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Мысли вслух на Exo 10:1-29

1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I havea Lit made heavyhardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I mayb Lit putperform these signs of Minec Lit in his midstamong them, 2 and that you may tell in thed Lit earshearing of your son, and of your grandson, how I made a mockery of the Egyptians and how Ie Lit putperformed My signs among them, that you may know that I am the LORD.”
3 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said to him, “Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, that they may serve Me. 4 For if you refuse to let My people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your territory. 5 They shall cover the surface of the land, so that no one will be able to see the land. They will also eat the rest of what has escaped—what is left to you from the hail—and they will eat every tree which sprouts for you out of the field. 6 Then your houses shall be filled and the houses of all your servants and the houses of all the Egyptians, something which neither your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen, from the day that theyf Lit werecame upon the earth until this day.’” And he turned and went out from Pharaoh. 7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long will this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God. Do you notg Lit knowrealize that Egypt is destroyed?” 8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the LORD your God!h Lit Who and who areWho are the ones that are going?” 9 Moses said, “We shall go with our young and our old; with our sons and our daughters, with our flocks and our herds we shall go, for wei Lit have a feastmust hold a feast to the LORD.” 10 Then he said to them, “Thus may the LORD be with you,j Lit when Iif ever I let you and your little ones go! Take heed, for evil isk Lit before your facein your mind. 11 Not so! Go now, the men among you, and serve the LORD, forl Lit you desire itthat is what you desire.” So they were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.
12 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt and eat every plant of the land, even all that the hail has left.” 13 So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the LORD directed an east wind on the land all that day and all that night; and when it was morning, the east windm Lit carriedbrought the locusts. 14 The locusts came up over all the land of Egypt and settled in all the territory of Egypt; they were veryn Lit heavynumerous. There had never been so manyo Lit locusts like them before themlocusts, nor would there be so manyp Lit after themagain. 15 For they covered the surface of the whole land, so that the land was darkened; and they ate every plant of the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Thus nothing green was left on tree or plant of the field through all the land of Egypt. 16 Then Pharaoh hurriedly called for Moses and Aaron, and he said, “I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you. 17 Now therefore, please forgive my sin only this once, and make supplication to the LORD your God, that He would only remove this death from me.” 18 He went out from Pharaoh and made supplication to the LORD. 19 So the LORD shifted the wind to a very strong west wind which took up the locusts and drove them into theq Lit Sea of ReedsRed Sea; not one locust was left in all the territory of Egypt. 20 But the LORDr Lit made stronghardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the sons of Israel go.
21 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even a darkness which may be felt.” 22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days. 23 They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the sons of Israel had light in their dwellings. 24 Then Pharaoh called to Moses, and said, “Go, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be detained. Even your little ones may go with you.” 25 But Moses said, “You must alsos Lit give into our handlet us have sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we mayt Lit makesacrifice them to the LORD our God. 26 Therefore, our livestock too shall go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind, for we shall take some of them to serve the LORD our God. And until we arrive there, we ourselves do not know with what we shall serve the LORD.” 27 But the LORDu Lit made stronghardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to let them go. 28 Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me!v Lit Take heed to yourselfBeware, do not see my face again, for in the day you see my face you shall die!” 29 Moses said, “You are right; I shall never see your face again!”
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Через много лет после написания этого рассказа апостол Павел (Рим 9:17-23) поставит перед своими читателями вопрос, который, возможно, не дает покоя и тем, кто сегодня читает о наказании Египта. Господь Сам «ожесточает сердце» фараона, а затем Сам же наказывает его и его народ за непослушание. «За что же еще обвиняет? Ибо кто противостанет воле Его?», — спрашивает воображаемый собеседник Павла. — «А ты кто, человек, что споришь с Богом?», — отвечает апостол вопросом на вопрос. Для него совершенно очевидна абсолютная власть Бога над всем, что происходит на земле; но также очевидна и справедливость и милость Бога. Он не решает этот вопрос утверждением человеческой свободы воли, независимости от Бога, но также он сознает правомерность вопроса: «За что же?». Тайна зла вряд ли доступна нашему пониманию, «зло нельзя объяснить, с ним надо бороться», как сказал один мудрый человек. Но есть в мире и еще одна тайна — тайна Бога. Она больше, сильнее тайны зла. И именно поэтому у нас есть надежда.

