger of being betrayed into Saul's hands: and principally, that in this great distress, he might receive comfort and counsel from the Lord. Ahimelech - The chief priest, brother to that Ahiah, chap.Sa1 14:3, and he being now dead, his successor in the priesthood, for they were both sons of Ahitub. Was afraid - Suspecting some extraordinary cause of his coming in such a manner. Alone - For though David had some servants as is manifest from ver. Sa1 21:4-5, whom Jonathan probably had sent to a place appointed, yet they were left at another place: as David himself affirmeth, ver. Sa1 21:2.And David was now alone, as also he was when he fled to Achish.He who had been suddenly advanced to the highest honour, is as soon reduced to the desolate conditions of an exile. Such changes are there in this world, and so uncertain are its smiles.

21:2 The king, etc - This seems to be a plain lie extorted from him, by fear. But it was pernicious to all the priests there. Whence David afterwards declares his repentance for this sin of lying, Psa 119:29.To such a place - To a certain place which it not convenient now to mention; because the whole business requires concealment.

21:4 There is, etc - Here in the tabernacle: though doubtless he had other provisions is his house; but David was in great haste, and in fear of Doeg whom he saw, and knew and therefore would not stay 'till any thing could be fetched thence. There was a double impediment to the giving this bread to them;

  1. Its sacredness in itself; which the priest implies, and David answers ver. Sa1 21:5, and the priest was satisfied therein by David's great necessities.
  2. The abstinence from all women, which he supposed should be in those that use it; concerning which he now enquires. And though he mentions this only concerning David's young men, and out of reverence forbears to name him; yet he is also included in the number, as David's answer shews.

21:5 Three days - As long as the law required, Exo 19:15.And so long David, and his men hid, it seems, hid themselves for fear of Saul, whereby they were kept both from women: and from food convenient for them. Vessels - That is, Either,

  1. Their garments, or other utensils for their journey. Or
  2. their bodies.
The bread - Heb. and this bread; is in a manner common: that is,considering the time, and our necessity, this maybe used in a manner, like common bread. For though for a season while it is to stand before the Lord, it be so holy, that the priest himself might not eat it; yet afterwards it is eaten by the priest, and his whole family, and so it may be by us, in our circumstances. Tho' it were - But newly put into the vessel, it must give place to the great law of necessity, and charity; because God will have mercy preferred before sacrifice.

21:7 Detained - Not by force but by his choice; he fixed his abode there for that day; either because it was the sabbath - day; on which he might not proceed in his journey, or for the discharge of some vow.Before the Lord - That is, at the tabernacle. An Edomite - By birth, but he was proselyted to the Jewish religion.

21:9 Ephod - That is, behind that holy place allotted for the keeping of the sacred, or priestly garments; all which are here comprehended under the ephod; which, as the chief is put for all the rest. Here it was laid up as a sacred monument of God's power and goodness.None like it - Because it not only served him for his use, for he was a strong and tall man, and one that could wield that sword, but was also a pledge of God's favour to him. Whenever be looked upon it, it would be a support to his faith, by reminding him of what God had already done.

21:10 To Achish - A strange action; but it must be considered, that Saul's rage was so great, his power also, and diligence in hunting after him that he despaired of escaping any other way: and a desperate disease, produceth a desperate remedy. The king elect is here an exile: anointed to the crown, and yet forced to run his country. So do God's providences sometimes run counter to his promises, for the trial of our faith, and the glorifying his name in accomplishing his counsels, notwithstanding the difficulties that lie in the way.

21:11 King of the land - Of Canaan. They call him king, either more generally for the governor, the most eminent captain and commander, or, as the king elect, the person designed to be king: for, by this time, the fame of Saul's rejection, and David's destination to the kingdom, was got abroad among the Israelites, and from them, probably to the Philistines. Did they not sing, etc - And therefore consider what to do; and now our great enemy is in thy hand, be sure thou never let him go alive.

21:12 Was afraid - Lest either their revenge or policy should prompt them to kill him. Perhaps he was the more apprehensive, because he wore Goliath's sword, which was probably well known at Gath. He now learned by experience what he afterward taught us, Psa 118:9.It is better to trust in the Lord, than to put any confidence in princes.

21:15 Mad men - It is highly probable, Achish was aware, that this madness was counterfeit. But being desirous to preserve David, he speaks as if he thought it real.

22  David escapes to the cave of Adullam, where many resort to him, Sa1 22:1-2.
Lodges his parents with the king of Moab, Sa1 22:3-4.
Comes to the forest of Hareth, Sa1 22:5.
Saul complains of his servants as unfaithful to him, Sa1 22:6-8.
On the information of Doeg, he orders the priests of Nob to be slain, and their city destroyed, Sa1 22:9-19.
David is informed of this by Abiathar, Sa1 22:20-23.

22:2 Debt - Probably poor debtors, whom the creditors were obliged to spare, Exo 22:25. And though their persons were with David, yet their lands and goods were liable to their creditors.Captain over them - He did not maintain any injustice or wickedness, which some of them possibly might be guilty of; but on the contrary, he instructed and obliged them to the practice of all justice and honesty.

22:3  'Till I know, etc - He expresses his hopes very modestly, as onethat had entirely cast himself upon God, and committed his way to him, trusting not in his own arts or arms, but in the wisdom, power and goodness of God.

22:4 Hold - In holds; the singular number being put for the plural; as is frequent; that is, as long as David was forced to go from place to place, and from hold to hold, to secure himself: for it concerned David to secure his father, and he did doubtless secure him for all that time; and not only while he was in the hold of Mizpeh, or of Adullam, which was but a little while.

22:5 Abide not - Do not shut up thyself here. Judah - Go and shew thyself in the land of Judah, that thou mayest publicly put in thy claim to the kingdom after Saul's death; and that thy friends may be invited and encouraged to appear on thy behalf. Hereby also God would exercise David's faith, and wisdom, and courage; and so prepare him for the kingdom.

22:6 Spear - It seems, as an ensign of majesty, for in old times kings carried a spear instead of a sceptre.

22:7 Ye Benjamites - You that are of my own tribe and kindred, from whom David designs to translate the kingdom to another tribe. Will he distribute profits and preferments among you Benjamites, as I have done?Will he not rather prefer those of his own tribe before you?

22:8 That all, etc - See the nature of jealousy, and its arts of wheedling to extort discoveries of things that are not.

22:10 He enquired - David chargeth him with the sin of lying, Psa 52:3, and it is not improbable, that he told many lies not hereexpressed; and withal, he was guilty of concealing part of the truth, which in this case he was obliged to declare for Ahimelech's just defence, namely, the artifice whereby David circumvented Ahimelech: making him believe, that he was then going upon the king's business, so that the service he did to David, was designed in honour to Saul.

22:11 The priests - Of the house of Eli, which God had threatened to cut off, chap.Sa1 2:31.

22:14 And said - He doth not determine the difference between Saul and David; nor affirm what David now was: but only declared what David formerly had been, and what he was still, for anything he knew to the contrary.

22:15 Knew nothing of all this - Of any design against thee.

22:18 The Edomite - This is noted to wipe off the stain of this butchery from the Israelitish nation, and to shew, why he was so ready to do it, because he was one of that nation which had an implacable hatred against all Israelites, and against the priests of the Lord.

22:19 Both men, etc - In all the life of Saul, there is no wickedness to be compared to this. He appears now to be wholly under the power of that evil spirit which had long tormented him. And this destruction could not but go to the heart of every pious Israelite, and make them wish a thousand times, they had been content with the government of Samuel.

22:20 Abiathar - Who by his father's death was now high - priest.

23  David saves Keilah from the Philistines, Sa1 23:1-6.
His danger there, and deliverance from it, Sa1 23:7-13.
He remains in the wilderness of Ziph, and is visited by Jonathan, Sa1 23:14-18.
Saul pursues him, Sa1 23:19-25.
His narrow escape, Sa1 23:26-29.

23:1 The Philistines, etc - Probably it was the departure of God and David from Saul, that encouraged the Philistines to make this inroad. When princes begin to persecute God's people and ministers, let them expect nothing but vexation on all sides.

23:4 Enquired again - Not for his own, but for his soldiers satisfaction.

23:6 Ephod - With the Ephod, the high - priest's Ephod, wherein were the Urim and the Thummim, which when Ahimelech and the rest of the priests went to Saul, were probably left in his hand. This gave him the opportunity both of escaping, whilst Doeg the butcher was killing his brethren, and of bringing away the Ephod, which Saul now was justly deprived of.

23:11 The Lord said - From this place it may appear that God's answer by Urim and Thummim, was not by any change in the colour or situation of the precious stones in the breast - plate of the Ephod, but by a voice or suggestion from God to the high - priest.He will - He purposeth to come, if thou continuest here. For still as David's question, so God's answer, is upon supposition.

23:16 And strengthened - He comforted and supported him against all his fears, by minding him of God's infallible promises made to him, and his singular providence which hitherto had and still would be with him.

23:17 Next to thee - Which he gathered either from David's generosity, and friendship to him; or from some promise made to him by David concerning it. So that the whole imports thus much; I do not look to be king myself (as by my birth I might expect,) but that thou shalt be king (God having so appointed) and I but in a secondary place inferior to thee.

23:18 Made a covenant - They then parted, and never came together again, that we find, in this world.

23:19 Ziphites - Who were of David's own tribe tho' for this their unnatural carriage to him, he calls them strangers, Psa 54:3.

23:25 A rock - That is, into a cave which was in the rock; where at first he might think to hide himself, but upon farther consideration he removed from thence upon Saul's approach.

23:27 A messenger, etc - The wisdom of God is never at a loss for ways, and means to preserve his people.

23:28 Called, etc - That is, The rock of divisions, because there Saul was separated, and in a manner pulled asunder from David, who was now almost within his reach.

24  Saul pursues David to Engedi, Sa1 24:1-2.
David cuts off his skirt, Sa1 24:3-7.
He reasons with Saul, Sa1 24:8-15.
Saul owns his fault, and returns home, Sa1 24:16-22.

24:2 Rocks - Which the wild goats used to delight in and climb over.These very rocks are exceeding steep, and full of precipices, and dangerous to travellers, as an eye - witness hath left upon record. And yet Saul was so transported with rage, as to venture himself and his army here, that he might take David, who, as he thought, would judge himself safe, and therefore be secure in such inaccessible places.

24:3 Went in - To sleep there: Saul being a military man, used to sleep with his soldiers upon the ground. And it is not improbable, that being weary with his eager and almost incessant pursuit, first of David, then of the Philistines, and now of David again, he both needed and desired some sleep, God also disposing him thereto, that David might have this eminent occasion to demonstrate his integrity to Saul, and to all Israel. Of the cave - For that there were vast caves in those parts is affirmed, not only by Josephus, but also by Heathen authors; Strabo writes of one which could receive four thousand men.

24:4 Behold, etc - Not that God had said these words, or made any such promise; but they put this construction upon those promises which God had made to him, of delivering him from all his enemies, and carrying him through all difficulties to the throne. This promise they conceived put him under an obligation of taking all opportunities which God put into his hand for their accomplishment.

24:10 Mine eye - The eye is said to spare, because it affects the heart with pity, and moves a man to spare.

24:12 Will avenge - If thou persistest in thy injuries and cruel designs against me.

24:13 Wickedness, etc - That is, wicked men will do wicked actions, among which this is one, to kill their sovereign lord and king; and therefore if I were so wicked a person as thy courtiers represent me, I should make no conscience of laying violent hands upon thee.

24:16 Thy voice - He knew his voice, though being at a great distance from him, he could not discern his face. Wept - From the sense of his sin against God, and his base carriage to David. He speaks as one quite overcome with David's kindness, and as one that relents at the sight of his own folly and ingratitude.

24:17 More righteous than I - He ingenuously acknowledges David's integrity, and his own iniquity.

24:19 The Lord reward thee - Because he thought himself not able to recompense so great a favour, he prays God to recompense it.

24:22 Unto the hold - Of En - gedi, ver. Sa1 24:1, for having had by frequent experience of Saul's inconstancy, he would trust him no more.

25  Samuel's death, Sa1 25:1.
The character of Nabal, Sa1 25:2-3.
David's requests to him, Sa1 25:4-9.
His churlish answer, Sa1 25:10-13.
David's purpose to destroy him told to Abigail, Sa1 25:13-17.
She pacifies David, Sa1 25:18-31.
His answer, Sa1 25:32-35.
The death of Nabal, Sa1 25:36-38.
David marries Abigail and Ahinoam, Sa1 25:39-44.

25:1 Lamented him - Those have hard hearts, that can bury their faithful ministers with dry eyes, and are not sensible of the loss of them who have prayed for them, and taught them the way of the Lord.

25:2 Carmel - In some part of this wilderness Israel wandered, when they came out of Egypt. The place would bring to mind God's care concerning them, which David might now improve for his own encouragement.

25:3 Abigail - That is, the joy of his father: yet he could not promise himself much joy of her, when he married her to such an husband: it seems, in inquiring, (no unfrequent thing) more after his wealth, than after his wisdom. Caleb - This is added to aggravate his crime, that he was a degenerate branch of that noble stock of Caleb, and consequently of the tribe of Judah, as David was.

25:4 Shear sheep - Which times were celebrated with feasting.

25:6 Prosperity - By this expression David both congratulates Nabal's felicity, and tacitly minds him of the distress in which he and his men were.

25:7 We hurt not - This considering the licentiousness of soldiers, and the necessities David and his men were exposed to, was no small favour, which Nabal was bound both in justice, and gratitude, and prudence to requite.

25:8 A good day - That is, in a day of feasting and rejoicing; when men are most chearful and liberal; when thou mayst relieve us out of thy abundance without damage to thyself; when thou art receiving the mercies of God, and therefore obliged to pity and relieve distressed and indigent persons.

25:17 Can not speak - But he flies into a passion.

25:18 Abigail took, etc - This she did without his leave, because it was a case of apparent necessity, for the preservation of herself, and husband, and all the family from imminent ruin. And surely, that necessity which dispenseth with God's positive commands, might dispense with the husband's right, in this case. Bottles - Casks or rundlets.

25:22 Enemies of David - That is, unto David himself. But because it might seem ominous to curse himself, therefore instead of David, he mentions David's enemies. But is this the voice of David? Can he speak so unadvisedly with his lips? Has he been so long in the school of affliction, and learned no more patience therein? Lord, what is man?And what need have we to pray, lead us not into temptation.

25:24 And said, etc - Impute Nabal's sin to me, and if thou pleasest, punish it in me, who here offer myself as a sacrifice to thy just indignation. This whole speech of Abigail shews great wisdom, by an absolute submitting to mercy, without any pretence of justification, of what was done, (but rather with aggravation of it) she endeavours to work upon David's generosity, to pardon it. And there is hardly any head of argument, whence the greatest orator might argue in this case, which she doth not manage to the best advantage.

25:25 Nabal is his name - Nabal signifies a fool.

25:26 As Nabal - Let them be as contemptible as Nabal is, and will be for this odious action; let them be as unable to do thee any hurt as he is; let them be forced to yield to thee, and implore thy pardon, as Nabal now doth by my mouth: let the vengeance thou didst design upon Nabal and his family fall upon their heads, who, by their inveterate malice against thee, do more deserve it than this fool for this miscarriage; and much more than all the rest of our family, who, as they are none of thine enemies, so they were in way guilty of this wicked action. And therefore spare these, and execute thy vengeance upon more proper objects.

25:27 Blessing - So a gift or present is called here, and elsewhere; not only because the matter of it comes from God's blessing; but also because it is given with a blessing, or with a good will.Unto the young men - As being unworthy of thine acceptance or use.

25:28 The trespass - That is, which I have taken upon myself, and which, if it be punished, the punishment will reach to me.Sure house - Will give the kingdom to thee, and to thy house for ever, as he hath promised thee. And therefore let God's kindness to thee, make thee gentle and merciful to others; do not sully thy approaching glory with the stain of innocent blood; but consider, that it is the glory of a king, to profit by offences: and that it will be thy loss to cut off such as will shortly be thy subjects. The battles - For the Lord, and for the people of the Lord against their enemies; especially, the Philistines. And as this is thy proper work, and therein thou mayest expect God's blessing; so it is not thy work to draw thy sword in thy own private quarrel against any of the people of the Lord; and God will not bless thee in it.Evil hath not, etc - Though thou hast been charged with many crimes by Saul and others; yet thy innocency is evident to all men: do not therefore by this cruel act, justify thine enemies reproaches, or blemish thy great and just reputation.

