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Исагогика

Свящ. Александр Мень

§15. Пятикнижие: название, состав и проблема происхождения

1. Название. В своем комментарии на Евангелие от Иоанна Ориген дал первым пяти книгам Ветхого Завета наименование Пятикнижия (греч. πευτάτευχος Пентатеух — Пять свитков, слав. Пятикнижие). С тех пор этот термин прочно вошел в христианскую литературу. В еврейской Библии Пятикнижие называется Тор`ой. Слово «тора» в Новом Завете обычно переводится как Закон (греч. Номос). Но при этом следует учитывать, что понятие «тора» шире юридического или канонического. Оно означает наставление, устное поучение, наказ (ср. Иов 22:22; Притч 13:15; Ис 24:5).

В Пятикнижии, кроме заповедей, законов и уставов, есть и исторические разделы, и это не противоречит названию книги. Законодатели Древнего Востока имели обыкновение обрамлять юридические и культовые предписания рассказами исторического характера (см., напр., ХДВ. 1981, I, с.266-271).

2. Состав и содержание. Тора распадается на пять книг, но сохраняет при этом цельность единого произведения. Разделение на пять частей было, по-видимому, связано с особенностями книжного дела в древние времена, слишком большие свитки были неудобны в обращении. По этой же причине на пять книг была разделена и Псалтирь (свт. Епифаний. О мерах, 4,5).

Первоначально книги Торы назывались по их первым словам, в греческом переводе они получили другие названия, перешедшие и в русскую Библию:

БЫТИЕ (евр. בדאשית Береш`ит — в начале; греч. γένεσς — Происхождение). Книга повествует о происхождении мира и человека, о падении людей, об избрании Авраама и заключении Завета с ним и другими патриархами народа Божия. В ней рассказывается о судьбе предков Израиля и их переселении в Египет.

ИСХОД (евр. שמות (ואלה шем`от — (и вот) имена; греч. ’Έξοδος). Книга содержит рассказ об угнетении Израиля фараоном, о призвании пророка Моисея, борьбе его с фараоном и исходе израильтян из Египта, о странствии народа Божия к горе Синай; излагает заповеди и законы Завета (20-23; 25-31; 34; 40); говорит о грехе израильтян, сделавших золотого тельца, и повторном даровании скрижалей. Основная мысль книги — вера в Бога-Спасителя, являющего Свою волю в истории.

ЛЕВИТ (евр. ויקדא Ваикра — И воззвал; греч. Λεν’`τικόν). Книга содержит богослужебные уставы, а также правила очищения, данные для того, чтобы сохранить телесную и духовную чистоту ветхозаветной Церкви. Основная мысль Лев. выражена в словах: «Будьте святы, ибо Я свят» (11,44).

ЧИСЛА (евр. במדבד Ваидав`ар — И сказал; греч. ’Αριθμοί). Книга говорит о странствии израильтян от Синая к Кадешу (Кадесу), переписи народа, его колебаниях и маловерии во время путешествия, первых попытках проникнуть в Землю Обетованную, пребывании в Кадеше, где происходит возмущение против Моисея. Вступление в восточную Палестину (нынешняя Иордания) сопровождается военными столкновениями с царями местных городов-государств. Моавитский царь Валак пытается погубить израильтян с помощью волхва Валаама, но попытка остается тщетной. За Иорданом два израильских колена занимают первые территории.

ВТОРОЗАКОНИЕ (евр. דבדים (אלה ה Эл`э хадвар`им — Эти слова; греч. Δεντερονόμιον). Книга излагает в основном законы и заповеди Моисея, повторенные им (с добавлением новых) незадолго до смерти. Так, новая заповедь — святилище Богу должно быть только в одном, свыше установленном месте. В заключение приводятся песнь и благословение Моисеевы
(32-33) и рассказ о его смерти на границе, отделяющей западный Ханаан от восточного.