Другие мысли вслух

 
На Exo 10:1-29
1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I havea Lit made heavyhardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I mayb Lit putperform these signs of Minec Lit in his midstamong them, 2 and that you may tell in thed Lit earshearing of your son, and of your grandson, how I made a mockery of the Egyptians and how Ie Lit putperformed My signs among them, that you may know that I am the LORD.”
3 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said to him, “Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, that they may serve Me. 4 For if you refuse to let My people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your territory. 5 They shall cover the surface of the land, so that no one will be able to see the land. They will also eat the rest of what has escaped—what is left to you from the hail—and they will eat every tree which sprouts for you out of the field. 6 Then your houses shall be filled and the houses of all your servants and the houses of all the Egyptians, something which neither your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen, from the day that theyf Lit werecame upon the earth until this day.’” And he turned and went out from Pharaoh. 7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long will this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God. Do you notg Lit knowrealize that Egypt is destroyed?” 8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the LORD your God!h Lit Who and who areWho are the ones that are going?” 9 Moses said, “We shall go with our young and our old; with our sons and our daughters, with our flocks and our herds we shall go, for wei Lit have a feastmust hold a feast to the LORD.” 10 Then he said to them, “Thus may the LORD be with you,j Lit when Iif ever I let you and your little ones go! Take heed, for evil isk Lit before your facein your mind. 11 Not so! Go now, the men among you, and serve the LORD, forl Lit you desire itthat is what you desire.” So they were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.
12 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt and eat every plant of the land, even all that the hail has left.” 13 So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the LORD directed an east wind on the land all that day and all that night; and when it was morning, the east windm Lit carriedbrought the locusts. 14 The locusts came up over all the land of Egypt and settled in all the territory of Egypt; they were veryn Lit heavynumerous. There had never been so manyo Lit locusts like them before themlocusts, nor would there be so manyp Lit after themagain. 15 For they covered the surface of the whole land, so that the land was darkened; and they ate every plant of the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Thus nothing green was left on tree or plant of the field through all the land of Egypt. 16 Then Pharaoh hurriedly called for Moses and Aaron, and he said, “I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you. 17 Now therefore, please forgive my sin only this once, and make supplication to the LORD your God, that He would only remove this death from me.” 18 He went out from Pharaoh and made supplication to the LORD. 19 So the LORD shifted the wind to a very strong west wind which took up the locusts and drove them into theq Lit Sea of ReedsRed Sea; not one locust was left in all the territory of Egypt. 20 But the LORDr Lit made stronghardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the sons of Israel go.
21 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even a darkness which may be felt.” 22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days. 23 They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the sons of Israel had light in their dwellings. 24 Then Pharaoh called to Moses, and said, “Go, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be detained. Even your little ones may go with you.” 25 But Moses said, “You must alsos Lit give into our handlet us have sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we mayt Lit makesacrifice them to the LORD our God. 26 Therefore, our livestock too shall go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind, for we shall take some of them to serve the LORD our God. And until we arrive there, we ourselves do not know with what we shall serve the LORD.” 27 But the LORDu Lit made stronghardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to let them go. 28 Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me!v Lit Take heed to yourselfBeware, do not see my face again, for in the day you see my face you shall die!” 29 Moses said, “You are right; I shall never see your face again!”
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Наступает момент, когда даже фараон понимает: надо что-то делать, иначе его страна не перенесёт обрушивающихся на неё одного за другим бедствий. Момент этот был для него весьма неприятным...  Читать далее

Наступает момент, когда даже фараон понимает: надо что-то делать, иначе его страна не перенесёт обрушивающихся на неё одного за другим бедствий. Момент этот был для него весьма неприятным: приходилось соглашаться на то, на что соглашаться совсем не хотелось. Соображения были самые разные, включая и сугубо политические: отпускать большую массу людей куда-то в пустыню, где все эти люди останутся без надзора и контроля, была рискованно.

Фараон пытается найти выход: он хочет заранее договориться с Моисеем, сколько народу пойдёт с ним и кто именно. Моисей же, наоборот, не сообщает фараону никаких подробностей. Он просит отпустить всех и притом со скотом: ведь неизвестно, что именно из стада Бог выберет Себе в жертву. Такой ответ насторожил фараона: он тут же предположил, что Моисей замышляет что-то нехорошее.

Тут, как в капле воды, отражается та всеобщая проблема, проблема изначального взаимного недоверия, которая отравляет жизнь падшего человека. Глядя на других, оценивая их планы, вникая в их замыслы, мы всегда склонны предполагать худшее. Моисей действительно собирался в конце концов увести свой народ из Египта — это правда, но он едва ли лгал фараону относительно своих намерений на тот момент, когда о них говорил.

Судя по тому, как развивались события в дальнейшем, можно думать, что решение уйти из Египта и уже не возвращаться назад было принято Моисеем лишь тогда, когда стало ясно, что фараон не примет народа в его новом духовном качестве, в том качестве, которое он обрёл бы после заключения союза-завета с Богом. Будь оно иначе, не исключено, что даже после заключения завета на Синае евреи могли бы уйти из страны не сразу: ведь, уйдя так неожиданно, как они ушли, беглецы оказались совершенно не готовы ни к жизни в пустыне, ни к пути за Богом.

На подготовку надо было время, которое вполне можно было бы, при других обстоятельствах и при другом отношении властей к происходящему, провести и в Египте. Позиция фараона, однако, сделала такой вариант развития событий совершенно невозможным. Когда фараон прямо запретил Моисею являться к нему на глаза и возвращаться к вопросу, который Моисей перед ним поставил, пророк понял: время просьб кончилось, теперь всё пойдёт иначе, по другому сценарию.