25:29 A man - Saul though no way injured. Thy soul - To take away thy life. Bundle of life - Or, in the bundle: that is, in the society, or congregation of the living; out of which, men are taken, and cut off by death. The phrase is taken from the common usage of men, who bind those things in bundles, which they are afraid to lose. The meaning is, God will preserve thy life; and therefore it becomes not thee, unnecessarily to take away the lives of any; especially of the people of thy God. With the Lord - That is, in the custody of God, who by his watchful providence, preserves this bundle, and all that are in it; and thee in a particular manner, as being thy God in a particular way, and special covenant. The Jews understand this. not only of the present life, but of that which is to come, even the happiness of departed souls, and therefore use it commonly, as an inscription on their grave - stones. "Here we have laid the body, trusting the soul is bound up in the bundleof life with the Lord." Sling out - God himself will cut them off suddenly, violently, and irresistibly; and cast them far away; both from his presence, and from thy neighbourhood, and from all capacity of doing thee hurt.

25:31 No grief - The mind and conscience will be free from all the torment which such an action would cause in thee. By which, she intimates, what a blemish this would be to his glory, what a disturbance to his peace, if he proceeded to execute his purpose: and withal implies, how comfortable it would be to him to remember, that he had for conscience to God, restrained his passions. Causeless - Which she signifies would be done if he should go on. For though Nabal had been guilty of abominable rudeness, and ingratitude; yet he had done nothing worthy of death, by the laws of God or of man. And whatsoever he had done, the rest of his family were innocent. Avenged - Which is directly contrary to God's law, Lev 19:18 Sa1 25, Deu 32:35, .Then - When God shall make thee king, let me find grace in thy sight.

25:32 The Lord - Who by his gracious providence so disposed matters, that thou shouldst come to me: He rightly begins at the fountain of his deliverance; and then proceeds to the instruments.

25:33 From coming, etc - Which I had sworn to do. Hereby it plainly appears, that oaths whereby men bind themselves to any sin, are null and void: and as it was a sin to make them; so it is adding sin to sin to perform them.

25:35 Accepted - That is, shewed my acceptance of thy person, by my grant of thy request.

25:36 A feast - As the manner was upon those solemn occasions.Sordid covetousness, and vain prodigality were met together in him.Told nothing - As he was then incapable of admonition, his reason and conscience being both asleep.

25:37 His heart died - He fainted away through the fear and horror of so great a mischief though it was past. As one, who having in the night galloped over a narrow plank, laid upon a broken bridge, over a deep river; when in the morning he came to review it, was struck dead with the horror of the danger he had been in.

25:38 Smote - God either inflicted some other stroke upon him, or increased his grief and fear to such an height, as killed him.

25:39 Blessed, etc - This was another instance of human infirmity in David. David sent - But this doubtless was not done immediately after Nabal's death, but some time after it; though such circumstances be commonly omitted in the sacred history; which gives only the heads, and most important passages of things.

26  The Ziphites inform Saul of David, who pursues him again, Sa1 26:1-3.
David sends out spies, and views his camp, Sa1 26:4-5.
Comes to him, being asleep, and takes his spear and cruse of water, Sa1 26:6-12.
Reasons with him upon it, Sa1 26:13-20.
Saul again owns his spirit, and promises to pursue him no more, Sa1 26:21-25.

26:5 The Ziphites - Probably Saul would have pursued David no more, had not these wretches set him on.

26:6 Zerujah - David's sister. His father is not named either because he was now dead; or because he was an obscure person.

26:7 Came - That is, to Saul's host. It might seem a bold and strange attempt; but it may be considered:

  1. That David had a particular assurance that God would preserve him to the kingdom.
  2. That he had a special instinct from God, to this work; and possibly God might inform him, that he had cast them into a deep sleep, that he might have this second opportunity of manifesting his innocency towards Saul.

26:9 Destroy him not, etc - Though Saul be a tyrant, yet he is our Lord and king; and I, though designed king, as yet am his subject; and therefore cannot kill him without sin, nor will I consent that thou shouldst do it.

26:11 Take the spear - Which will shew where we have been, and what we could have done.

26:13 Afar off - That his person might be out of their reach, and yet his voice might be heard; which in a clear air, and in the silence of the night might be heard at a great distance.

26:14 Cried to the people - It is probable this was early in the morning.

26:19 The Lord - If the Lord hath by the evil spirit which he hath sent, or by his secret providence, directed thy rage against me for the punishment of thine, or my sins. An offering - Let us offer up a sacrifice to God to appease his wrath against us. Driven me - From the land which God hath given to his people for their inheritance, and where he hath established his presence and worship. Go serve - This was the language of their actions. For by driving him from God's land, and the place of his worship, into foreign and idolatrous lands, they exposed him to the peril of being either ensnared by their counsels, or examples; or forced by their power to worship idols.

26:20 Before the Lord - Remember, if thou dost it, God the judge of all men seeth it, and will avenge it; though I will not avenge myself.

26:21 My soul, etc - This second instance of David's tenderness wrought more upon Saul than the former. He owns himself melted and quite overcome by David's kindness to him. My soul was precious in thine eyes, which I thought had been odious. He acknowledges he had done very ill to persecute him: I have acted against God's law, I have sinned: and against my own interest, I have played the fool, in pursuing him as an enemy, who was indeed one of my best friends. And herein I have erred exceedingly, have wronged both thee and myself. Nothing can be more full and ingenuous than this confession: God surely now touched his heart. And he promises to persecute him no more: nor does it appear that he ever attempted it.

26:25 Blessed, etc - So strong was his conviction now, that he could notforbear blessing him, foretelling his success, applauding David, and condemning himself, even in the hearing of his own soldiers. And this, it seems, was their last interview. After this they saw each other no more.

27  David retires to Gath, Sa1 27:1-4.
Achish gives him Ziklag, Sa1 27:5-7.
David destroys the Canaanites, Sa1 27:8-9.
Persuades Achish he fought against Judah, Sa1 27:10-12.

27:1 I shall perish - But this was certainly a very great fault in David: for

  1. This proceeded from gross distrust of God's promise and providence; and that after such repeated demonstrations of God's peculiar care over him.
  2. He forsakes the place where god had settled him, chap.Sa1 22:5, and given him both assurance and experience of his protection there.
  3. He voluntarily runs upon that rock, which he cursed his enemies for throwing him upon, chap.Sa1 26:19, and upon many other snares and dangers, as the following history will shew; and withal, deprives the people of the Lord of those succours which he might have given them, in case of a battle.
But God hereby designed to withdraw David from the Israelites, thatthey might fall by the hand of the Philistines, without any reproach or inconvenience to David.

27:4 Sought no more for him - At their meeting Saul's heart was deeply wounded, and he had said, "Return, my son David, Be with me as in time past." Nor have we the least proof, that he would have sought for him again, with any other design.

27:5 Give me a place - A prudent desire. Hereby David designed to preserve his people, both from the vices, which conversation with the Philistines would have exposed them to; and from that envy, and malice, which diversity of religion might have caused. With thee - Which is too great an honour for me, and too burdensome to thee, and may be an occasion of offence to thy people.

27:6 Gave Ziklag - Not only to inhabit, but to possess it as his own.Which he did, to lay the greater obligations upon David, whom he knew so able to serve him. It was given to the tribe of Judah before, Jos 15:31,but the Philistines kept the possession of it 'till this time.And being given by them to David, it now belonged not to the tribe of Judah; but to the king of Judah, David and his heirs forever.To this day - This, and some such clauses seem to have been added, after the main substance of the several books was written.

27:8 Amalekites - The remnant of those whom Saul destroyed, chap.Sa1 15:3-9, who retired into remote and desert places.

27:9 Let neither man, etc - In that part where he came: but there were more of the Amalekites yet left in another part of that land.

27:10 David - These and the following words are ambiguous, and contrary to that simplicity which became David, both as a prince, and as an eminent professor of the true religion. The fidelity of Achish to him, and the confidence he put in him, aggravates his sin in thus deceiving him, which David seems penitently to reflect on, when he prays, Remove from me the way of lying.

28  The conference between Achish and David, Sa1 28:1-2.
The preparation of the Philistines, and the distress of Saul, Sa1 28:3-6.
He applies to a woman which had a familiar spirit, to raise Samuel, Sa1 28:7-11.
Samuel appears, and foretells his defeat and death, Sa1 28:12-19.
Saul faints, and is with difficulty persuaded to take any sustenance, Sa1 28:20-25.

28:2 Can do - He speaks ambiguously, as he did before.

28:5 He trembled - Had he kept close to God, he needed not fear all the armies of the Philistines.

28:7 That hath, etc - One that converseth with the devil, or dead men's ghosts, and by them can discover future things. See Isa 8:19.

28:8 Disguised - Both because he was ashamed to be known, or thought guilty of this practice; and because he suspected, the woman, had she known him, would not practice her art before him.

28:11 Samuel - Whose kindness and compassion as he had formerly experienced, so now he expected it in his deep distress. This practice of divination by the dead, or the souls of dead persons, was very usual among all nations.

28:12 Saw Samuel - The words are express, the woman saw Samuel, instead of the spirit whom she expected to see, God ordering it so for his own glory. She cried with a loud voice - Terrified and astonished, and thence easily conjectured, whom she had been talking with.

28:13 Gods - That is, a god, and divine person, glorious, and full of majesty and splendor, exceeding not only mortal men, but common ghosts.She used the plural number, gods, either after the manner of the Hebrew language, which commonly uses that word of one person: or, after the language and custom of the heathens.

28:14 A mantle - The usual habit of prophets, and particularly of Samuel, chap.Sa1 15:27.If it was not Samuel, but an other spirit in his shape, it is not true, that Saul perceived it was Samuel. It seems Saul did not see him, so soon as the woman, which occasioned his asking those questions.

28:15 Called Samuel - Happy had it been, if he had called Samuel sooner, or rather the God of Samuel! It was now too late: destruction was at hand and God had determined, it should not be stayed.

28:17 To him - To David.

28:19 Tomorrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me: "What do these solemn words portend?A gleam of hope when life shall end.Thou and thy sons, tho' slain shall beTo-morrow in repose with me.Not in a state of health or painIf Saul with Samuel doth remain;Not in a state of damn'd despair,If loving Jonathan is there."Tho' these words may only mean, ye shall surely die, without any reference to the state of their souls after death. See note on Sa1 31:8

28:20 Fell - As if the Archers of the Philistines had already hit him, and there was no strength in him, to bear up against these heavy tidings: especially, as we cannot doubt, but all his past sins were now brought to his remembrance and what authority has any man to affirm, that he felt no contrition all this time? Altho' it did not seem good to the holy ghost, to leave it upon record?

28:21 Came to Saul - From whom she departed, when she had brought him and Samuel together, that they might more freely converse together.

28:24 Unleavened - Not having time to leaven it.

29  The princes of the Philistines object against David's going with them to the battle, Sa1 29:1-5.
He is dismissed by Achish, Sa1 29:6-11.

29:2 With Achish - As the life - guard of Achish. Achish being, as it seems, the general of the army.

29:3 The princes - The Lords of the other eminent cities, who were confederate with him in this expedition. These days or years - That is, did I say days? I might have said years. He hath now been with me a full year and four months, chap.Sa1 27:7, and he was with me some years ago, Sa1 21:10, and since their time hath been known to me.And it is not improbable, but David, after his escape from thence, might hold some correspondence with Achish, as finding him to be a man of a more generous temper than the rest of the Philistines, and supposing that he might have need of him for a refuge, in case Saul continued to seek his life. Since he fell - Revolted, or left his own king to turn to me.

29:4 Make this fellow - Herein the wise and gracious providence of God appeared, both in helping him out of these difficulties, out of which no human wit could have extricated him, but he must have been, an ungrateful person either to the one or the other side, and moreover in giving him the happy opportunity of recovering his own, and his all from the Amalekites, which had been irrecoverably lost, if he had gone into this battle. And the kindness of God to David was the greater, because it had been most just for God to have left David in those distresses into which his own sinful counsel had brought him. These men - That is, of these our soldiers, they speak according to the rules of true policy; for by this very course, great enemies have sometimes been reconciled together.

29:8 David said etc - This was deep dissimulation and flattery, no way to be justified. None knows, how strong a temptation they are in to compliment and dissemble, which they are in who attend great men.

29:9 Angel of God - In whom nothing is blame - worthy. The Heathens acknowledged good spirits, which also they worshipped as an inferior sort of deities, who were messengers and ministers to the supreme God; Achish had learned the title of angels, from the Israelites his neighbours, and especially from David's conversation.

29:11 Rose up early - David did not then know, how necessary this was, for the relief of his own city. But God knew it well, and sent him thither accordingly. On how many occasions may he say, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter?

30  Ziklag plundered: David and his men distressed, Sa1 30:1-6.
Encouraged of God, he pursues them, Sa1 30:7-10.
He gains intelligence from a straggler, Sa1 30:11-15.
Routs the enemy, and recovers all they had taken, Sa1 30:16-20.
Makes an order for dividing the spoil, Sa1 30:21-25.
Sends presents to his friends, Sa1 30:26-31.

30:1 The south - Namely, the southern part of Judah, and the adjacent parts.

30:4 Wept - It is no disparagement to the boldest, bravest spirits, to lament the calamities of friends or relations.

30:6 Stoning him - As the author of their miseries, by coming to Ziklag at first, by provoking the Amalekites to this cruelty, and by his forwardness in marching away with Achish, and leaving their wives and children unguarded. Encouraged himself - That is, in this that the all - wise, and all - powerful Lord, was his God by covenant and special promise, and fatherly affection, as he had shewed himself to be in the whole course of his providence towards him. It is the duty of all good men, whatever happens, to encourage themselves in the Lord their God, assuring themselves, that he both can and will bring light out of darkness.

30:7 The ephod - And put it upon thyself, that thou mayst enquire of God according to his ordinance, David was sensible of his former error in neglecting to ask counsel of God by the ephod, when he came to Achish, and when he went out with Achish to the Battle; and his necessity now brings him to his duty, and his duty meets with success.

30:8 He answered - Before, God answered more slowly and gradually, chap.Sa1 23:11-12, but now he answers speedily, and fully at once, because the business required haste. So gracious is our God, that he considers even the degree of our necessities, and accommodates himself to them.

30:10 Four hundred - A small number for such an attempt: but David was strong in faith, giving God the glory of his power and faithfulness.

30:12 Three days and nights - One whole day and part of two others, as appears from the next verse, where he saith, three days ago I fell sick, but in the Hebrew it is, this is the third day since I fell sick.

30:13 Egypt - God by his providence so ordering it, that he was not one of that cursed race of the Amalekites, who were to be utterly destroyed, but an Egyptian, who might be spared. Left me - In this place and condition: which was barbarous inhumanity: for he ought, and easily might have carried him away with the prey which they had taken. But he paid dear for this cruelty, for this was the occasion of the ruin of him and all their company. And God by his secret providence ordered the matter thus for that very end. So that there is no fighting against God, who can make the smallest accidents serviceable to the production of the greatest effects.

30:14 Cherethites - That is, the Philistines. Caleb - This is added by way of explication: that part of the south of Judah which belongs to Caleb's posterity.

30:15 Will bring thee - For his master had told him whither they intended to go, that he might come after them, as soon as he could.

30:16 Upon all the earth - Secure and careless, because they were now come almost to the borders of their own country, and the Philistines and Israelites both were otherwise engaged, and David, as they believed, with them. So they had no visible cause of danger; and yet then they were nearest to destruction.

30:17 Twilight - The word signifies both the morning and evening twilight. But the latter seems here intended, partly because their eating, and drinking, and dancing, was more proper work for the evening, than the morning; and partly, because the evening was more convenient for David, that the fewness of his forces might not be discovered by the day - light.It is probable, that when he came near them, he reposed himself, and his army, in some secret place, whereof there were many parts, for a convenient season; and then marched on so as to come to them at the evening time.

30:20 Other cattle - Before those that belonged to Ziklag.David's spoil - The soldiers, who lately were so incensed against David, that they spake of stoning him: now upon this success magnify him, and triumphantly celebrate his praise; and say concerning this spoil, David purchased it by his valour and conduct, and he may dispose of it as he pleaseth.

30:21 Saluted them - He spoke kindly to them, and did not blame them because they went no further with them.