Таким образом, Пятикнижие представляет собой историю основания ветхозаветной Церкви, перемежающуюся сводами ее законов и заповедей (религиозно-этических, богослужебных, канонических и правовых). В силу этого Тора есть как бы фундамент всего Ветхого Завета. Она учит о мудрости, всемогуществе и благости Творца, Который, встречая противление со стороны человека, призывает избранных людей и открывает им Свою волю. Он обещает им великое будущее (Обетование), тесно связанное с Его таинственными замыслами. Он испытывает веру тех, кто свободно принял Его Завет, охраняет их среди опасностей и дает им Закон жизни. Они должны стать «царством священников», беззаветно преданных Богу, готовых служить Его промыслительным намерениям. Как видимый знак будущего народу Господню дается во владение Земля Обетованная, которой суждено впоследствии стать Землей Спасения для всего человеческого рода.

3. Происхождение Пятикнижия от Моисея. В Новом Завете Закон определенно называется Моисеевым (Мф 19:7; Мк 10:3; Мк 12:19; Лк 16:29; Лк 24:27; Ин 1:17; Деян 15:21), поэтому православная Церковь с древнейших времен признавала Моисея автором Пятикнижия. Предание о Моисеевом авторстве отстаивается с полным правом и основанием. Другое дело — как понимать это авторство: в буквальном современном смысле слова или шире — по духу. «Приписывание отдельных библейских книг определенным авторам, — указывает акад. Б.А. Тураев, — во многих случаях надо понимать не в нашем, а в восточном смысле. Восток не знал литературной собственности; индивидуальность творчества и авторов в почти современном смысле с достаточной ясностью проявляется лишь в книгах пророков» (ИДВ, т. 1, с.6). Нет никаких сомнений, что основы ветхозаветного Закона и учения восходят к Моисею, но что именно конкретно было написано им, а что передавалось в устном Предании и записано позднее — установить нелегко.

4. Внутренние свидетельства. В отличие от книг пророков, Пятикнижие нигде не содержит прямых указаний, что оно целиком принадлежит Моисею. В нем лишь упоминается о «книге», куда он заносил памятные события (Исх 17:14; Числ 33:2), а также вписывал законы и заповеди (Исх 24:4; Исх 34:27). Однако в Пятикнижии есть места, которые явно относятся ко времени после Моисея. Так, говоря о приходе Авраама в окрестности Сихема, бытописатель замечает: «В этой земле тогда жили хананеи» (Быт 12:6). Следовательно, в его время там уже обитали израильтяне. В Быт 14:14 упоминается город (или местность) Дан, который получил свое название после переселения колена Данова в Ханаан при Иисусе Навине. В Быт 36:31 о царях Едома сказано, что они правили «прежде царствования царей у сынов Израилевых», — таким образом, св. писатель уже знает об этих царях (а появились они через 200 лет после Моисея). Далее о самом пророке говорится в столь благоговейном тоне, что едва ли можно приписать ему эти слова (Числ 12:3; Втор 33:1; Втор 34:10-11). И, наконец, невозможно предположить, чтобы Моисей повествовал о собственной кончине (Втор 34).

Отзвуки позднего времени лежат и на таких местах Исх, как описание скинии (25,31 — 27,8). Оно мало соответствует бедному кочевому быту израильтян.

«Где та техника, — пишет проф. Карташев, — можно сказать тяжелой индустрии, которая могла бы найтись в походных блужданиях? Еще невообразимее не столь уж легкая и по весу, но качественно тончайшая машинная техника для ткани широчайших полотен, покрывавших скинию, из шелков установленных цветов и рисунков с изображением херувимов, а также пестрых материй для облачения священства и со всякими позвонками и кисточками... Фактическая Моисеева скиния была сравнительно скромной, общепринятой у семитов для обитания их святыни палаткой, охраняемой не легионами левитов, как это потом организовали некоторые цари в Вефиле и Иерусалиме, а всего одним доверенным и преданным Моисею его личным «оруженосцем» И. Навином» (Ветхозаветная библейская критика, с.49,51).