30:23 My brethren - He useth his authority to over - rule them; but manageth it with all sweetness, tho' they were such wicked and unreasonable men, calling them brethren; not only as of the same nation and religion with him, but as his fellow - soldiers. What God hath freely imparted to us, we should not unkindly and injuriously withhold from our brethren.

30:24 Part alike - A prudent and equitable constitution, and therefore practiced by the Romans, as Polybius and others note. The reason of it is manifest; because they were exposed to hazards, as well as their brethren: and were a reserve to whom they might retreat in case of a defeat; and they were now in actual service, and in the station in which their general had placed them.

30:26 Elders of Judah - Partly in gratitude for their former favours to him: and partly, in policy, to engage their affections to him.

31  Israel overthrown, and Saul, his three sons, his armour - bearer and all his men slain, Sa1 31:1-6.
The Israelites forsake their cities, Sa1 31:7.
The camp plundered and the dead bodies insulted, Sa1 31:8-10.
But rescued by the men of Jabesh - Gilead, Sa1 31:11-13.

31:2 Jonathan - David's dear friend; God so ordering it for the farther exercise of David's faith and patience; and that David might depend upon God alone for his crown, and receive it solely from him, and not from Jonathan; who doubtless, had he lived, would have speedily settled the crown upon David's head. There was also a special providence of God, in taking away Jonathan, (who of all Saul's sons, seems to have been the fairest for the crown) for preventing divisions, which might have happened amongst the people concerning the successor: David's way to the crown being by this means made the more clear. Abinadab - Called also Ishui, chap.Sa1 14:49.Ishbosheth was not here, being possibly at home for the management of affairs there.

31:8 Saul and his three sons - "The scripture, as Mr. Henry well observes, makes no mention of the souls of Saul and his sons, what became of them after they were dead: secret things belong not to us."

31:9 Cut off his head - As the Israelites did by Goliath, and fastened it in the temple of Dagon, Ch1 10:10.Idols - To give them the glory of this victory. And by this respect shewn to their pretended deities, how do they shame those, who give not the honour of their achievements to the living God?

31:12 Took the body, etc - This they did, not only out of a concern, for the honour of Israel, and the crown of Israel, but out of gratitude to Saul, for his zeal and forwardness to rescue them from the Ammonites.

31:13 Fasted - To testify their sorrow for the loss of Saul, and of the people of God; and to intreat God's favour to prevent the utter extinction of his people. But you must not understand this word of fasting strictly, as if they eat nothing for seven whole days; but in a more large sense, as it is used both in sacred and profane writers; that they did eat but little, and that but mean food, and drank only water for that time. This book began with the birth of Samuel, and ends with the death of Saul: The comparing these together will teach us to prefer the honour that comes from God, before all the honours of the world.

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10:5 Эти "пророки", объединившиеся в группы, приходили с помощью музыки и пляски в экстаз, становившийся заразительным. Их нельзя отождествлять с великими пророками Израиля (см Введение к пророкам).

12:20 Краткое изложение антимонархической доктрины: установление царской власти было тяжелым проступком (ср Ос 8:4, Ос 9:15), но Бог все же не отвергает избранного Им народа, при условии, что он впредь будет верен. Пророки будут ходатайствовать за него и направлять его.

13:7 В этом драма царствования Саула: избранный Богом, он спас свой народ (1 Цар 11и 1 Цар 14) и однако Бог его отвергает (1 Цар 13и 1 Цар 15). Начиная с предпочтения, оказанного Иакову перед Исавом (Быт 25:23; ср Рим 9:13), с избрания Израиля (Втор 7:6; Ам 3:2) и до призвания апостолов и даже каждого христианина вся свящ. история утверждает избрание по одному только Божиему соизволению. Но она утверждает также, что сохранение благодати зависит от верности избранного: Саул не был верен своему призванию и пытался присвоить себе духовную власть, сосредоточить в своих руках "Божие" и "кесарево".

14:10 Воля Божия проявляется в событии, близком или далеком. Она возвещается Богом (Исх 3:12) или Божиим человеком (1 Цар 2:34; 4 Цар 19:29), или, как здесь и в Быт 24:12сл; Суд 6:17-18и Суд 6:36-40; 4 Цар 20:8-10, вопрошающий сам выбирает знак, посредством которого может проявиться воля Божия.

14:18 О "кивоте" или "ефоде" см 1 Цар 2:18. Саул хочет знать волю Божию прежде, чем начинать бой (ср ст 1 Цар 14:37и 1 Цар 30:7сл). Вспомнив Суд 8:27, где ефод является предметом соблазна, поздний писец заменил здесь "ефод" "кивотом" (ковчегом).

14:19 Священник готовится вытянуть жребии. Саул его останавливает и идет в бой.

14:23 Филистимляне отброшены на дорогу, по которой вторглись (ср. ст 1 Цар 14:31). Это действительно большая победа: горная местность, расположенная в центре царства, освобождена.

14:24 Добровольный пост является средством к достижению победы, которая дается Богом.

15:22 Самуил не отвергает жертвоприношений, но указывает, что послушание, будучи внутренним расположением души, более приятно Богу, чем внешний обряд. Исполнять этот обряд против воли Бога значит поклоняться не Богу, а кумиру, впадать в идолопоклонство, которое избранный народ не отверг еще окончательно, как о том свидетельствуют библейские тексты, напр. Быт 31:19, Быт 31:30сл; 1 Цар 19:13.

16:13 "Почивал Дух Господень на Давиде" - без всякого внешнего знака и в непосредственной связи с помазанием Дух Божий знаменует здесь благодать, ниспосланную священному лицу. Имя "Давид" - старое семитское слово, означающее "начальствующий", "военный вождь".

16:14 Дух Господень (ср. Суд 3:10) покинул Саула (1 Цар 15:23), который теперь "одержим" злым духом. Его называют "злым духом от Бога" (стт 1 Цар 16:15-16, ср. 1 Цар 18:10; 1 Цар 19:9), ибо израильтяне все относят к Богу, как к первопричине. (Ср. дух распри, Суд 9:23, дух лжи, 3 Цар 22:19-22, дух опьянения, Ис 19:14, дух усыпления, Ис 29:10), Сознание своей отверженности Богом и отход от него Самуила действуют на необузданный характер царя и вызывают у него припадки безумия (1 Цар 18:10сл; 1 Цар 19:9сл).

16:16 Во всем древнем мире музыка применялась для возбуждения доброго духа (ср 1 Цар 10:5) или для изгнания злого.

24:5 Давид испытывает угрызения совести (ср. 2 Цар 24:10), ибо считалось, что одежда заменяет личность (ср. 1 Цар 18:4): притронуться к одежде значило прикоснуться к личности.

25:4 Стрижка овец давала повод для праздника, на котором богатый владелец был Давид воспользовался этим обстоятельством, чтобы потребовать налог т. н. права "братства", который кочевники взимали с соседних сел за оказанную им "защиту", заключавшуюся в том, что они их не грабили и отгоняли мародеров (ст. 1 Цар 25:16).

25:25 По-евр. "навал" означает безумца, одновременно глупого, нечестивого и злого (ср. Ис 32:5сл).

26:19 Считалось, что Господь настолько связан с израильской землей, Своим "наследием", что невозможно поклоняться Ему "за ее пределами, где царили другие боги". Поэтому и Нееман уносит с собой в Дамаск немного израильской земли (4 Цар 5:17). Заставить Давида уйти в изгнание - значит обречь его на отказ от Бога Израилева.

27:6 На границе земли филистимлян, северо-восточнее Вирсавии. Анхус отдает город Давиду, как вассалу, рассчитывая на его отряд для поддержания порядка в соседней пустыне.

28:13 "Выходящего из земли" - т.е. из шеола, подземного местопребывания умерших (ср. Числ 16:33).

Автор показывает Давида избранником Божиим, но в дальнейшем он подчеркивает его слабости, чтобы показать, что и величайший царь Израиля не был идеальным помазанником. Как и все люди, он грешит и должен нести ответственность за свои поступки.

1 и 2 кн Царств в еврейской Библии составляют одну книгу, под названием кн Самуила, которого считали их автором. Разделение на две книги восходит к греч переводу. В нем эти книги названы 1 и 2 кн Царств, и объединены с двумя следующими книгами, получившими название 3 и 4 кн Царств. В Вульгате первые две книги сохранили название книг Самуила (1 и 2), а две последующие называются 1 и 2 кн Царей. По сравнению с другими книгами ВЗ текст этих книг плохо сохранился. Греч перевод LXX довольно далек от евр — однако восходит к прототипу, значительные фрагменты которого найдены в Кумранских пещерах. Существовало, следовательно, несколько еврейских «рецензий» (вариантов) книг Самуила.

В 1 и 2 кн Царств можно различить пять частей: а) Самуил (Samuele 1 1-7); б) Самуил и Саул (Samuele 1 8-15); в) Саул и Давид (Samuele 1 16Samuele 2 1); г) Давид (Samuele 2 2-20); д) приложения (Samuele 2 21-24).

Автор этого труда комбинирует или просто располагает в последовательном порядке материалы различного, письменного или устного, происхождения о начале периода монархии. Приведен рассказ о ковчеге Завета и о его захвате филистимлянами (Samuele 1 4-6), продолжающийся в Samuele 2 6. Он обрамлен двумя другими рассказами: 1) о детстве Самуила (Samuele 1 1-2); 2) о том, как он в качестве последнего из Судей исполнял обязанности правителя; в заключении предвосхищается избавление от ига филистимлян (Samuele 1 7). Самуил играет первостепенную роль в деле учреждения царской власти (Samuele 1 8-12). В изложении ее становления уже давно различали две группы преданий: 9—10 1-16; 11 с одной стороны и 8, 10-17-24; 12 — с другой. Первую группу принято называть монархической версией данных событий, а вторую, считавшуюся позднейшей, — «антимонархической». В действительности же обе версии древнего происхождения и отражают лишь две различные тенденции. «Антимонархичность» второй заключается лишь в том, что она осуждает такого рода царскую власть, которая не достаточно считается с суверенной властью Бога. Войны Саула с филистимлянами описываются в гл 13—14, а первая версия об его отвержении дана в Samuele 1 13:7-13. Другая версия того же события излагается в гл 15 в связи с войной против амалекитян. Это утверждение подготавливает помазание Давида Самуилом (Samuele 1 16:1-13). Параллельные и, по-видимому, одинаково древние предания о первых шагах Давида и его столкновениях с Саулом находятся в Samuele 1 16:4Samuele 2 1, где часто встречаются повторения. Конец этой истории дан в Samuele 2 2-5: Давид в результате правления в Хевроне, войны с филистимлянами и взятия Иерусалима утверждается как царь всего Израиля (Samuele 2 5:12). В гл 6 автор возвращается к истории ковчега Завета; гл 7 содержит пророчество Нафана, а гл 8 представляет собою редакционное резюме.

С Samuele 2 9 по Re 1 1-2 рассказана история семьи Давида и ее борьбы за наследование престола; она описана очевидцем в первую половину царствования Соломона и прервана гл Samuele 2 21-24, в которых помещены документы различного происхождения, относящиеся к царствованию Давида.

Первая и вторая книги Царств охватывают период, простирающийся от возникновения израильской монархии до конца царствования Давида. Экспансия филистимлян — битва под Афеком (приблиз. в 1050 г) — поставила под угрозу само существование Израиля и принудила его установить монархию. Саул (около 1030 г) выступает сначала как судья, но будучи признан всеми коленами, становится их главою. Так возникает царская власть. Начинается освободительная война, и филистимляне вынуждены возвратиться в свои пределы (Samuele 1 14); позднейшие столкновения происходят уже на окраинах израильской территории, в Теревинфской долине (Samuele 1 17) и на Гельвуйской горе (Samuele 1 28 и Samuele 1 31). В этой последней битве, закончившейся полным поражением Израиля, погибает Саул (ок. 1010 г). Национальное единство снова под угрозой: в Хевроне «мужи Иудины» помазали на царство Давида, северные же колена противопоставили ему Иевосфея, потомка Саула, укрывшегося в Заиордании. Но убийство Иевосфея изменяет положение, и весь Израиль признает Давида царем.

2 кн Царств лишь кратко касается политических результатов царствования Давида, хотя они были весьма значительны. Филистимляне были окончательно изгнаны, объединение территории завершилось поглощением хананейских «островков» и, прежде всего, Иерусалима, ставшего политической и религиозной столицей царства. Покорено было все Заиорданье, и Давид распространил свою власть на южную Сирию. Однако после смерти Давида (ок. 970 г) оказалось, что национальное единство не стало еще достаточно прочным. Хотя Давид был царем Израиля и Иуды, они не раз противостояли друг другу: мятеж Авессалома был поддержан северянами, а Сива, из колена Вениаминова, пытался возмутить народ криком: «К шатрам твоим, Израиль!». Раскол уже предчувствовался.

Религиозный смысл этих книг в том, что в них указываются условия и трудности установления теократического порядка на земле. Этот идеал был достигнут при Давиде. До него мы видим неудачу Саула, а после него — нечестивых царей, поведение которых вызвало гнев Божий и привело к национальной катастрофе. С пророчеством Нафана пробуждается мессианская надежда, питаемая обетованиями, данными дому Давидову. Авторы НЗ-ных книг трижды ссылаются на него (Atti 2:30; Corinzi 2 6:18; Ebrei 1:5). Иисус — потомок Давида, и наименование «сын Давида», данное ему народом, является признанием Его как Мессии. Отцы Церкви проводили параллель между жизнью Давида и жизнью Иисуса Христа, избранного для спасения всех, царя духовного Израиля и все же, подобно Давиду, гонимого Своими.

В еврейской Библии исторические книги (Иисуса Навина, Судей и Царств) называются «Небиии ришоним». т.е. «Ранние пророки», в противоположность «Поздним пророкам»: Исайе, Иеремии, Иезёкиилю, Даниилу и двенадцати «малым пророкам». Предание приписывало их составление пророкам: Иисусу Навину, Самуилу и Иеремии. Уже само название этих книг свидетельствует о том, что составители не являются историками в древнем и, тем более, современном смысле слова. Они — глашатаи Слова Божия, избравшие главной темой своих книг отношение Израиля с Ягве, его верность или неверность — неверность в особенности — Богу Завета. Приводя примеры из прошлого, они излагают религиозное учение, выступают как пророки и наставники народа. Их интересуют не столько минувшие события, сколько уроки, которые можно из них извлечь.

Однако назидательный характер «Ранних пророков» не лишает их повествование исторической ценности. Составители этих книг опираются на обширный материал первостепенной важности и значения. Это не только устные рассказы и древний эпос, но и биографии великих людей Израиля, написанные вскоре после их кончины, а также государственные летописи Израильского и Иудейского царств, на которые свящ. писатели часто ссылаются (Sa2 1:18; Ki1 11:41; Ki1 14:19; ср Ch2 27:7).

Исторические книги составляют одно целое, завершенное не ранее 562 г до Р.Х. (Ki2 25:27). В Библии они следуют непосредственно за Пятикнижием: в конце кн Втор Иисус Навин указан как преемник Моисея, а события кн Ис Нав начинаются как раз на другой день после смерти законодателя Израиля.

Духовный смысл сборника можно кратко сформулировать следующим образом: Ягве, положив начало существованию Своего народа, ведет его по пути восхождения к тому времени, когда Он окончательно воцарится в мире (Царство Божие). Для этого Он отдает Израилю Землю Обетованную, поставляет Давида монархом и обещает его потомку вечную власть в эсхатологическом Царстве. Но в то же время составители исторических книг сурово и беспощадно обличают народ Божий за его неверность Завету. Эта неверность является прямой причиной тех бедствий, которые обрушиваются на Израиль. Таким образом история превращается в урок и предупреждение. Она содержит призыв к покаянию, который с особой силой прозвучал в эпоху плена Вавилонского.

Второзаконие исторически обосновало учение об избранности Израиля и определило вытекающее отсюда его теократическое устройство; вслед затем кн Ис Нав рассказывает о поселении избранного народа в Обетованной Земле, кн Судей излагает чередование отступничеств и помилований, 1 и 2 кн Царств повествуют о кризисе, приведшем к установлению царской власти и подвергшем опасности теократический идеал, который затем осуществляется при Давиде; 3 и 4 кн Царств описывают упадок, начавшийся при Соломоне: несмотря на благочестие некоторых царей, произошел целый ряд отступничеств, за которые Бог покарал Свой народ.

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10:5  Холм Божий, т. е. одна из известных тогда в народе жертвенных высот (см. прим. к 7:9).

Помимо отмеченного, холм имел и иное — военное назначение, служа для филистимлян опорным пунктом их власти в Ханаане (см. прим. к 9:16).

Встретишь сонм пророков, сходящих с высоты. «Сонмы» пророков — это религиозно-воспитательные и образовательные пророческие общества, впоследствии носившие названия пророческих училищ, первоначальное основание и устройство которых было сделано пророком Самуилом. Изучение слова Божия, упражнение в молитве, пение (под аккомпанементы музыки) священных гимнов были главными предметами занятий в этих обществах. Члены последних назывались «пророками» за свое восторженно-одушевленное прославление имени Божия, а также «сынами» или «учениками пророческими» (3 Цар 20:35; 4 Цар 2:3,5,15), потому что воспитывались под руководством боговдохновенных пророков, называвшихся их «отцами» (4 Цар 2:12). При Самуиле члены пророческой общины имели свое пребывание в Раме Самуиловой (1 Цар 19:18-24); в позднейшее время, при Илии и Елисее, мы видим пророческих учеников в разных городах южного Ханаана: в Галгале (4 Цар 2:1), в Вефиле (4 Цар 2:3), в Иерихоне (4 Цар 2:5,15).

«Сонмы» неподкупных стражей закона Иеговы, восторженных глашатаев Его святой, совершенной и благой воли должны были стать, — и были на самом деле в течение всей ветхозаветной истории, — сильным противовесом народного увлечения в мрачные и гибельные дебри языческого беззакония. Глубокая убежденность истинного ведения, священный огонь религиозного воодушевления, полная правдивость и нелицеприятие обличительных речей учеников пророческих школ оказывали на народ сильное впечатление и немало содействовали богопризванным пророкам в их великой и трудной миссии религиозного уврачевания народа.

Псалтирь, тимпан, свирель, гусли — музыкальные инструменты евреев того времени: псалтирь и гусли — струнные; свирель — духовой; тимпан — вроде нашего тамбурина или бубна.

И они пророчествуют. «Пророчествовать» на библейском языке не всегда означает «предсказывать». В данном случае, как и нередко в Библии (напр., Чис 11:25; 1 Цар 10:6,10,13; 19:20 и др.), выражение «пророчествовать» можно понимать в смысле — прославлять Бога и Его чудные дела в восторженных хвалебных гимнах, что предполагает, разумеется, особый подъем духовных сил человека. С временным прекращением этого подъема прекращается и «пророчествование» (Чис 11:25; 1 Цар 10:13 и др.).

10:6  И ты будешь пророчествовать. См. прим. к концу 5 ст.

10:7-8 Наставление и вместе испытание для Саула: получая известную свободу действий (ст. 7), нареченный царь евреев отнюдь не должен был забывать того обстоятельства, что в вопросах высшего порядка он лишь исполнитель воли Небесного Царя народа; посредник между Богом и народом, истолкователь и провозвестник божественной воли — пророк — есть и будет в отношении царя тем же самым, что и в отношении каждого из народа. См. прим. к 8:6.

10:8  Галгал — город священных воспоминаний (Нав 4:4; 5:5); расположен на восток от Иерихона, вблизи р. Иордан.

10:9  Бог дал ему иное сердце — под воздействием божественного помазания Саул внутренне как бы переродился, получил возможность быть тем, чем должен стать в своем новом звании (см. прим. к 8:6).

И сбылись все те знамения: см. 1-7 ст.

10:10  И он пророчествовал среди них — см. прим. к концу 5 ст., а также к 9 ст.

10:12  А у тех кто отец? Указывая на сынов пророческих, спрашивающий дает понять, что нравы и положение родителей в данном случае ни при чем, так как дар пророческий не наследственен. Тем не менее, недоумение при виде «пророчествовавшего Саула» было так велико, что увековечилось в пословице. Когда впоследствии желали выразить изумление по поводу какой-нибудь неожиданной перемены, то говорили: «Неужели и Саул во пророках!»

10:13 См. прим. к концу 5 ст.

10:17 Город Массифа (к западу от Гивы Вениаминовой, к северо-западу от Иерусалима) и прежде бывал местом религиозно-общественных собраний народа (Суд 20:1; 21:1; 1 Цар 7:5).

10:18-19  А вы отвергли Бога (ср. 8:7-8). См. прим. к 8:6.

Итак, предстаньте теперь пред Господом, чтобы узнать, кого Господь избирает вам в цари.

10:20  И указано — через жребий. «Жившие порочно, — замечает блаж. Феодорит, — не всегда верили Божиим пророкам. Посему, чтобы не думали, будто приговор сделан по человеческой милости, Самуил приказал бросить жребий» (Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 22).

10:22  И вопросили еще Господа — чрез какое-либо знамение. Если же выражение 17 стиха «к Господу в Массифу» понимать в том смысле, что к этому времени в Массифу была перенесена скиния, то вопросить Господа евреи могли и иным путем, — через посредство первосвященника и вверенного ему таинственного наперсника.

10:23  От плеч своих выше всего народа, т. е. выше всех головой.

10:24 Физические достоинства человека в древности ставились очень высоко; по ним нередко измерялись и его внутренне достоинства (16:7). Там, где главное назначение того или иного человека усматривалось в обязанности защищать вверенные ему интересы путем применения физической силы, вышеотмеченные достоинства человека имели, конечно, решающее значение. По свидетельству Геродота (III, 20; VII, 187), ефиопляне избирали своим царем того, кто был выше других ростом. Того же физического соответствия своему предполагаемому назначению хотели видеть в своем царе и евреи (VIII, 20). Увидев рослую, могучую фигуру Саула, народ с восторгом закричал: Да живет царь!

Господь попустил совершиться избранию Саула, дабы евреи осязательно убедились в том, что для теократического государя (см. прим. к 8:6) грубая физическая сила не составляет главного требуемого качества (16:1,7); дабы опытно осведомившись о том, каким не может быть их царь, сознательнее отнеслись к божественному указанию в лице преемника Саула (16:1,7) о том, каким он должен быть.

10:25  Права царства, записанные Самуилом и положенные пред ковчегом Господним, нужно отличать от изображенной им пред народом картины обычного в то время на Востоке поведения царя (8:11-18). В противоположность означенной картине и в соответствии с Втор 17:14-20 Самуил, по всей вероятности, изобразил в «Правах царя» тот желательный, с теократической точки зрения (см. прим. к 8:6), идеал царя, которому должен следовать царь евреев.

Впрочем, действительное содержание этого важного документа не дошло до нас.

10:26 Город Гива Вениаминова расположен к югу от Рамы Самуиловой и к северу от Иерусалима.

Которых сердца коснулся Бог, т. е. сердце которых радостно отозвалось на избрание царем богатыря Саула.

10:27  И не поднесли ему даров, по случаю избрания в цари. Предполагается, что другие сделали эти дары и тем выразили свое почтительное приветствие новоизбранному.

Но он как бы не замечал этого: простое благоразумие требовало отнестись спокойно к частичной вспышке неудовольствия, иначе она могла перейти в пожар междоусобия.

11:1  Спустя около месяца — после избрания Саула на царство.

Наас аммонитянин — царь аммонитян. Аммонитяне жили в южных пределах восточного Заиорданья.

Иавис Галаадский — город, находившийся в средней части восточного Заиорданья, Галааде.

11:2 Кроме наносимого бесчестия Израилю, лишение покоренных правого глаза могло иметь и иную цель. Лишая жителей Иависа именно правого глаза, Наас «хотел сделать их неспособными к войне, потому что держащий в левой руке щит закрывает им левый глаз, правый же смотрит на врагов». Поэтому лишение правого глаза легко может повести к поражению тех, кто лишены его (блаж. Феодорит. Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 23; ср. Иосиф Флавий. Иуд. древн. VI, 5, §1).

11:3  Выйдем к тебе, чтобы исполнить твое требование.

11:5  И вот пришел Саул позади волов с поля. Очевидно, он продолжал еще вести ту трудовую земледельческую жизнь, которую вел до своего избрания в цари. Царский быт и царская обстановка явились позднее.

11:6  И сошел на Саула Дух Божий — дух благородной решимости идти и освободить невинно угнетаемых, в полной уверенности, что Господь не оставит его своей помощью.

11:7 «Для уразумения какой-нибудь мысли, для ее полного усвоения, древнему человеку необходим был более или менее яркий образ. Еврей, еще не испытавший, что такое царская власть, тогда только мог вполне постигнуть ее силу, когда ему сказали, что за неповиновение царю он лишится вола, самого дорогого предмета в земледельческом хозяйстве, и при этом показали, для наглядности, кусок разрубленного вола» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. Казань, 1884, с. 34-35).

11:8  Везек — город в средней части западного Заиорданья, против Иависа Галаадского.

Мужи Иудины — воины из колен Иуды и Симеона; сыны Израилевы — воины из остальных колен, кроме колена Левия, освобожденного от исполнения воинских обязанностей в силу своего постоянного служения при скинии Господней.

Распадение еврейского народа на Иуду и Израиль чувствуется еще задолго до окончательного разделения еврейской монархии на царства Иудейское и Израильское. (Подробнее об этом см. в соч. Покровского «Разделение Еврейского царства на Иудейское и Израильское».)

11:11  В средину стана неприятелей.

Во время утренней стражи, т. е. во время от 2 до 6 часов утра. В древние времена ночь у евреев разделялась на три стражи, по четыре часа каждая. Первая продолжалась от 6 до 10 часов вечера, вторая — от 10 часов вечера до 2 часов утра, и третья, называвшаяся утренней стражей, от 2 до 6 часов утра. Со времени подчинения евреев римскому господству евреи усвоили деление вышеозначенных часов ночи на четыре стражи, по три часа в каждой, подобно тому, как это было принято у римлян (Мф 14:25; Мк 13:35).

11:12 Ср. 10:27. Очевидно, военный подвиг Саула сломил последнее сомнение народа в том, что он может быть желанным (8:20) царем Израиля.

11:13 Ср. гл. 10, конец 27 ст.

11:14-15 Единодушное признание Галгальским всенародным собранием Саула царем над Израилем загладило собой ту опасную раздвоенность общественного мнения, которая обнаружилась в отношении Саула при его первом избрании в Массифе (10:27). Когда власть царя была признана всем народом, пророк Самуил получал возможность беспрепятственно сложить с себя звание судии евреев.

11:15  15. И принесли там мирные жертвы: см. прим. к 7:9. Но можно допустить, что выражение «пред Господом» указывает на временное присутствие в Галгале скинии Господней (ср. 10:17,19,22).

12:1-5 Смысл речи таков: «Желание ваше исполнено, вы имеете царя, такого, какого хотели. Моя деятельность судии среди вас закончена. Не знаю, каков будет для вас царь; что же касается меня, то я не могу упрекнуть себя в какой-либо несправедливости в отношении вас». Народ засвидетельствовал правду слов Самуила, после чего пророк обратился к народу со словом назидания, вполне уверенный в том, что народ увидит в этом назидании одно лишь желание блага этому народу (6-25 ст.)

12:6-25 Смысл увещания пророка таков: «До сих пор у вас не было царя, однако Господь Бог всегда спасал вас от врагов ваших, как только вы обращались к Нему. А потом вдруг потребовали себе для защиты от врагов земного царя! Как будто Господь уже не может больше спасать вас и как будто земной царь сам по себе может доставить вам это спасение! Вы обнаружили постыдное маловерие к помощи Божией и излишнее упование на силу собственного копья и меча. Знайте же, что как без царя вы спасались от врагов только тогда, когда не уклонялись от Господа и служили Ему от всего сердца вашего, так точно будет и при царе. Царская власть будет бессильна спасти вас, как скоро в вас самих не будет внутренней нравственной силы. Если вы и царь ваш будете ходить вслед Господа-Бога вашего, то вас не постигнет зло; если же станете противиться повелениям Господа, то ведайте: погибнете вы и царь ваш. А что все, сказанное мною, справедливо, Господь подтвердит сейчас знамением» (ст. 16-18).

12:17  Не жатва ли пшеницы ныне? Но я воззову к Господу, и пошлет Он гром и дождь. В Палестине бывает в году два периода дождей — ранний и поздний (Втор 11:14): ранний (применительно к началу гражданского года евреев с сентября месяца) — это осенний период дождей, падающий на октябрь и ноябрь месяцы; поздний — весенний, падающий на конец февраля, март и начало апреля. В мае же и начале июня, когда совершается уборка пшеницы, дождя совсем не бывает: ханаанский дождь в это время был бы так же странен, как, по выражению Премудрого, свет летом (Притч 26:1).

13:1  Год был по воцарении Саула и другой год царствовал он над Израилем, т. е. во второй год по воцарении Саула над Израилем.

Три тысячи израильтян — в качестве постоянного военного отряда.

13:2  Михмас — город на северо-восток от Гивы Вениаминовой.

Возвышенность Вефиля — на север от Гивы Вениаминовой.

13:3  Охранный отряд филистимлян, который был в Гиве — см. прим. к 9:16. Очевидно, Гива Вениаминова входила уже в район филистимских захватов, и в ней (вернее, около нее) расположен был наблюдательный и охранный отряд филистимлян. Неудивительно, что подобное соседство не могло особенно понравиться царю евреев.

13:5  Беф-Авен = Аиалон (14:23,31); расположен к юго-западу от Гаваона.

13:6-7 «Потому ли, что война была начата не по единодушному взрыву народного чувства, а по личным соображениям Саула; или потому, что гром железного оружия филистимлян наводил панический страх на евреев (см. прим. к 9:16), но вышло так, что евреи упали духом: только часть их последовала за Саулом в Галгал (для жертвоприношения Богу); наибольшая же масса спряталась в пещеры, в терновые кустарники, в ущелья гор, в башни и ямы; многие бросились даже за Иордан» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 41).

13:8-14 См. прим. к 7:6 и к 10:8. Не исполнив воли пророка Господня, Саул нарушил не простую формальность, а один из существеннейших законов, положенных в основу власти еврейского царя (Втор 17:14-20). И пророк Самуил, как верный страж теократии еврейского народа, не мог оставить это нарушение закона без энергичного протеста и обличения.

13:17  Офра Вениаминова — на север от Михмаса.

13:18  Вефорон (Верхний и Нижний) — на запад от Михмаса. Цевоим — к юго-востоку от Михмаса, по направлению к пустыне Иерихонской.

14:13-23 Подвергшись быстрому и ловкому нападению, филистимляне пришли в ужас и, вообразив, что по беспечности подпустили к себе целый отряд неприятеля, скрытый ущельем гор (4-6 ст.), ударились в дикое бегство, произвели страшный переполох в лагере при Михмасе и смутили прочие филистимские отряды. Смятению филистимлян содействовало еще и то обстоятельство, что в их войске было много евреев. Ободренные благоприятным оборотом дела, они обнажили мечи против своих утеснителей. К ним присоединились и те из израильтян, которые в начале филистимского нашествия в страхе попрятались было в ущелья и ямы (см. прим. к 13:6-7).

14:18-23  Тогда сказал Саул священнику (Ахии): сложи (молитвенно) руки твои (ст. 19), дабы через посредство святыни (ст. 18) уразуметь нам волю Божию. И воскликнул Саул и весь народ, бывший с ним (ст. 20): Господь дал понять евреям, что филистимляне преданы в руки их. Само собой понятно, что, удостоверившись в происшедшем смятении филистимлян, Саул бросился со своим войском довершать поражение неприятелей и преследовал их от Михмаса до Беф-Авена (Аиалона).

14:18  Кивот — в греческом переводе: ефот.

14:24-34  Саул весьма безрассудно заклял весь народ. Последствия необдуманного заклятия Саулом своих воинов сказалось очень скоро. «Первым результатом его было то, что клятва была нарушена, и именно тем, кто всего более думал о преследовании неприятелей, всего более содействовал их поражению — героем дня, царевичем Ионафаном, не знавшим о заклятии. Когда наступил вечер, изголодавшийся народ с остервенением бросился на филистимскую добычу — мелкий и крупный скот — и предался кровавой еде почти сырого, дымящегося мяса, в противность прямому постановлению закона (Втор 12:16,23 ). Так что для прекращения беспорядка Саул принужден был лично наблюдать за надлежащим приготовлением для еды каждого животного» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 51-52).

14:28  И просветлели глаза его, померкнувшие от утомления и голода.

14:29  Смутил отец мой землю, дав неосторожную клятву.