Все это привело богословов-библеистов к выводу, что непосредственно пророку принадлежит только часть текста Пятикнижия, остальное же — Моисеево Предание, изложенное письменно другими боговдохновенными мудрецами (см. § 11). Но когда и где жили эти мудрецы — наследники и продолжатели Моисеевой традиции? Для понимания и толкования Библии этот вопрос имеет немаловажное значение.

5. Четыре варианта Моисеевой традиции. Происхождение основ Торы от Моисея доказывается существенным единством как повествовательной ее части, так и законодательной. Но в частностях, стиле, способах раскрытия той или иной темы внутри Пятикнижия можно проследить вариации. Например:

  • рассказы о творении в Быт 1-2, единые по духу, явно отличаются по характеру (в Быт 1 сначала созданы растения и животные, а затем человек; согласно Быт 2, когда появился человек, растений еще не было, и животные были созданы после человека);
  • в Быт 4:25-26 повествуется о рождении Сифа, а в Быт 5:3 об этом говорится как бы впервые;
  • в Быт 4:17 Енох является сыном Каина, а в Быт 5:18 — сыном Иареда, т.е. десятым после Адама;
  • в Быт 7:17 наводнение (потоп) продолжалось 40 дней, а в Быт 7:24 — 150 дней.

Эти расхождения (число которых очень велико) позволяют вычленить в священном повествовании четыре линии, которые сплетены в одно целое. Многие библеисты полагают, что первоначально было четыре связных текста, возникших в разное время и в разных кругах. Все они являлись письменной обработкой единого Предания ветхозаветной Церкви, восходящего к Моисею и домоисеевым временам. В этом смысле Тора в ее нынешнем виде есть нечто подобное труду апологета Татиана (II в.), который соединил в одно повествование четыре Евангелия. По мнению православного библеиста протопресв. А. Князева, такая «собирательная» структура Пятикнижия объясняется стремлением к «всестороннему раскрытию» боговдохновенной истины, идущей от Моисея (Православная Мысль, 1949, в. VII, с.107).

6. Имена Божии в Пятикнижии. Уже Тертуллиан, свт. И. Златоуст и бл. Августин заметили, что в одном из этих вариантов Св. Истории постоянно употребляется священное Имя Божие ЯГВЕ, а в прочих предпочтение отдается имени Элохим.

В еврейском тексте св. Имя передано четырьмя буквами YHWH. С III-II вв. до Р.Х. благочестивый обычай ввел запрет на произношение св. Имени в повседневной жизни. Вместо него стали употреблять слово Адонаи, Господь. Масореты, которые ввели огласовку в еврейский алфавит (см. § 8), ставили к четырем буквам св. Имени гласные слова Адонаи, что означало: «читай — Господь». В результате получилось сочетание, которое в Европе с ХVI века стали неправильно произносить как Иехова (Иегова). Между тем еще Ориген, хорошо знавший еврейский язык, писал, что св. Имя звучит как ИАВЭ. Поэтому в библейской науке было принято считать гласными св. Имени — А и Э, а Имя Божие произносить как yahwe, поскольку конечная согласная «H» — непроизносимая.

7. Гипотеза о двух ранних письменных традициях в Пятикнижии. Традицию, в которой употреблялось св. Имя, в библеистике нового времени стали называть Ягвистической (Я), а ту, где Бог именовался Элохим (Бог), — Элохистической (Э). Были затрачены огромные усилия, чтобы отделить в св. книгах эти традиции одну от другой (см. Приложение в конце книги). Позднее были выделены еще две традиции внутри Пятикнижия (В и С; см. ниже § 16). В конце ХIХ века была даже издана «Радужная Библия», в которой «четыре источника» обозначались шрифтами разных цветов. Но вполне достоверных результатов эти усилия не дали. Детальные разделения на «источники» были чаще построены на гипотетических основах и доказательной силы не получили.

Тем не менее наличие четырех пластов Св. Истории признано сейчас почти всеми библеистами. Еще в начале нашего века об этом без колебания писали некоторые православные авторы (Б.А. Тураев, И.Д. Андреев и др.). В католическом богословии эта теория получила права гражданства лишь после Послания Библейской Комиссии кардиналу Сюару (27 марта 1948 года).

«В настоящее время, — сказано в Послании, — никто не подвергает сомнению существование источников и не отказывается признать постепенного нарастания законов Моисеевых, зависящего от социальных и религиозных условий более поздних эпох».

Оставался, однако, вопрос: когда и где возникли эти источники? Ж. Астрюк (см. §11, §4) думал, что этими источниками пользовался сам Моисей. Шведская школа экзегетов считает их четырьмя устными традициями, которые были записаны только в эпоху Плена.

Вопросы для повторения
  1. Как называются первые пять книг Библии и о чем они повествуют?
  2. Кто и почему считается автором Пятикнижия?
  3. Какие следы послемоисеевой эпохи есть в Пятикнижии?
  4. Приведите примеры вариантов в библейских сказаниях.
  5. Сколько вариантов записи прослеживается в Пятикнижии?
  6. Почему Имя Божие произносится как Ягве?
Отрывки к тексту:
Job 22:22
Pro 13:15
Isa 24:5
Exo 20
Exo 34
Exo 40
Lev 11:44
Deu 32
Deu 33
Mat 19:7
Mar 10:3
Luk 16:29
Joh 1:17
Act 15:21
Exo 17:14
Num 33:2
Exo 24:4
Gen 36:31
Num 12:3
Deu 34
22
“Please receive instruction from His mouth And establish His words in your heart.
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15
Good understanding produces favor, But the way of the treacherous is hard.
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5
The earth is also polluted by its inhabitants, for they transgressed laws, violated statutes, broke the everlasting covenant.
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1
Then God spoke all these words, saying,
2
“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
3
“You shall have no other gods before Me.
4
“You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth.
5
You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me,
6
but showing lovingkindness to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
7
“You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not leave him unpunished who takes His name in vain.
8
“Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9
Six days you shall labor and do all your work,
10
but the seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you.
11
For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.
12
“Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be prolonged in the land which the LORD your God gives you.
13
“You shall not murder.
14
“You shall not commit adultery.
15
“You shall not steal.
16
“You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
17
“You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife or his male servant or his female servant or his ox or his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”
18
All the people perceived the thunder and the lightning flashes and the sound of the trumpet and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood at a distance.
19
Then they said to Moses, “Speak to us yourself and we will listen; but let not God speak to us, or we will die.”
20
Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid; for God has come in order to test you, and in order that the fear of Him may remain with you, so that you may not sin.”
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So the people stood at a distance, while Moses approached the thick cloud where God was.
22
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘You yourselves have seen that I have spoken to you from heaven.
23
You shall not make other gods besides Me; gods of silver or gods of gold, you shall not make for yourselves.
24
You shall make an altar of earth for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be remembered, I will come to you and bless you.
25
If you make an altar of stone for Me, you shall not build it of cut stones, for if you wield your tool on it, you will profane it.
26
And you shall not go up by steps to My altar, so that your nakedness will not be exposed on it.’
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1
Now the LORD said to Moses, “Cut out for yourself two stone tablets like the former ones, and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the former tablets which you shattered.
2
So be ready by morning, and come up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and present yourself there to Me on the top of the mountain.
3
No man is to come up with you, nor let any man be seen anywhere on the mountain; even the flocks and the herds may not graze in front of that mountain.”
4
So he cut out two stone tablets like the former ones, and Moses rose up early in the morning and went up to Mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, and he took two stone tablets in his hand.
5
The LORD descended in the cloud and stood there with him as he called upon the name of the LORD.
6
Then the LORD passed by in front of him and proclaimed, “The LORD, the LORD God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in lovingkindness and truth;
7
who keeps lovingkindness for thousands, who forgives iniquity, transgression and sin; yet He will by no means leave the guilty unpunished, visiting the iniquity of fathers on the children and on the grandchildren to the third and fourth generations.”
8
Moses made haste to bow low toward the earth and worship.
9
He said, “If now I have found favor in Your sight, O Lord, I pray, let the Lord go along in our midst, even though the people are so obstinate, and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us as Your own possession.”
10
Then God said, “Behold, I am going to make a covenant. Before all your people I will perform miracles which have not been produced in all the earth nor among any of the nations; and all the people among whom you live will see the working of the LORD, for it is a fearful thing that I am going to perform with you.
11
“Be sure to observe what I am commanding you this day: behold, I am going to drive out the Amorite before you, and the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.
12
Watch yourself that you make no covenant with the inhabitants of the land into which you are going, or it will become a snare in your midst.
13
But rather, you are to tear down their altars and smash their sacred pillars and cut down their Asherim
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—for you shall not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God—
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otherwise you might make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land and they would play the harlot with their gods and sacrifice to their gods, and someone might invite you to eat of his sacrifice,
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and you might take some of his daughters for your sons, and his daughters might play the harlot with their gods and cause your sons also to play the harlot with their gods.
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You shall make for yourself no molten gods.
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“You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread. For seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in the month of Abib you came out of Egypt.