14:33-34  Привалите ко мне теперь большой камень (33 ст.) и затем пусть каждый приводит ко мне своего вола и каждый свою овцу и закалайте здесь (на камне) и ешьте и не грешите пред Господом, не ешьте с кровью (34 ст.).

14:35 Замечание, очень характерное для личности Саула: только теперь, восторжествовав над врагами, Саул почувствовал потребность самостоятельного жертвоприношения Господу Богу, без побуждения на то со стороны пророка Самуила (10:8; 13:8).

14:36  Приступим здесь к Богу, дабы узнать Его волю.

14:37  И вопросил Саул Бога, через посредство Святыни Господней (см. 18-19 ст.).

14:38  На ком ныне грех, препятствующий нам узнать волю Господню?

14:39-45  Но никто не отвечал ему из всего народа. Народ, несомненно, знал о нарушении Ионафаном Саулова заклятия (27-30 ст.), но, сознавая безрассудство этого заклятия (24 ст.) и питая вполне законное чувство любви и благодарности к герою дня Ионафану, которому, видимо, сам Бог помогал в одолении врагов (ст. 42,45), решил не допустить Саула до совершения другого, еще худшего, безрассудства. И освободил народ Ионафана, и не умер он (45 ст.).

14:47  Моав — на восточном берегу Мертвого моря; Аммон — в южных пределах восточного Заиорданья; Вефор — одно из неизвестных в настоящее время племен; Сова (или Сува, Цоба) — государство в Сирии; филистимляне занимали юго-западный угол Ханаана.

14:52  Брал его к себе, в ополчение.

15:2 См. Исх 17:8-16. Амаликитяне — кочевники северной части Синайского полуострова, между Идумеей и Египтом.

15:3  И Иерима (ср. ст. 8). Предполагают, что Иерим был один из предводителей амаликитян, чем-либо особенно выделявшийся среди других их начальников.

15:4  Телаим — на юге Ханаана, вблизи иудейской границы.

15:6 Кинеяне — одно из племен среди амаликитян (ср. Исх 2:15-21; Чис 10:29-33; Суд 1:16), дружественное евреям.

15:7 Точное местоположение Хавилы неизвестно. Сур — часть аравийской пустыни, прилегающая к Египту (Быт 16:7; Исх 15:22).

15:9 Новое нарушение со стороны Саула воли пророка Господня (ср. 13:8-14; 15:1-3. См. прим. к 8:6).

15:10-11 Ср. 13:8-14. И опечалился Самуил и взывал ко Господу целую ночь, прося вразумить его относительно того, как он должен поступить теперь с Саулом.

15:12 Упоминаемый здесь Кармил — город Иудина колена, расположенный на юг от Хеврона.

Поставил себе памятник (какой-либо столб с надписью) — в ознаменование и увековечение одержанной победы. Вероятно, и Агаг был пощажен (ст. 9) не ради самого Агага, а дабы увеличить его присутствием блеск триумфатора.

15:13  Когда пришел Самуил для принесения жертвы — ср. 10:8; 11:14-15; 13:8-11. См. прим. к 7:9.

Я исполнил слово Господа — см. ст. 1-3.

15:15 Девятый стих заставляет предполагать, что Саул и его войско оставили себе лучшее из достояния амаликитян далеко не по религиозным соображениям.

15:17-19 Отмечается неблагодарность Саула. Воздвигнутый из ничтожества (ст. 17) на высоту царского престола Саул не обнаружил должного подчинения воли Воздвигшего его.

15:21 См. прим. к 15 ст.

15:22-23 См. 1-3,10-11,17-19 ст.

15:24-31 Саул сознавал, что он согрешил, нарушив волю Божию, но не чувствовал этого греха, не терзался внутренним очищающим раскаянием. Внешне честолюбивую душу Саула угнетала мысль не столько о том, что его может покинуть Господь, сколько о том, что его сейчас оставит разгневанный пророк Господень и своим уходом уронит его престиж пред князьями и народом. Щадя не Саула, а честь еврейского царя, Самуил остался и совершил положенное жертвоприношение.

15:32-33 Ср. ст. 3.

15:35  Потому что Господь раскаялся, что воцарил Саула (ср. ст. 10-11; 16:1,7): человекообразное выражение, говорящее о том, что первый царь евреев не воспользовался богодарованными ему средствами для того, чтобы быть ревностным орудием воли Божией на благо свое и вверенного ему народа.

16:1  Иессей из Вифлеема Иудейского — внук Вооза, женившегося на моавитянке Руфь (см. кн. Руфь), прямой потомок Наасона, князя Иудина колена при Моисее (Чис 1:7; 1 Пар 2:10).

16:2 Опасение Самуила понятно: с одной стороны, он боялся преждевременного, насильственного прекращения не только его личной жизни, но и общественно-пророческой деятельности; с другой — тех печальных последствий, которые могли иметь место вслед за безумным поступком Саула. Насильственная смерть пророка Самуила могла вызвать взрыв народного негодования в отношении того, кто был ближайшей причиной этой смерти, и произвести гибельную анархию в еврейском государстве. Слова Господа: Возьми в руку твою телицу и пр. — не научение неправде, а указание на действительно необходимое действие: великое событие священного помазания на царство избранника Божия не могло не быть ознаменовано религиозным обрядом (ср. 9:15-27; 10:1,8). «И пророк действительно совершил жертвоприношение (ст. 5). Посему сказано ему, чтобы до времени скрыв главное дело, указал (имеющим вопросить его о приходе в город) придаточное» (Блаж. Феодорит. Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 36).

16:4  Мирен ли приход твой? «Потому ли, что неожиданные посещения пророка обусловливались большей частью необычайными событиями, и притом тревожного характера, или потому, что напряженное состояние, роковая борьба между пророческим и царским могуществом чувствовалась всеми, следившими за положением дел и опасавшимися тяжелых напряжений и смут, старейшины города поспешили выйти навстречу пророку и с трепетом спросили: «с миром ли идешь к нам?»» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 64).

16:6 «Пророк не знал избранного Богом, потому что был не Бог, а человек. Знать все — свойственно Богу; пророку же достаточно знать то, что открывает (и по мере того, как открывает) Бог. С другой стороны, неведение пророка открывало Божие определение. Если бы пророк обратился прямо к Давиду, то могли бы подозревать, что сделал сие по какому-либо предубеждению. Поелику же приступил к первому, и второму, и третьему — до седьмого, то познали, что отвергший первых и избравший последнего есть Бог. Если и по таком избрании братья дали место ненависти, увидев Давида в полку (17:28), то чего не сделали бы, если бы избрание совершилось иным образом?» (Блаж. Феодорит. Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 37).

16:13 «Тайное помазание не сообщало никаких внешних привилегий Давиду, которые были невозможны при существующем царе; но оно давало ему внутреннее убеждение в его праве на престол после Саула, возвышало его дух, помогало спокойно и с кротостью переносить незаслуженное преследование врагов и поощряло на дела, достойные будущего царя евреев. Дух Господень почивал на нем до сего дня : в глазах толпы он оставался обыкновенным смертным, но сам он всем своим нравственным существом чувствовал, как высоко и напряженно звучали его душевные струны, какое оживление и парение получили его мысль и чувство, возбуждаемые новой великой задачей его жизни», поставленной ему самим Богом (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 65-66). Дух Господнего благоволения, благодатных даров и помощи почил на Давиде. Саул же, сознательно и упорно противлявшийся благому воздействию на него Духа Божия, попущен был испытать на себе приражение темных и злых сил.

16:14  И возмущал его злой дух (попущением) от Господа. «Несмотря на видимое благополучие, дух Саула (под влиянием темных сил) не был спокоен: жажда властолюбия, как и многих других страстей, не могла быть ничем насыщена; по мере ее удовлетворения она разрасталась; чувствовалась потребность обнаружить власть там, где она не была еще обнаружена, — и в большей мере, чем прежде, была обнаружена. К этому присоединялось воспоминание о грозных словах пророка (15:23, 16:28-29), которое ничем нельзя было заглушить и которое как меч висело над венчанной главой Саула. И вот, мало-помалу, он начал испытывать общее чувство недовольства и беспокойства. Затем это чувство стало переходить в раздражение, и равновесие его небогатых душевных сил нарушилось. Он стал страдать припадками настоящей душевной болезни, во время которых был не только не способен к серьезным делам, но и положительно опасен для окружавших» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 72-73).

16:16 Являясь выражением настроения, музыка может иногда являться и возбудителем желаемого настроения. О благодетельном влиянии умиротворяюще мелодий музыки на встревоженный и больной дух человека известно было с глубокой древности.

16:18  И Господь с ним, т. е. во всем благоуспешен.

16:20 Хлеб и вино должны были выразить почтительное приветствие Саулу ее стороны дома Иессея.

16:23  Дух (злой по попущению) от Бога (ср. ст. 14, 15 и 16). См. прим. к концу 13 ст. и к 14 ст.

17:1 Возможно предположить, что, нападая на евреев, филистимляне рассчитывали на предполагаемую неспособность больного Саула (16:14-21) оказать им умелое сопротивление. Но на этот раз филистимляне ошиблись в своих ожиданиях.

Сокхоф и Азек — города к юго-западу от Иерусалима.

17:3 Войска находились в таком положении, что нападающая сторона неизбежно рисковала потерпеть полное поражение. А так как никто себе не враг, то обе стороны стояли в бездействии, но в напряженном выжидательном положении. Неизвестно, сколько времени они простояли бы таким образом, если бы филистимлянам не пришла мысль решить дело военным поединком двух богатырей — из того и из другого лагеря. Богатырем со стороны филистимлян явился великан из города Гефа — Голиаф.

17:4  Локоть — длина руки от локтевого сустава до конца среднего пальца. Пядь — ширина в три ладони. Ладонь — ширина четырех пальцев.

17:5  Сикль, как мера веса, равнялся 3 золотникам, 34,40 дол.

17:8  Не филистимлянин ли я, а вы рабы Саула, т. е. какое может быть сравнение между мной, — могучим, свободным филистимлянином, — и вами, — жалкими рабами больного маньяка Саула?

17:11  Очень испугались и ужаснулись, не надеясь подыскать со своей стороны равносильного Голиафу соперника.

17:12  Восемь сыновей — см. 16:6-13.

17:15 Надобность в игре Давида временно прекратилась: война поглотила собой внимание и чувства Саула и тем предохраняла его от острых вспышек меланхолии.

17:18  Тысяченачальнику — в виде приветственного дара.

17:23  Те слова — см. ст. 8-10.

17:26  Свободным во Израиле, т. е. свободным от государственных повинностей.

17:28 Очевидно, первенец Иессея Елиав не мог простить своему младшему брату того предпочтения, которое было оказано этому брату пророком Божиим Самуилом (16 гл.).

17:33  Ибо ты еще юноша. «Давид был тогда юношей 15 или 16 лет, так как умер 75-ти лет, царствовал 40; почему, когда был убит Саул, имел 30 лет. А пред сим было сказано, что Саул, после двухлетнего царствования, лишился божественной благодати и потому все прочее время провел, враждуя на Давида» (блаж. Феодорит. Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 41).

17:36-37 Ср. ст. 45-47.

17:42  Молод, белокур и красив лицом, т. е. без внешних признаков закаленного в боях сурового воина.

17:52  Аккарон — филистимский город, на запад от Гаваона.

17:54 На вопрос о том, «как Давид, не живши еще в Иерусалиме, внес в него голову иноплеменника», блаж. Феодорит отвечает: «Правда, Иерусалим населяли еще иевусеи (2 Цар 5:6-8), но Давид, желая устрашить непобежденных иноплеменников своего отечества, указал им на голову сраженного им великого воителя», дерзко восстававшего на избранный народ Божий и полагавшего всю надежду на собственные силы (Блаж. Феодорит. Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 42).

17:55  Чей сын этот юноша? Занимая скромное место в толпе других придворных музыкантов, Давид мог быть и неизвестен лично Саулу. Слушая музыку Давида, Саул не обращал никакого внимания на игравшего; а если и видел его, так болезненные припадки, в период которых приглашался музыкант, могли помешать ему запомнить лицо игравшего. И только теперь, когда скромный музыкант на арфе сделался героем дня, славой Израиля, орудием божественной помощи угнетенным, Саул обратил на Давида должное внимание и, не узнав его в лицо, спросил: «Чей сын этот юноша?»

17:57 Сообщаемое в 54 стихе относится, очевидно, ко времени после данного представления победителя Давида Саулу.

18:3  Союз дружбы.

18:10 Музыка Давида потеряла для Саула, по-видимому, всякое очарование. Вид предполагаемого претендента на его престол вызывал в Сауле необузданное бешенство.

18:11 Надобно полагать, что Саул действовал здесь не совсем бессознательно, потому что вскоре затем он начал хладнокровно придумывать другие, более благовидные, способы погубить Давида.

18:12-16 Явная благоуспешность Давида во всем, его неотразимое обаяние на окружающих внушали болезненно-подозрительному царю нечто вроде суеверного страха к личности своего предполагаемого врага.

18:17 Очевидно, Саул еще не решался открыто выступить против юного народного героя.

18:21  Она будет ему сетью — см. ст. 25.

18:25  Вено — брачный дар жениха за невесту, определявшийся в своем объеме, между прочим, и важностью социального положения невесты. Вено за дочь царя не могло быть малозначительным.

Краеобрезание — обрезание крайней плоти.

18:26 Чувства Мелхолы и Давида, очевидно, были взаимными.

18:27  Еще не прошли назначенные для выступления в поход дни.

18:28-30 Заключив брак между Мелхолой и Давидом, Саул «попал, так сказать, в сети, расставленные им самим. Сделавши Давида своим зятем, он понял, что Давид стал теперь несравненно опаснее для него, так как сделался членом его царского дома» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 90).

19:1 Потеряв надежду погубить Давида тайно, Саул сбрасывает с себя личину последнего самообладания и открыто заявляет придворным о своих чувствах и намерениях в отношении сына Иессеева.

19:3  В поле, пользуясь благодушием царя во время прогулки.

19:6-7 Наружно Саул не мог не согласиться с разумными доводами Ионафана, но в душе, конечно, оставался по-прежнему нерасположенным к Давиду.

19:19  В Навафе, в Раме (см. прим. к 10:5). «Наваф» «переводится обыкновенно как собственное имя и, вероятно, действительно употреблялось как собственное имя; но оно, по всем признакам, заключает в себе нарицательное понятие, соответствующее тому, что у нас называется «общежитием»; некоторые толкователи слово «Наваф» переводят «пастушеский дом, гостиница», а халдейский переводчик — «дом учения». Имея в виду, что в Навафе был сонм пророков, можно думать, что Наваф был общежитием, питомником, «seminarium’ом» сынов пророческих в Раме Самуиловой» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 92-93, прим.).

19:20-24  И они стали пророчествовать. См. прим. к 10:5. Нет ничего невозможного в том предположении, что посланные взять Давида, всей душой принадлежали несправедливо гонимому победителю филистимлян и, быть может, немало мучились внутри себя, исполняя долг повиновения Саулу. «И вот, они приходят в Раму. Со свойственным еврею чувством благоговения, смешанного со страхом, подходят к таинственному жилищу пророков, и глазам их представляется поразительное зрелище: множество мужей и юношей, с маститым старцем во главе, в торжественной позе, с вдохновленным взором, могучим, но согласным голосом поют возвышенные гимны, прославляющие величие и чудные дела Иеговы. Глубоко пораженные воины невольно останавливаются, вспоминают о деле, за которым пришли, и ими овладевает благоговейный ужас. С поразительной ясностью они видят всю неестественность, всю греховность дела, за которым явились. С сильным волнением они начали сообщать друг другу свои мысли и чувства, прославлять подвиги и благочестие Давида и в конце концов до того воодушевились, что стали верить, насколько умели, могучему хору пророков» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 95-96). Обаяние сонма пророков было настолько велико, что его не избежал и сам Саул (23-24 ст., ср. 10:10-13).

20:5  Новомесячие — праздник новомесячия (Чис 10:10; 28:11-15).

20:6  Там годичное жертвоприношение всего родства его — см. прим. 7:9.

20:8  Ибо ты принял раба твоего в завет Господень с тобою — см. 18:1-4.

20:26  Нечист, т. е. находится в состоянии какого-либо очищения себя по закону (см. Лев гл. 11; 12; 13; 17; Чис гл. 5; 12; 19; 31 и др.).

20:40  В город Гиву Вениаминову.