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“The first offspring from every womb belongs to Me, and all your male livestock, the first offspring from cattle and sheep.
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You shall redeem with a lamb the first offspring from a donkey; and if you do not redeem it, then you shall break its neck. You shall redeem all the firstborn of your sons. None shall appear before Me empty-handed.
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“You shall work six days, but on the seventh day you shall rest; even during plowing time and harvest you shall rest.
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You shall celebrate the Feast of Weeks, that is, the first fruits of the wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year.
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Three times a year all your males are to appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel.
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For I will drive out nations before you and enlarge your borders, and no man shall covet your land when you go up three times a year to appear before the LORD your God.
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“You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread, nor is the sacrifice of the Feast of the Passover to be left over until morning.
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“You shall bring the very first of the first fruits of your soil into the house of the LORD your God. “You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.”
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Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”
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So he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did not eat bread or drink water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.
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It came about when Moses was coming down from Mount Sinai (and the two tablets of the testimony were in Moses’ hand as he was coming down from the mountain), that Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because of his speaking with Him.
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So when Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone, and they were afraid to come near him.
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Then Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the rulers in the congregation returned to him; and Moses spoke to them.
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Afterward all the sons of Israel came near, and he commanded them to do everything that the LORD had spoken to him on Mount Sinai.
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When Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face.
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But whenever Moses went in before the LORD to speak with Him, he would take off the veil until he came out; and whenever he came out and spoke to the sons of Israel what he had been commanded,
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the sons of Israel would see the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’ face shone. So Moses would replace the veil over his face until he went in to speak with Him.
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Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
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“On the first day of the first month you shall set up the tabernacle of the tent of meeting.
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You shall place the ark of the testimony there, and you shall screen the ark with the veil.
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You shall bring in the table and arrange what belongs on it; and you shall bring in the lampstand and mount its lamps.
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Moreover, you shall set the gold altar of incense before the ark of the testimony, and set up the veil for the doorway to the tabernacle.
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You shall set the altar of burnt offering in front of the doorway of the tabernacle of the tent of meeting.
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You shall set the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it.
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You shall set up the court all around and hang up the veil for the gateway of the court.
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Then you shall take the anointing oil and anoint the tabernacle and all that is in it, and shall consecrate it and all its furnishings; and it shall be holy.
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You shall anoint the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils, and consecrate the altar, and the altar shall be most holy.
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You shall anoint the laver and its stand, and consecrate it.
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Then you shall bring Aaron and his sons to the doorway of the tent of meeting and wash them with water.
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You shall put the holy garments on Aaron and anoint him and consecrate him, that he may minister as a priest to Me.
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You shall bring his sons and put tunics on them;
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and you shall anoint them even as you have anointed their father, that they may minister as priests to Me; and their anointing will qualify them for a perpetual priesthood throughout their generations.”
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Thus Moses did; according to all that the LORD had commanded him, so he did.
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Now in the first month of the second year, on the first day of the month, the tabernacle was erected.
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Moses erected the tabernacle and laid its sockets, and set up its boards, and inserted its bars and erected its pillars.
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He spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the covering of the tent on top of it, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he took the testimony and put it into the ark, and attached the poles to the ark, and put the mercy seat on top of the ark.
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He brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up a veil for the screen, and screened off the ark of the testimony, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he put the table in the tent of meeting on the north side of the tabernacle, outside the veil.
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He set the arrangement of bread in order on it before the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he placed the lampstand in the tent of meeting, opposite the table, on the south side of the tabernacle.
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He lighted the lamps before the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he placed the gold altar in the tent of meeting in front of the veil;
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and he burned fragrant incense on it, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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Then he set up the veil for the doorway of the tabernacle.
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He set the altar of burnt offering before the doorway of the tabernacle of the tent of meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the meal offering, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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He placed the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it for washing.
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From it Moses and Aaron and his sons washed their hands and their feet.
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When they entered the tent of meeting, and when they approached the altar, they washed, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.
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He erected the court all around the tabernacle and the altar, and hung up the veil for the gateway of the court. Thus Moses finished the work.
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Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.
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Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud had settled on it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.
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Throughout all their journeys whenever the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the sons of Israel would set out;
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but if the cloud was not taken up, then they did not set out until the day when it was taken up.
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For throughout all their journeys, the cloud of the LORD was on the tabernacle by day, and there was fire in it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel.
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For I am the LORD your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy, for I am holy. And you shall not make yourselves unclean with any of the swarming things that swarm on the earth.
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And let the earth hear the words of my mouth.
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“Give ear, O heavens, and let me speak;
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“Let my teaching drop as the rain, My speech distill as the dew, As the droplets on the fresh grass And as the showers on the herb.
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“For I proclaim the name of the LORD; Ascribe greatness to our God!
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“The Rock! His work is perfect, For all His ways are just; A God of faithfulness and without injustice, Righteous and upright is He.
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“They have acted corruptly toward Him, They are not His children, because of their defect; But are a perverse and crooked generation.
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“Do you thus repay the LORD, O foolish and unwise people? Is not He your Father who has bought you? He has made you and established you.
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“Remember the days of old, Consider the years of all generations. Ask your father, and he will inform you, Your elders, and they will tell you.
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“When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, When He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples According to the number of the sons of Israel.
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“For the LORD’S portion is His people; Jacob is the allotment of His inheritance.
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“He found him in a desert land, And in the howling waste of a wilderness; He encircled him, He cared for him, He guarded him as the pupil of His eye.
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“Like an eagle that stirs up its nest, That hovers over its young, He spread His wings and caught them, He carried them on His pinions.
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“The LORD alone guided him, And there was no foreign god with him.
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“He made him ride on the high places of the earth, And he ate the produce of the field; And He made him suck honey from the rock, And oil from the flinty rock,
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Curds of cows, and milk of the flock, With fat of lambs, And rams, the breed of Bashan, and goats, With the finest of the wheat— And of the blood of grapes you drank wine.
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“But Jeshurun grew fat and kicked— You are grown fat, thick, and sleek— Then he forsook God who made him, And scorned the Rock of his salvation.
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“They made Him jealous with strange gods; With abominations they provoked Him to anger.
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“They sacrificed to demons who were not God, To gods whom they have not known, New gods who came lately, Whom your fathers did not dread.
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“You neglected the Rock who begot you, And forgot the God who gave you birth.
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“The LORD saw this, and spurned them Because of the provocation of His sons and daughters.
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“Then He said, ‘I will hide My face from them, I will see what their end shall be; For they are a perverse generation, Sons in whom is no faithfulness.
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‘They have made Me jealous with what is not God; They have provoked Me to anger with their idols. So I will make them jealous with those who are not a people; I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation,
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For a fire is kindled in My anger, And burns to the lowest part of Sheol, And consumes the earth with its yield, And sets on fire the foundations of the mountains.
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‘I will heap misfortunes on them; I will use My arrows on them.
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‘They will be wasted by famine, and consumed by plague And bitter destruction; And the teeth of beasts I will send upon them, With the venom of crawling things of the dust.
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‘Outside the sword will bereave, And inside terror— Both young man and virgin, The nursling with the man of gray hair.