21:1  Номва — к северо-востоку от Иерусалима. Можно полагать, что здесь находилась в настоящее время скиния Господня.

К Ахимелеху первосвященнику, в Мк 2:26 при упоминании об этом событии назван Авиафар. Предполагают, что евангелист назвал вместо отца сына, который, за старостью отца, исправлял-де первосвященнические обязанности. Но, имея в виду 2 Цар 8:17 и 1 Пар 18:16, нужно отдать предпочтение другому предположению, что как отец, так и сын носили двойное имя: Ахимелех-Авиафар.

И смутился Ахимелех: отношения между Саулом и Давидом не могли быть, конечно, неизвестны первосвященнику. Приход царского зятя без надлежащей свиты заставили предположить первосвященника, что Давид преследуем и потому небезопасен для тех, кто бы вздумал укрыть его от царя.

21:2 Вымышленный Давидом предлог посещения города Номвы, а равно и вымышленное объяснение им своего желания получить священные хлебы и меч Голиафа (ст. 3-6, 8-9) могут быть объяснены тем поистине безвыходным положением, в котором находился невинно преследуемый Давид.

21:3-6 Ср. Лк 6:1-4.

21:10  Геф — один из главных филистимских городов — к западу от Вифлеема. См. прим. к 6:17.

21:13  И изменил лицо свое, т. е. притворился безумным, дабы не возбудить в филистимлянах подозрений насчет каких-нибудь скрытых политических целей его прибытия к ним.

22:1  Адоллам — между Гефом и Вифлеемом, в пустынной части Иудиных гор.

И пришли к нему туда, считая свое вифлеемское жилище не вполне безопасным от гнева исступленного Саула. Саул мог захватить семейство Давида в качестве заложников, чтобы тем самым принудить своего мнимого врага к добровольной сдаче.

22:2  И собрались к нему все несправедливо притесненные сильнейшими их; все должники, в конце истощенные своими неумолимыми кредиторами и не нашедшие суда над ними; все огорченные душою, т. е. пострадавшие от того грубого произвола и неурядицы, которые царили в пределах монархии больного Саула.

22:3  Массифа Моавитская — в южных пределах земли моавитян.

Пусть отец мой и мать моя побудут у вас. Несомненно, что в пределах Еврейского царства безопасность семьи Давида не могла быть гарантирована так прочно, как за пределами этого царства. Притом же присутствие в дружине Давида преклонных родителей последнего могло бы оказаться, в конце концов, стеснительным для быстрых переходов и решительных действий дружины.

22:5  Не оставайся в этом убежище. «Водимый Богом ум пророков находил, что Давиду не следовало оставаться долгое время в зависимом общении с соседними языческими царями и жить вдали от своего народа, не принимая никакого деятельного участия в его судьбах» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 102).

Местность: Лес Херет, Зиф, Маон, Энгадди — в промежутке между Хевроном и Мертвым морем.

22:8  Строить мне ковы. В больном воображении царя действия Давида получают вид широко организованной вооруженной агитации против Саула.

22:9 См. 21:7.

22:10  И тот вопросил о нем Господа — через посредство святыни Господней, первосвященнического нагрудника. В 21-й главе об этом действии Ахимелеха не упоминается: достоверность показания Давида не стоит, однако, в противоречии с дальнейшими показаниями и самого первосвященника: «Разве теперь только я стал вопрошать для него Бога?» (гл. 21 ст. 12-15).

22:18  Носивших льняной ефод — см. прим. к 2:18.

22:20-23 Вместе с первосвященником в стан Давида был принесен и священный ефод (гл. 23). В наиболее затруднительных случаях Давид мог пользоваться теперь откровениями благой и совершенной воли Господней, являемыми через посредство Его святыни.

23:1  Кеиль — к северо-западу от Хеврона.

23:2  И вопросил Давид Господа — через посредство святыни Господней (ст. 6).

23:14  Пустыня Зиф — см. прим. к 22:5.

23:17  И Саул, отец мой, знает это — см. 20:80-31; 24:18-23.

23:19  Зифеи — жители местности Зиф. См. прим. к 22:5.

23:21  Пожалели о мне — ср. 22:7-8.

23:24  Пустыня Маон — см. прим. к 22:5.

23:28  Села-Гаммахлекоф — «скала разделений».

23:29  Эн-Гадди — дикая гористая местность на западном берегу Мертвого моря.

24:5  Больно стало сердцу Давида — при сознании того невысокого чувства, которому он только что подчинился (ср. ст. 7).

24:14  За мертвым псом, за одною блохою. Сравнения, указывающие на несоизмеримость социального положения и вооруженной силы Саула и Давида.

25:1  Пустыня Фаран — северная часть Аравийской пустыни, между Палестиной и Египтом, Идумеей и Синайским полуостровом.

25:2  Маон — см. прим. к 22:5.

Упоминаемый здесь Кармил — город на юг от Хеврона.

25:3 Имя Навал означает «Безумный». «Без сомнения, это было не подлинное его имя, а прозвище, данное народом. Навал поражал окружающих дикостью и нелепостью своего характера, и народный юмор, скрыв его настоящее, быть может, совсем к нему не подходившее имя, утвердил за ним название самодура» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 112).

25:5-9 «Давид рассчитывал на благодарность Навала за то, что воины Давида, по роду жизни похожие на тех праздных наездников, от которых владельцы стад терпели немало, не только ничего не похитили из стад Навала, но и оберегали их от хищников; были оградой для его пастухов, как сознавались сами пастухи. Но Навал показал, что он недаром носил свое прозвище» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 112).

25:13 Давид оставлял безнаказанной несправедливость Саула, щадя в его лице Помазанника Божьего и видя в своей покорности ему долг верноподданного (24:7,10-16); но не мог оставить без наказания дикую выходку Навала, так как смирение пред Навалом могло быть истолковано его сторонниками за простое бессилие защитить свою честь и права.

25:21-22 См. прим. к 13 ст.

25:24-31 Авигея извиняется пред Давидом в происшедшем недоразумении, объясняя его прирожденной, общеизвестной глупостью и самодурством Навала; умоляет Давида укротить свой гнев, предсказывая ему в будущем твердое и славное царствование, которое да не омрачится воспоминанием о несправедливо пролитой крови невменяемого Навала и его домашних.

25:36  И не сказала ему ни слова о прошедшем, так как это было бы в данное время бесполезным, а быть может, и прямо вредным, — принимая во внимание необузданный нрав Навала.

26:1  Зифеи — см. прим. к 22:5.

26:8  И не повторю удара, т. е. надеюсь, что жизнь Саула прекратится после первого же удара копьем.

26:11-12 В 15-16 ст. объясняется, для чего были взяты копье и сосуд.

26:15 Не муж ли ты, т. е. разве ты не мужчина? И кто равен тебе в Израиле по силе и отваге, а также по положению у престола родственно расположенного к тебе царя (14:50)?

26:19  Ступай, служи богам чужим, т. е. иди из земли избранного народа Господня и скитайся в землях язычников, среди поклоняющихся идолам.

26:30  Вышел искать одну блоху, гоняется за куропаткой. См. прим. к 24:15.

26:35 Ср. 24:21-22.

27:2 Филистимский город Геф — к западу от Вифлеема. Ср. 21:10-15.

27:3 Ср. 25:42-43.

27:5-11 «Анхус смотрел на Давида как на своего вассала и обязывал его вредить своим врагам, евреям. Чтобы избавить себя от этого невозможного условия и в то же время не навлечь на себя подозрения Анхуса, Давид выпросил для жилища себе удаленное от столицы местечко на южной окраине Филистимской земли Секелаг. Отсюда он предпринимал походы со своей дружиной, но не на восток, во владения Саула, а на юг для поражения хищнических племен, одинаково враждебных как филистимлянам, так и евреям» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 115-116).

28:1 Пребывание Давида в стане филистимлян и его мнимое служение интересам последних (27 гл.) внушало врагам евреев надежду на успех затеянного ими предприятия.

28:2  Ныне ты узнаешь, что сделает раб твой. Осторожный ответ Давида был истолкован Анхусом в благоприятном для себя смысле.

28:3 На вопрос о том, «почему священный писатель, написав выше (25:1) о кончине пророка Самуила, снова упоминает о ней», блаж. Феодорит отвечает: «Намереваясь повествовать о волшебнице (вызвавшей тень Самуила), он вынужден был упомянуть и о смерти Самуиловой» (Блаж. Феодорит. Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 62).

28:4 На этот раз филистимляне вторглись в землю евреев не по прямому пути — в ее южную часть, где тотчас могли встретить войско Саула, а сделали обход к северу и проникли в долину Ездрилонскую, наиболее удобную для действия их конницы.

Сонам — город Ездрилонской долины.

Гелвуй — гора к югу от Сонама.

28:5  Крепко дрогнуло сердце его. «Это был уже не тот Саул, который не знал страха на войне и не считал количества врагов своих. Года, житейские треволнения, болезнь и сознание затаенного недовольства и недоверия подданных сломили его дух, подорвали веру в себя» (Я. Богородский. Еврейские цари. С. 118).

28:7  Сыщите мне женщину волшебницу. Ср. конец 3 стиха. Очевидно, волшебство было преследуемо прежде Саулом не с полным убеждением в его суетности и, быть может, не столько из религиозных побуждений, сколько из опасений его чар против себя.

Аэндор — на север от Гелвуя, между Гелвуем и Фавором.

28:9 См. конец 3 стиха.

28:12 Грозный, обличающий вид Самуила подсказал женщине, что пред ней не кто иной, как непримиримый враг пророка — еврейский царь Саул.

28:13-14 Вопреки ожиданиям самой волшебницы, произошло не призрачное, а действительное чудо: Бог облек бесплотную душу Самуила подобием тела, дабы еще раз выразить отступнику свою непременную волю о нем и его доме (см. Блаж. Феодорит. Толк. на 1 Цар, вопр. 63).

28:16  Сделался врагом твоим, т. е. перестал быть благосклонным к тебе.

28:17 См. 13:8-14; гл. 15; 16.

28:18 См. гл. 15.

29:1  Афек — возвышенная местность северо-западнее Сонама. Низменная местность Изреел — западнее Гелвуя, к югу от Афека. Таким образом, за время отсутствия Саула в Аэндоре, позиции воюющих сторон переменились к явной невыгоде евреев: филистимляне отступили немного к северу и заняли возвышенную позицию; евреи же, оставив возвышенность Гелвуй, сошли на соседнюю низменность.

29:2  Князья филистимские — подвластные Анхусу властители отдельных филистимских областей. См. прим. к 6:17.

29:4-5 Решительное недоверие филистимских князей к доблестному победителю филистимлян и верному слуге Саула Давиду помогло последнему выйти из своего крайне щекотливого положения в лагере врагов еврейского народа.

29:8-10 Разговор, удостоверивший Давида в том, что лично Анхус не питает к нему никакого недоверия и что он может спокойно возвратиться в приютивший его Секелаг (27 гл.).

Идите на место, которое я назначил вам, т. е. в город Секелаг.

30:1  Амаликитяне — кочевой народ Синайского полуострова. Несомненно, они хотели воспользоваться тем обстоятельством, что военные силы филистимлян и Давида были отвлечены в данный момент далеко на север (см. прим. к 28:4).

30:5 Ср. 25:42-43.

30:6  Народ хотел побить его камнями, считая уход Давида в Афек одной из ближайших причин разразившегося несчастья.

30:9  Поток Восор впадает в Средиземное море, к западу от Вирсавии.

30:14  Керети — название земли филистимлян.

Часть Халева — местность около Хеврона.

30:26-31 Долговременное пребывание Давида за рубежом еврейской страны могло быть истолковано евреями в неблагоприятную для Давида сторону. Поражение давнишних врагов Израиля — амаликитян (Исх 17:8-16) и присланный старейшинам подарок должны были убедить еврейский народ в том, что в отношении своих взглядов и чувств к родине Давид остается таким же, каким был и ранее.

Кроме еврейских городов, подарки Давида были посланы и во многие зарубежные местности (вблизи южной и юго-восточной окраины еврейского государства), «где ходил Давид сам и люди его», в знак признательности за прежнее гостеприимство.

31:1 См. прим. к 29:1. И пали, пораженные на горе Гелвук. Смятые в долине, евреи бросились было на свои прежние позиции, но было уже поздно: волна филистимлян, хлынувшая с покатой возвышенности Афек, гнала их и разила нещадно.

31:7  На стороне долины Ездрилонской.

31:10  Беф-Сан — на юго-восток от Изрееля, по направлению к реке Иордан.

31:11  Иавис Галаадский — в средней части восточного Заиорданья.

31:12-13 18-13. И поднялись все люди и взяли тело Саула и тела сыновей его и погребли — в благодарность за освобождение их города Саулом от набега аммонитского царя Нааса (11 гл.).

Название и разделение книг в Библии. Известные ныне четыре книги Царств в древнем еврейском кодексе священных книг составляли две книги: одна из них (в состав которой входили нынешние первая и вторая книги Царств) называлась «Сефер Шемуель», т. е. «Книга Самуила», так как ее содержанием является повествование о пророке Самуиле и помазанных им на Еврейское царство Сауле и Давиде; другая (в состав которой входили нынешние третья и четвертая книги Царств) называлась «Сефер Мелахим», т. е. «Книга Царей», так как ее содержанием является повествование о последнем общееврейском царе Соломоне и о царях царства Иудейского и царства Израильского. Теперешнее деление означенных книг на четыре явилось прежде всего в греческом переводе LXX-ти, где они получили названия: «Βασιλείων πρώτη (βίβλος)», т. е. «Первая книга Царств»; Βασιλείων δευτέρα — «Вторая книга Царств»; Βασιλείων τρίτη — «Третья книга Царств»; Βασιλείων τετάρτη — «Четвертая книга Царств». Затем оно было усвоено и латинским переводом Вульгатой, где заглавия книг получили такой вид: «Liber primus Samuelis, quem nos primum Regum dicimus» («Первая книга Самуила, которую мы называем Первою книгою Царей»); «Liber secundus Samuelis, quem nos secundum Regum dicimus» («Вторая книга Самуила, которую мы называем Второю книгою Царей»); «Liber Regum tertius, secundum Hebraeos primus Malachim» («Третья книга Царей, по еврейскому счету — Первая книга Мелахим — Царей»); «Liber Regum quartus, secundum Hebraeos Malachim secundus» («Четвертая книга Царей, по еврейскому счету — Вторая книга Мелахим — Царей»).

Впрочем, в каноническом счислении книг Ветхого Завета Православная Церковь удержала древнееврейское деление книг Царств на две книги, соединяя воедино Первую и Вторую книги Царств, а также Третью и Четвертую книги.

Содержание книг Царств. В Первой книге Царств повествуется о пророке и судье еврейского народа Самуиле и о первом еврейском царе Сауле. Во Второй книге Царств повествуется о втором еврейском царе Давиде. В Третьей книге Царств повествуется о третьем еврейском царе Соломоне, о распадении еврейской монархии на два царства — Иудейское и Израильское — и о царях того и другого царства, кончая царем Иосафатом в Иудейском царстве и царем Охозией в Израильском. В Четвертой книге Царств повествуется об остальных царях Иуды и Израиля, кончая ассирийским пленом в отношении Израильского царства и вавилонским пленом в отношении Иудейского царства.

Период истории еврейского народа, обнимаемый повествованием всех четырех книг Царств, превышает 500 лет.

Писатели книг Царств. Первоначальными писателями Первой и Второй книг Царств были пророки Самуил, Натан и Гад (Cronache 1 29:29). Кто-либо из пророков позднейшего времени просмотрел записи Самуила, Натана и Гада, дополнил их (Samuele 1 5:5; Samuele 1 6:18; Samuele 1 9:9; Samuele 1 27:6; Samuele 2 4:3) и придал им объединенный, законченный вид.

Первоначальными писателями Третьей и Четвертой книг Царств были следовавшие за Натаном и Гадом пророки и дееписатели, оставившие после себя записи с приуроченными к ним названиями: «Книга дел Соломоновых» (Re 1 11:41); «Летопись царей иудейских» (Re 1 14:29; Re 1 15:7.23; Re 1 22:46; Re 2 8:23); «Летопись царей израильских» (Re 1 14:19; Re 1 15:31; Re 1 16:; Re 1 22:39; Re 2 1:8; Re 2 10:34). Кто-либо из последних ветхозаветных пророков (по свидетельству еврейской и христианской древности — пророк Иеремия), а может быть, и сам великий книжник и собиратель канона ветхозаветных священных писаний Ездра, просмотрел эти записи и привел их в тот вид, в каком они дошли до нашего времени.