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‘I would have said, “I will cut them to pieces, I will remove the memory of them from men,”
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Had I not feared the provocation by the enemy, That their adversaries would misjudge, That they would say, “Our hand is triumphant, And the LORD has not done all this.”’
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“For they are a nation lacking in counsel, And there is no understanding in them.
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“Would that they were wise, that they understood this, That they would discern their future!
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“How could one chase a thousand, And two put ten thousand to flight, Unless their Rock had sold them, And the LORD had given them up?
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“Indeed their rock is not like our Rock, Even our enemies themselves judge this.
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“For their vine is from the vine of Sodom, And from the fields of Gomorrah; Their grapes are grapes of poison, Their clusters, bitter.
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“Their wine is the venom of serpents, And the deadly poison of cobras.
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‘Is it not laid up in store with Me, Sealed up in My treasuries?
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‘Vengeance is Mine, and retribution, In due time their foot will slip; For the day of their calamity is near, And the impending things are hastening upon them.’
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“For the LORD will vindicate His people, And will have compassion on His servants, When He sees that their strength is gone, And there is none remaining, bond or free.
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“And He will say, ‘Where are their gods, The rock in which they sought refuge?
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‘Who ate the fat of their sacrifices, And drank the wine of their drink offering? Let them rise up and help you, Let them be your hiding place!
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‘See now that I, I am He, And there is no god besides Me; It is I who put to death and give life. I have wounded and it is I who heal, And there is no one who can deliver from My hand.
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‘Indeed, I lift up My hand to heaven, And say, as I live forever,
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If I sharpen My flashing sword, And My hand takes hold on justice, I will render vengeance on My adversaries, And I will repay those who hate Me.
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‘I will make My arrows drunk with blood, And My sword will devour flesh, With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired leaders of the enemy.’
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“Rejoice, O nations, with His people; For He will avenge the blood of His servants, And will render vengeance on His adversaries, And will atone for His land and His people.”
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Then Moses came and spoke all the words of this song in the hearing of the people, he, with Joshua the son of Nun.
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When Moses had finished speaking all these words to all Israel,
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he said to them, “Take to your heart all the words with which I am warning you today, which you shall command your sons to observe carefully, even all the words of this law.
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For it is not an idle word for you; indeed it is your life. And by this word you will prolong your days in the land, which you are about to cross the Jordan to possess.”
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The LORD spoke to Moses that very same day, saying,
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“Go up to this mountain of the Abarim, Mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab opposite Jericho, and look at the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the sons of Israel for a possession.
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Then die on the mountain where you ascend, and be gathered to your people, as Aaron your brother died on Mount Hor and was gathered to his people,
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because you broke faith with Me in the midst of the sons of Israel at the waters of Meribah-kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin, because you did not treat Me as holy in the midst of the sons of Israel.
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For you shall see the land at a distance, but you shall not go there, into the land which I am giving the sons of Israel.”
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Now this is the blessing with which Moses the man of God blessed the sons of Israel before his death.
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He said, “The LORD came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came from the midst of ten thousand holy ones; At His right hand there was flashing lightning for them.
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“Indeed, He loves the people; All Your holy ones are in Your hand, And they followed in Your steps; Everyone receives of Your words.
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“Moses charged us with a law, A possession for the assembly of Jacob.
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“And He was king in Jeshurun, When the heads of the people were gathered, The tribes of Israel together.
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“May Reuben live and not die, Nor his men be few.”
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And this regarding Judah; so he said, “Hear, O LORD, the voice of Judah, And bring him to his people. With his hands he contended for them, And may You be a help against his adversaries.”
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Of Levi he said, “Let Your Thummim and Your Urim belong to Your godly man, Whom You proved at Massah, With whom You contended at the waters of Meribah;
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Who said of his father and his mother, ‘I did not consider them’; And he did not acknowledge his brothers, Nor did he regard his own sons, For they observed Your word, And kept Your covenant.
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“They shall teach Your ordinances to Jacob, And Your law to Israel. They shall put incense before You, And whole burnt offerings on Your altar.
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“O LORD, bless his substance, And accept the work of his hands; Shatter the loins of those who rise up against him, And those who hate him, so that they will not rise again.”
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Of Benjamin he said, “May the beloved of the LORD dwell in security by Him, Who shields him all the day, And he dwells between His shoulders.”
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Of Joseph he said, “Blessed of the LORD be his land, With the choice things of heaven, with the dew, And from the deep lying beneath,
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And with the choice yield of the sun, And with the choice produce of the months.
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“And with the best things of the ancient mountains, And with the choice things of the everlasting hills,
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And with the choice things of the earth and its fullness, And the favor of Him who dwelt in the bush. Let it come to the head of Joseph, And to the crown of the head of the one distinguished among his brothers.
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“As the firstborn of his ox, majesty is his, And his horns are the horns of the wild ox; With them he will push the peoples, All at once, to the ends of the earth. And those are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And those are the thousands of Manasseh.”
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Of Zebulun he said, “Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going forth, And, Issachar, in your tents.
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“They will call peoples to the mountain; There they will offer righteous sacrifices; For they will draw out the abundance of the seas, And the hidden treasures of the sand.”
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Of Gad he said, “Blessed is the one who enlarges Gad; He lies down as a lion, And tears the arm, also the crown of the head.
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“Then he provided the first part for himself, For there the ruler’s portion was reserved; And he came with the leaders of the people; He executed the justice of the LORD, And His ordinances with Israel.”
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Of Dan he said, “Dan is a lion’s whelp, That leaps forth from Bashan.”
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Of Naphtali he said, “O Naphtali, satisfied with favor, And full of the blessing of the LORD, Take possession of the sea and the south.”
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Of Asher he said, “More blessed than sons is Asher; May he be favored by his brothers, And may he dip his foot in oil.
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“Your locks will be iron and bronze, And according to your days, so will your leisurely walk be.
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“There is none like the God of Jeshurun, Who rides the heavens to your help, And through the skies in His majesty.
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“The eternal God is a dwelling place, And underneath are the everlasting arms; And He drove out the enemy from before you, And said, ‘Destroy!’
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“So Israel dwells in security, The fountain of Jacob secluded, In a land of grain and new wine; His heavens also drop down dew.
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“Blessed are you, O Israel; Who is like you, a people saved by the LORD, Who is the shield of your help And the sword of your majesty! So your enemies will cringe before you, And you will tread upon their high places.”
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They *said to Him, “Why then did Moses command to GIVE HER A CERTIFICATE OF DIVORCE AND SEND her AWAY?”
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And He answered and said to them, “What did Moses command you?”
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But Abraham *said, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them.’
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For the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ.
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For Moses from ancient generations has in every city those who preach him, since he is read in the synagogues every Sabbath.”
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Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write this in a book as a memorial and recite it to Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven.”
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Moses recorded their starting places according to their journeys by the command of the LORD, and these are their journeys according to their starting places.
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Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. Then he arose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.
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Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel.
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(Now the man Moses was very humble, more than any man who was on the face of the earth.)
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Now Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, which is opposite Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land, Gilead as far as Dan,
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and all Naphtali and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah as far as the western sea,
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and the Negev and the plain in the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, as far as Zoar.
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Then the LORD said to him, “This is the land which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, ‘I will give it to your descendants’; I have let you see it with your eyes, but you shall not go over there.”
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So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD.
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And He buried him in the valley in the land of Moab, opposite Beth-peor; but no man knows his burial place to this day.
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Although Moses was one hundred and twenty years old when he died, his eye was not dim, nor his vigor abated.
8
So the sons of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; then the days of weeping and mourning for Moses came to an end.
9
Now Joshua the son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid his hands on him; and the sons of Israel listened to him and did as the LORD had commanded Moses.
10
Since that time no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face,
11
for all the signs and wonders which the LORD sent him to perform in the land of Egypt against Pharaoh, all his servants, and all his land,
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and for all the mighty power and for all the great terror which Moses performed in the sight of all Israel.
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