Исторические книги

По принятому в греко-славянской и латинской Библиях делению ветхозаветных книг по содержанию, историческими (каноническими) книгами считаются в них книги Иисуса Навина, Судей, Руфь, четыре книги Царств, две Паралипоменон, 1-я книга Ездры, Неемии и Есфирь. Подобное исчисление встречается уже в 85-м апостольском правиле 1, четвертом огласительном поучении Кирилла Иерусалимского, Синайском списке перевода LXX и отчасти в 60-м правиле Лаодикийского собора 350 г.: Есфирь поставлена в нем между книгами Руфь и Царств 2. Равным образом и термин «исторические книги» известен из того же четвертого огласительного поучения Кирилла Иерусалимского и сочинения Григория Богослова «О том, какие подобает чести кн. Ветхого и Нового Завета» (книга Правил, с. 372–373). У названных отцов церкви он имеет, впрочем, несколько иной, чем теперь, смысл: название «исторические книги» дается ими не только «историческим книгам» греко-славянского и латинского перевода, но и всему Пятикнижию. «Исторических книг древнейших еврейских премудростей, – говорит Григорий Богослов, – двенадцать. Первая – Бытие, потом Исход, Левит, потом Числа, Второзаконие, потом Иисус и Судии, восьмая Руфь. Девятая и десятая книги – Деяния Царств, Паралипоменон и последнею имееши Ездру». «Читай, – отвечает Кирилл Иерусалимский, – божественных писаний Ветхого завета 22 книги, переведенных LXX толковниками, и не смешивай их с апокрифами… Это двадцать две книги суть: закона Моисеева первые пять книг: Бытие, Исход, Левит, Числа, Второзаконие. Затем Иисуса сына Навина, Судей с Руфью составляют одну седьмую книгу. Прочих исторических книг первая и вторая Царств, у евреев составляющая одну книгу, также третья и четвертая, составляющие одну же книгу. Подобно этому, у них и Паралипоменон первая и вторая считаются за одну книгу, и Ездры первая и вторая (по нашему Неемии) считаются за одну книгу. Двенадцатая книга – Есфирь. Таковы исторические книги».

Что касается еврейской Библии, то ей чужд как самый раздел «исторических книг», так и греко-славянское и латинское их распределение. Книги Иисуса Навина, Судей и четыре книги Царств причисляются в ней к «пророкам», а Руфь, две книги Паралипоменон, Ездры – Неемии и Есфирь – к разделу «кегубим» – священным писаниям. Первые, т. е. кн. Иисуса Навина, Судей и Царств занимают начальное место среди пророческих, Руфь – пятое, Есфирь – восьмое и Ездры, Неемии и Паралипоменон – последние места среди «писаний». Гораздо ближе к делению LXX стоит распорядок книг у Иосифа Флавия. Его слова: «От смерти Моисея до правления Артаксеркса пророки после Моисея записали в 13 книгах совершившееся при них» (Против Аппиона, I, 8), дают понять, что он считал кн. Иисуса Навина – Есфирь книгами характера исторического. Того же взгляда держался, по-видимому, и Иисус сын Сирахов, В разделе «писаний» он различает «премудрые словеса́... и... повести» (Сир 44.3–5), т. е. учительные и исторические книги. Последними же могли быть только Руфь, Паралипоменон, Ездры, Неемии и Есфирь. Принятое в еврейской Библии включение их в раздел «писаний» объясняется отчасти тем, что авторам некоторых из них, например Ездры – Неемии, не было усвоено в еврейском богословии наименования «пророк», отчасти их характером, в них виден историк учитель и проповедник. Сообразно с этим весь третий раздел и называется в некоторых талмудических трактатах «премудростью».

Относя одну часть наших исторических книг к разделу пророков, «узнавших по вдохновенно от Бога раннейшее, а о бывшем при них писавших с мудростью» (Иосиф Флавий. Против Аппиона I, 7), и другую – к «писаниям», каковое название дается всему составу ветхозаветных канонических книг, иудейская церковь тем самым признала их за произведения богодухновенные. Вполне определенно и ясно высказан этот взгляд в словах Иосифа Флавия: «У иудеев не всякий человек может быть священным писателем, но только пророк, пишущий по Божественному вдохновенно, почему все священные еврейские книги (числом 22) справедливо могут быть названы Божественными» (Против Аппиона I, 8). Позднее, как видно из талмудического трактата Мегилла, поднимался спор о богодухновенности книг Руфь и Есфирь; но в результате его они признаны написанными Духом Святым. Одинакового с ветхозаветной церковью взгляда на богодухновенность исторических книг держится и церковь новозаветная (см. выше 85 Апостольское правило).

Согласно со своим названием, исторические книги налагают историю религиозно-нравственной и гражданской жизни народа еврейского, начиная с завоевания Ханаана при Иисусе Навине (1480–1442 г. до Р. X.) и кончая возвращением евреев из Вавилона во главе с Неемиею при Артаксерксе I (445 г. до Р. X.), на время правления которого падают также события, описанные в книге Есфирь. Имевшие место в течение данного периода факты излагаются в исторических книгах или вполне объективно, или же рассматриваются с теократической точки зрения. Последняя устанавливала, с одной стороны, строгое различие между должными и недолжными явлениями в области религии, а с другой, признавала полную зависимость жизни гражданской и политической от веры в истинного Бога. В зависимости от этого излагаемая при свете идеи теократии история народа еврейского представляет ряд нормальных и ненормальных религиозных явлений, сопровождавшихся то возвышением, подъемом политической жизни, то полным ее упадком. Подобная точка зрения свойственна преимущественно 3–4 кн. Царств, кн. Паралипоменон и некоторым частям кн. Ездры и Неемии (Неем 9.1). Обнимаемый историческими книгами тысячелетний период жизни народа еврейского распадается в зависимости от внутренней, причинной связи явлении на несколько отдельных эпох. Из них время Иисуса Навина, ознаменованное завоеванием Палестины, представляет переходный момент от жизни кочевой к оседлой. Первые шаги ее в период Судей (1442–1094) были не особенно удачны. Лишившись со смертью Иисуса Навина политического вождя, евреи распались на двенадцать самостоятельных республик, утративших сознание национального единства. Оно сменилось племенной рознью, и притом настолько сильною, что колена не принимают участие в обшей политической жизни страны, живут до того изолированно, замкнуто, что не желают помочь друг другу даже в дни несчастий (Суд.5.15–17, 6.35, 8.1). В таком же точно жалком состоянии находилась и религиозно-нравственная жизнь. Безнравственность сделалась настолько всеобщей, что прелюбодейное сожительство считалось обычным делом и как бы заменяло брак, а в некоторых городах развелись гнусные пороки времен Содома и Гоморры (Суд.19). Одновременно с этим была забыта истинная религия, – ее место заняли суеверия, распространяемые бродячими левитами (Суд.17). Отсутствие в период судей, сдерживающих начал в виде религии и постоянной светской власти, завершилось в конце концов полной разнузданностью: «каждый делал то, что ему казалось справедливым» (Суд.21.25). Но эти же отрицательные стороны и явления оказались благодетельными в том отношении, что подготовили установление царской власти; период судей оказался переходным временем к периоду царей. Племенная рознь и вызываемое ею бессилие говорили народу о необходимости постоянной, прочной власти, польза которой доказывалась деятельностью каждого судьи и особенно Самуила, успевшего объединить своей личностью всех израильтян (1Цар 7.15–17). И так как, с другой стороны, такой сдерживающей народ силой не могла быть религия, – он еще недоразвился до того, чтобы руководиться духовным началом, – то объединение могло исходить от земной власти, какова власть царская. И, действительно, воцарение Саула положило, хотя и не надолго, конец племенной розни евреев: по его призыву собираются на войну с Каасом Аммонитским «сыны Израилевы... и мужи Иудины» (1Цар 11.8). Скорее военачальник, чем правитель, Саул оправдал народное желание видеть в царе сильного властью полководца (1Цар 8.20), он одержал целый ряд побед над окрестными народами (1Цар 14.47–48) и как герой погиб в битве на горах Гелвуйских (1Цар 31). С его смертью во всей силе сказалась племенная рознь периода Судей: колено Иудово, стоявшее прежде одиноко от других, признало теперь своим царем Давида (2Цар 2.4), а остальные подчинились сыну Саула Иевосфею (2Цар 2.8–9). Через семь с половиной лет после этого власть над Иудою и Израилем перешла в руки Давида (2Цар 5.1–3), и целью его правления становится уничтожение племенной розни, при посредстве чего он рассчитывает удержать престол за собой и своим домом. Ее достижению способствуют и постоянные войны, как общенародное дело, они поддерживают сознание национального единства и отвлекают внимание от дел внутренней жизни, всегда могущих подать повод к раздорам, и целый ряд реформ, направленных к уравнению всех колен пред законом. Так, устройство постоянной армии, разделенной по числу колен на двенадцать частей, причем каждая несет ежемесячную службу в Иерусалиме (1Пар 27.1), уравнивает народ по отношению к военной службе. Превращение нейтрального города Иерусалима в религиозный и гражданский центр не возвышает никакое колено в религиозном и гражданском отношении. Назначение для всего народа одинаковых судей-левитов (1Пар 26.29–30) и сохранение за каждым коленом местного племенного самоуправления (1Пар 27.16–22) уравнивает всех пред судом. Поддерживая равенство колен и тем не давая повода к проявлению племенной розни, Давид остается в то же самое время в полном смысле самодержавным монархом. В его руках сосредоточивается власть военная и гражданская: первая через посредство подчиненного ему главнокомандующего армией Иоава (1Пар 27.34), вторая через посредство первосвященника Садока, начальника левитов-судей.

Правление сына и преемника Давидова Соломона обратило ни во что результат царствования его отца. Необыкновенная роскошь двора Соломона требовала громадных расходов и соответствующих налогов на народ. Его средства шли теперь не на общегосударственное дело, как при Давиде, а на удовлетворение личных нужд царя и его придворных. Одновременно с этим оказался извращенным правый суд времени Давида: исчезло равенство всех и каждого пред законом. На этой почве (3Цар 12.4) возникло народное недовольство, перешедшее затем в открытое возмущение (3Цар 11.26. Подавленное Соломоном, оно вновь заявило себя при Ровоаме (3Цар 12) и на этот раз разрешилось отделением от дома Давидова 10 колен (3Цар 12.20). Ближайшим поводом к нему служило недовольство Соломоном, наложившим на народ тяжелое иго (3Цар 12.4), и нежелание Ровоама облегчить его. Но судя по словам отделившихся колен: «нет нам доли в сыне Иессеевом» (3Цар 12.16), т. е. у нас нет с ним ничего общего; мы не принадлежим ему, как Иуда, по происхождению, причина разделения в той племенной, коленной розни, которая проходила через весь период Судей и на время стихает при Сауле, Давиде и Соломоне.

Разделением единого царства (980 г. до Р. Х.) на два – Иудейское и Израильское – было положено начало ослаблению могущества народа еврейского. Последствия этого рода сказались прежде всего в истории десятиколенного царства. Его силам наносят чувствительный удар войны с Иудою. Начатые Ровоамом (3Цар 12.21, 14.30; 2Пар 11.1, 12.15), они продолжаются при Авии, избившем 500 000 израильтян (2Пар 13.17) и отнявшем у Иеровоама целый ряд городов (2Пар 13.19), и на время заканчиваются при Асе, истребившем при помощи Венадада Сирийского население Аина, Дана, Авел-Беф-Моахи и всей земли Неффалимовой (3Цар 15.20). Обоюдный вред от этой почти 60-тилетней войны был сознан, наконец, в обоих государствах: Ахав и Иосафат вступают в союз, закрепляя его родством царствующих домов (2Пар 18.1), – женитьбою сына Иосафатова Иорама на дочери Ахава Гофолии (2Пар 21.6). Но не успели зажить нанесенные ею раны, как начинаются войны израильтян с сирийцами. С перерывами (3Цар 22.1) и переменным счастьем они проходят через царствование Ахава (3Цар 20), Иорама (4Цар 8.16–28), Ииуя (4Цар 10.5–36), Иоахаза (4Цар 13.1–9) и Иоаса (4Цар 13.10–13) и настолько ослабляют военную силу израильтян, что у Иохаза остается только 50 всадников, 10 колесниц и 10 000 пехоты (4Цар 13.7). Все остальное, как прах, развеял Азаил Сирийский, (Ibid: ср. 4Цар 8.12). Одновременно с сирийцами израильтяне ведут при Иоасе войну с иудеями (4Цар 14.9–14, 2Пар 25.17–24) и при Иеровоаме II возвращают, конечно, не без потерь в людях, пределы своих прежних владений от края Емафского до моря пустыни (4Цар 14.25). Обессиленные целым рядом этих войн, израильтяне оказываются, наконец, не в силах выдержать натиск своих последних врагов – ассириян, положивших конец существованию десятиколенного царства. В качестве самостоятельного государства десятиколенное царство просуществовало 259 лет (960–721). Оно пало, истощив свои силы в целом ряде непрерывных войн. В ином свете представляется за это время состояние двухколенного царства. Оно не только не слабеет, но скорее усиливается. Действительно, в начале своего существования двухколенное царство располагало лишь 120 000 или по счислению александрийского списка 180 000 воинов и потому, естественно, не могло отразить нашествия египетского фараона Сусакима. Он взял укрепленные города Иудеи, разграбил самый Иерусалим и сделал иудеев своими данниками (2Пар 12.4, 8–9). Впоследствии же число вооруженных и способных к войне было увеличено теми недовольными религиозной реформой Иеровоама I израильтянами (не считая левитов), которые перешли на сторону Ровоама, укрепили и поддерживали его царство (2Пар 11.17). Сравнительно благоприятно отозвались на двухколенном царстве и его войны с десятиколенным. По крайней мере, Авия отнимает у Иеровоама Вефиль, Иешон и Ефрон с зависящими от них городами (2Пар 13.19), а его преемник Аса в состоянии выставить против Зарая Эфиоплянина 580 000 воинов (2Пар 14.8). Относительная слабость двухколенного царства сказывается лишь в том, что тот же Аса не может один вести войну с Ваасою и приглашает на помощь Венадада сирийского (3Цар 15.18–19). При сыне и преемнике Асы Иосафате двухколенное царство крепнет еще более. Не увлекаясь жаждой завоеваний, он посвящает свою деятельность упорядочению внутренней жизни государства, предпринимает попытку исправить религиозно-нравственную жизнь народа, заботится о его просвещении (2Пар 17.7–10), об урегулировании суда и судебных учреждений (2Пар 19.5–11), строит новые крепости (2Пар 17.12) и т. п. Проведение в жизнь этих предначертаний требовало, конечно, мира с соседями. Из них филистимляне и идумеяне усмиряются силой оружия (2Пар 17.10–11), а с десятиколенным царством заключается политический и родственный союз (2Пар 18.1). Необходимый для Иосафата, как средство к выполнению вышеуказанных реформ, этот последний сделался с течением времени источником бедствий и несчастий для двухколенного царства. По представлению автора Паралипоменон (2Пар 21), они выразились в отложении Иудеи при Иораме покоренной Иосафатом Идумеи (2Пар.21.10), в счастливом набеге на Иудею и самый Иерусалим филистимлян и аравийских племен (2Пар.21.16–17), в возмущении жителей священнического города Ливны (2Пар.21.10) и в бесполезной войне с сирийцами (2Пар 22.5). Сказавшееся в этих фактах (см. еще 2Пар 21.2–4, 22.10) разложение двухколенного царства было остановлено деятельностью первосвященника Иоддая, воспитателя сына Охозии Иоаса, но с его смертью сказалось с новой силой. Не успевшее окрепнуть от бедствий и неурядиц прошлых царствований, оно подвергается теперь нападению соседей. Именно филистимляне захватывают в плен иудеев и ведут ими торговлю как рабами (Иоиль 3.6, Ам 1.9); идумеяне делают частые вторжения в пределы Иудеи и жестоко распоряжаются с пленниками (Ам 1.6, Иоиль 3.19); наконец, Азаил сирийский, отняв Геф, переносит оружие на самый Иерусалим, и снова царство Иудейское покупает себе свободу дорогой ценой сокровищ царского дома и храма (4Цар 12.18). Правлением сына Иоаса Амасии кончается время бедствий (несчастная война с десятиколенным царством – 4Цар 14.9–14,, 2Пар 25.17–24 и вторжение идумеев – Ам 9.12), а при его преемниках Озии прокаженном и Иоафаме двухколенное царство возвращает славу времен Давида и Соломона. Первый подчиняет на юге идумеев и овладевает гаванью Елафом, на западе сокрушает силу филистимлян, а на востоке ему платят дань аммонитяне (2Пар 26.6–8). Могущество Озии было настолько значительно, что, по свидетельству клинообразных надписей, он выдержал натиск Феглафелассара III. Обеспеченное извне двухколенное царство широко и свободно развивало теперь и свое внутреннее экономическое благосостояние, причем сам царь был первым и ревностным покровителем народного хозяйства (2Пар 26.10). С развитием внутреннего благосостояния широко развилась также торговля, послужившая источником народного обогащения (Ис 2.7). Славному предшественнику последовал не менее славный и достойный преемник Иоафам. За время их правления Иудейское царство как бы собирается с силами для предстоящей борьбы с ассириянами. Неизбежность последней становится ясной уже при Ахазе, пригласившем Феглафелассара для защиты от нападения Рецина, Факея, идумеян и филистимлян (2Пар 28.5–18). По выражению Вигуру, он, сам того не замечая, просил волка, чтобы тот поглотил его стадо, (Die Bibel und die neueren Entdeckungen. S. 98). И действительно, Феглафелассар освободил Ахаза от врагов, но в то же время наложил на него дань ((2Пар 28.21). Неизвестно, как бы сказалась зависимость от Ассирии на дальнейшей истории двухколенного царства, если бы не падение Самарии и отказ преемника Ахаза Езекии платить ассириянам дань и переход его, вопреки совету пророка Исаии, на сторону египтян (Ис 30.7, 15, 31.1–3). Первое событие лишало Иудейское царство последнего прикрытия со стороны Ассирии; теперь доступ в его пределы открыт, и путь к границам проложен. Второе окончательно предрешило судьбу Иудеи. Союз с Египтом, перешедший с течением времени в вассальную зависимость, заставил ее принять участие сперва в борьбе с Ассирией, а потом с Вавилоном. Из первой она вышла обессиленной, а вторая привела ее к окончательной гибели. В качестве союзницы Египта, с которым вели при Езекии борьбу Ассирияне, Иудея подверглась нашествию Сеннахерима. По свидетельству оставленной им надписи, он завоевал 46 городов, захватил множество припасов и военных материалов и отвел в плен 200 150 человек (Schrader jbid S. 302–4; 298). Кроме того, им была наложена на Иудею громадная дань (4Цар 18.14–16). Союз с Египтом и надежда на его помощь не принесли двухколенному царству пользы. И, тем не менее, преемник Езекии Манассия остается сторонником египтян. Как таковой, он во время похода Ассаргадона против Египта делается его данником, заковывается в оковы и отправляется в Вавилон (2Пар 33.11). Начавшееся при преемнике Ассаргадона Ассурбанипале ослабление Ассирии сделало для Иудеи ненужным союз с Египтом. Мало этого, современник данного события Иосия пытается остановить завоевательные стремления фараона египетского Нехао (2Пар 35.20), но погибает в битве при Мегиддоне (2Пар 35.23). С его смертью Иудея становится в вассальную зависимость от Египта (4Цар 23.33, 2Пар 36.1–4), а последнее обстоятельство вовлекает ее в борьбу с Вавилоном. Стремление Нехао утвердиться, пользуясь падением Ниневии, в приефратских областях встретило отпор со стороны сына Набополассара Навуходоноора. В 605 г. до Р. X. Нехао был разбит им в битве при Кархемыше. Через четыре года после этого Навуходоносор уже сам предпринял поход против Египта и в целях обезопасить себе тыл подчинил своей власти подвластных ему царей, в том числе и Иоакима иудейского (4Цар 24.1, 2Пар 36.5). От Египта Иудея перешла в руки вавилонян и под условием верности их могла бы сохранить свое существование. Но ее сгубила надежда на тот же Египет. Уверенный в его помощи, второй преемник Иоакима Седекия (Иер 37.5, Иез 17.15) отложился от Навуходоносора (4Цар 24.20, 2Пар 36.13), навлек нашествие вавилонян (4Цар 25.1, 2Пар 36.17) и, не получив поддержки от египетского фараона Офры (Иер 37.7), погиб сам и погубил страну.

Если международные отношения Иудеи сводятся к непрерывным войнам, то внутренняя жизнь характеризуется борьбой с язычеством. Длившаяся на протяжении всей истории двухколенного царства, она не доставила торжества истинной религии. Языческим начало оно свое существование при Ровоаме (3Цар 14.22–24, 2Пар 11.13–17), языческим и кончило свою политическую жизнь (4Цар 24.19, 2Пар 36.12). Причины подобного явления заключались прежде всего в том, что борьба с язычеством велась чисто внешними средствами, сводилась к одному истреблению памятников язычества. Единственное исключение в данном отношении представляет деятельность Иосафата, Иосии и отчасти Езекии. Первый составляет особую комиссию из князей, священников и левитов, поручает ей проходить по всем городам иудиным и учить народ (2Пар 17.7–10); второй предпринимает публичное чтение закона (4Цар 23.1–2, 2Пар 34.30) и третий устраивает торжественное празднование Пасхи (2Пар 30.26). Остальные же цари ограничиваются уничтожением идолов, вырубанием священных дубрав и т. п. И если даже деятельность Иосафата не принесла существенной пользы: «народ еще не обратил твердо сердца своего к Богу отцов своих» (2Пар 20.33), то само собой понятно, что одни внешние меры не могли уничтожить языческой настроенности народа, тяготения его сердца и ума к богам окрестных народов. Поэтому, как только умирал царь гонитель язычества, язычествующая нация восстановляла разрушенное и воздвигала новые капища для своих кумиров; ревнителям религии Иеговы вновь приходилось начинать дело своих благочестивых предшественников (2Пар 14.3, 15.8, 17.6 и т. п.). Благодаря подобным обстоятельствам, религия Иеговы и язычество оказывались далеко неравными силами. На стороне последнего было сочувствие народа; оно усвоялось евреем как бы с молоком матери, от юности входило в его плоть и кровь; первая имела за себя царей и насильно навязывалась ими нации. Неудивительно поэтому, что она не только была для нее совершенно чуждой, но и казалась прямо враждебной. Репрессивные меры только поддерживали данное чувство, сплачивали язычествующую массу, не приводили к покорности, а, наоборот, вызывали на борьбу с законом Иеговы. Таков, между прочим, результат реформ Езекии и Иоссии. При преемнике первого Манассии «пролилась невинная кровь, и Иерусалим... наполнился ею... от края до края» (4Цар 21.16), т. е. началось избиение служителей Иеговы усилившеюся языческой партией. Равным образом и реформа Иосии, проведенная с редкою решительностью, помогла сосредоточению сил язычников, и в начавшейся затем борьбе со сторонниками религии они подорвали все основы теократии, между прочим, пророчество и священство, в целях ослабления первого язычествующая партия избрала и выдвинула ложных пророков, обещавших мир и уверявших, что никакое зло не постигнет государство (Иер 23.6). Подорвано было ею и священство: оно выставило лишь одних недостойных представителей (Иер 23.3). Реформа Иосии была последним актом вековой борьбы благочестия с язычеством. После нее уж не было больше и попыток к поддержанию истинной религии; и в плен Вавилонский евреи пошли настоящими язычниками.

Плен Вавилонский, лишив евреев политической самостоятельности, произвел на них отрезвляющее действие в религиозном отношении. Его современники воочию убедились в истинности пророческих угроз и увещаний, – в справедливости того положения, что вся жизнь Израиля зависит от Бога, от верности Его закону. Как прямой и непосредственный результат подобного сознания, возникает желание возврата к древним и вечным истинам и силам, которые некогда создали общество, во все времена давали спасение и, хотя часто забывались и пренебрегались, однако всегда признавались могущими дать спасение. На этот-то путь и вступила прибывшая в Иудею община. В качестве подготовительного условия для проведения в жизнь религии Иеговы ею было выполнено требование закона Моисеева о полном и всецелом отделении евреев от окрестных народов (расторжение смешанных браков при Ездре и Неемии). В основу дальнейшей жизни и истории теперь полагается принцип обособления, изолированности.

* * *

1 «Для всех вас, принадлежащих к клиру и мирянам, чтимыми и святыми да будут книги Ветхого Завета: Моисеевых пять (Бытие, Исход, Левит, Числа, Второзаконие), Иисуса Навина едина, Судей едина, Руфь едина, Царств четыре, Паралипоменон две, Ездры две, Есфирь едина».

2 «Читать подобает книги Ветхого Завета: Бытие мира, Исход из Египта, Левит, Числа, Второзаконие, Иисуса Навина, Судии и Руфь, Есфирь, Царств первая и вторая, Царств третья и четвертая, Паралипоменон первая и вторая, Ездры первая и вторая».

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10:5 Или: Божьему холму.

10:12 Букв.: отец.

10:22 а) Или: придет ли.

10:22 б) Букв.: вещей.

11:11 Букв.: На следующий день.

11:14 Букв.: обновим, т.е. царствование Саула получает официальное признание.

12:1 Или: все о чем вы меня просили.

12:2 Букв.: ходил / управлял у вас на виду.

12:11 В некот. древн. переводах: Варака.

12:15 В некот. древн. переводах: и над вашим царем.

12:17 Букв.: жатва пшеницы, т.е. июнь-июль, когда дождя не бывает.

12:21 Или: не отклоняйтесь (от прямого пути) следуя за ничтожными (божествами).

12:23 Букв.: разве смогу я согрешить против Господа?

13:1 а) Рукописи расходятся относительно точного возраста Саула, в большинстве из них число лет просто пропущено.

13:1 б) Во второй части стиха: всего он царствовал над Израилем два года - очевидно, пропущено число десятков лет, вероятнее всего, сорок.

13:4 Или: и стали созывать народ.

13:12 Или: потому я посмел принести всесожжение.

13:14 Перевод по LXX; масоретский текст: нашел Себе Господь человека по сердцу.

13:21 Здесь смысл масоретского текста не ясен.

14:1 Или: юноше; то же ниже в подобных случаях.

14:18 В некоторых рукописях: эфод.

14:19 Букв.: сказал: «Убери руку твою».

14:47 Так в LXX; в масоретском тексте: сеял беду.

15:6 См. Суд 1:16.

15:9 Или: животных, которые остались после жертвоприношения первенцев.

15:11 Или: сожалею Я, что поставил царем Саула.

15:12 Имеется в виду не горная гряда Кармил (евр. Кармель), но селение на земле колена Иуды, недалеко от Хеврона.

15:22 Букв.: голосу Господа.

15:24 Букв.: твои слова.

15:32 Или: в оковах; друг. возм. пер.: бодро.

15:32 Или: как же горька смерть!

16:7 а) Букв.: Я отверг его.

16:7 б) Букв.: глаза.

16:12 а) Или: рыжеволосым.

16:12 б) Букв.: встань и соверши.

16:14 Букв.: от Господа. Для древних израильтян было характерно такое понимание Бога, в основе которого лежит идея теоцентризма: представление о том, что Бог ответственен за всё, что происходит в мире: и худое, и доброе; ср. 18:10; 2 Цар 24:1 и последующие стихи. Выражаясь современным языком, это было допущено Богом. См. также Иак 1:13.

16:20 Или: приготовил хомер зерна.

17:4 Т.е. около 3 м.

17:5 а) Или: чешуйчатых доспехах.

17:5 б) Т.е. около 60 кг.

17:7 Т.е. около 7 кг.

17:12 Так в LXX, масоретский текст: стар среди мужей.

17:17 Эфа - мера объема, около 22 л.

17:18 Букв.: залог / поручительство; т. е. вещественное доказательство их благополучия.

17:19 Возможно, этот стих - не часть прямой речи Иессея, а замечание автора: тогда Саул и все израильтяне

17:37 Букв.: от львиной лапы и от медвежьей лапы.

17:42 Или: рыжеволос.

17:52 Так в LXX, масоретский текст: в долину.

18:1 Или: как собственную душу; то же в ст. 3.

18:6 Или: треугольниками; перевод предположителен.

18:10 Букв.: пророчествовал.

18:13 Букв.: выходил и входил перед народом / ними; то же в ст. 16.

18:14 Или: был разумен; то же в ст. 15.

18:18 Или: моя родня.

18:27 Перевод по LXX; в масоретском тексте: двести; ср. 2 Цар 3:14.

18:29 Букв.: стал врагом Давида во все дни.

19:7 Букв.: вчера и позавчера.

19:14 Букв.: он.

19:20 а) Или: пребывавших в исступлении.

19:20 б) Или: впали в исступление; то же в ст. 21 и 23.

20:3 Букв.: жив Господь и жив ты сам - клятвенная формула.

20:17 а) Букв.: его любовью к нему.

20:17 б) Или: как собственную душу.

20:25 Так можно понять LXX, масоретский текст: встал.

20:29 Букв.: брат велел.

20:34 Или: и потому что отец унизил его.

21:5 Или: тела, букв.: сосуды.

21:7 Букв.: которого задержали пред Господом.

22:1 Букв.: оттуда.

22:14 Так в LXX; масоретский текст: поворачивает стражу.

22:17 Букв.: повернитесь; то же в ст. 18.

23:22 Букв.: кто видел его?

23:23 Букв.: среди тысяч.

23:28 Евр. села-хаммахлекот.

24:12 Букв.: Господь.

24:13 Или: нечестивые плодят нечестие.

25:2 См. примеч. к 15:12.

25:8 а) Букв.: юношам / слугам.

25:8 б) Или: в праздничный день.

25:18 В каждой мере около 7 л, т.е. около 35 л зерна.

25:22 а) Так в LXX; масоретский текст: с врагами Давида. В Пешитте: со слугами Давида.

25:22 б) Букв.: мочащийся к стене.

25:25 Игра слов: слово «безумие» (др.-евр. невала) созвучно с именем Навал.

25:26 Букв.: жив Господь и жив ты сам.

25:27 Букв.: благословение.

26:15 Букв.: один из народа приходил.

26:16 Букв.: ваших господ.

27:1 Букв.: в сердце своем; или: подумал Давид.

27:2 Или: и поднялся Давид…

27:5 Букв.: в царском городе.

28:13 Букв.: божеств, выходящих.

28:21 Или: я рисковала жизнью.

30:16 Или: танцевали.


Мысли вслух: ежедневные размышления о Библии


Повествование о поединке Давида и Голиафа, пожалуй, самый популярный сюжет во всём жизнеописании Давида. Это вполне... 


В то самое время, как большое войско готовилось к битве, Ионафан сумел победить филистимлян малыми силами, но смелым натиском... 


Умирает Самуил, гаснет один из великих светильников Израиля. Давиду приходится продолжать трудный путь в отсутствие... 


 Скажите пожалуйста, что означает выражение "не оставлю мочащегося к стене"?

Это выражение означает, что не останется в живых ни один из мужчин, настолько «взрослых», чтобы мочиться к стене... 

 В Библии во многих местах говорится о запрете употребления крови в пищу при чем как в Ветхом, так и в Новом Завете. Современный христианин, беря в аптеке лекарство с содержанием крови, может ли использовать такой препарат для лечения?

В Ветхом завете, действительно, существует запрет на употребление крови в пищу. Он был впервые включен как основное условие завета Божия с Ноем, и затем подтверждается в Моисеевом законодательстве. Эти же условия Ноева завета повторяют апостолы в 15 главе Деяний как обязательные для христиан из язычников. Этот запрет имеет двойственную природу. С одной стороны... 

 У меня такой вопрос: если написано - не лги, а в других местах Библии была ложь (например, царица-еврейка не говорила что она – еврейка, Ионафан лгал отцу, покрывая Давида....), то что это значит? Или это мудрость, или ложь во благо? Даже если это так, то разве ложь во благо допускается? А если родители (супруг(а)) неверующие и запрещают ходить в церковь, то можно ли солгать, что идешь к подруге... А так как родителей надо почитать (так написано в Библии), то уже и нельзя им лгать?

Далеко не все описанные в Библии поступки людей могут быть для нас примером для подражания. Библия – очень реалистическая книга, она говорит правду не только о Боге, но и о нас и нашей истории. Увы, люди часто ведут себя самым неподобающим образом, даже лучшие из нас. Именно этим объясняются некоторые... 


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