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На Exo 10:1-29
1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I havea Lit made heavyhardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I mayb Lit putperform these signs of Minec Lit in his midstamong them, 2 and that you may tell in thed Lit earshearing of your son, and of your grandson, how I made a mockery of the Egyptians and how Ie Lit putperformed My signs among them, that you may know that I am the LORD.”
3 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said to him, “Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, that they may serve Me. 4 For if you refuse to let My people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your territory. 5 They shall cover the surface of the land, so that no one will be able to see the land. They will also eat the rest of what has escaped—what is left to you from the hail—and they will eat every tree which sprouts for you out of the field. 6 Then your houses shall be filled and the houses of all your servants and the houses of all the Egyptians, something which neither your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen, from the day that theyf Lit werecame upon the earth until this day.’” And he turned and went out from Pharaoh. 7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long will this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God. Do you notg Lit knowrealize that Egypt is destroyed?” 8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the LORD your God!h Lit Who and who areWho are the ones that are going?” 9 Moses said, “We shall go with our young and our old; with our sons and our daughters, with our flocks and our herds we shall go, for wei Lit have a feastmust hold a feast to the LORD.” 10 Then he said to them, “Thus may the LORD be with you,j Lit when Iif ever I let you and your little ones go! Take heed, for evil isk Lit before your facein your mind. 11 Not so! Go now, the men among you, and serve the LORD, forl Lit you desire itthat is what you desire.” So they were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.
12 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt and eat every plant of the land, even all that the hail has left.” 13 So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the LORD directed an east wind on the land all that day and all that night; and when it was morning, the east windm Lit carriedbrought the locusts. 14 The locusts came up over all the land of Egypt and settled in all the territory of Egypt; they were veryn Lit heavynumerous. There had never been so manyo Lit locusts like them before themlocusts, nor would there be so manyp Lit after themagain. 15 For they covered the surface of the whole land, so that the land was darkened; and they ate every plant of the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Thus nothing green was left on tree or plant of the field through all the land of Egypt. 16 Then Pharaoh hurriedly called for Moses and Aaron, and he said, “I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you. 17 Now therefore, please forgive my sin only this once, and make supplication to the LORD your God, that He would only remove this death from me.” 18 He went out from Pharaoh and made supplication to the LORD. 19 So the LORD shifted the wind to a very strong west wind which took up the locusts and drove them into theq Lit Sea of ReedsRed Sea; not one locust was left in all the territory of Egypt. 20 But the LORDr Lit made stronghardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the sons of Israel go.
21 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even a darkness which may be felt.” 22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days. 23 They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the sons of Israel had light in their dwellings. 24 Then Pharaoh called to Moses, and said, “Go, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be detained. Even your little ones may go with you.” 25 But Moses said, “You must alsos Lit give into our handlet us have sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we mayt Lit makesacrifice them to the LORD our God. 26 Therefore, our livestock too shall go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind, for we shall take some of them to serve the LORD our God. And until we arrive there, we ourselves do not know with what we shall serve the LORD.” 27 But the LORDu Lit made stronghardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to let them go. 28 Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me!v Lit Take heed to yourselfBeware, do not see my face again, for in the day you see my face you shall die!” 29 Moses said, “You are right; I shall never see your face again!”
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В отношениях человека с Богом есть своя логика, и если человек снова и снова отталкивает руку, протянутую ему...  Читать далее

В отношениях человека с Богом есть своя логика, и если человек снова и снова отталкивает руку, протянутую ему Богом, это не может оставаться без последствий. На первый взгляд такая ситуация кажется не очень понятной: в конце концов, Бог ведь может просто оставить в покое того, кто не хочет иметь с Ним дела. Но как быть, если в силу сложившихся обстоятельств этот не желающий знать Бога человек оказался на таком месте, где от его решения зависит осуществление замысла Божия? Ведь промысел Божий реализуется в мире свободных людей, а в падшем мире человек, пользуясь своей свободой, далеко не всегда принимает во внимание планы Божии. И тогда Богу приходится действовать жёстко. Неуступчивость фараона, в известном смысле, вынуждает и Бога стать по отношению к нему неуступчивым. И тогда знаком станет уже не признание фараоном власти Божией, а осуществление Богом Своего плана вопреки воле фараона (ст. 1 – 2). А сам фараон встретится лицом к лицу не с Божьей любовью, а с Божьей силой. И сила эта будет такой, что её очевидное превосходство будет ясно всем и каждому (ст. 7). С такой силой приходится считаться. Но считаться — не значит принять. Даже маг или материалист готов иногда признать, что в мире есть силы, превосходящие силы человеческие, будь то мощь науки или сила магии. Но даже если за этой силой такой материалист почувствует присутствие чьей-то воли, намного превосходящей человеческую, он вовсе не обязательно признает её высшей себя, ведь более сильный далеко не всегда имеет право на власть над более слабым. Конечно, природа не такова, по закону природы сильнейший имеет право властвовать над слабейшим, но человек редко принимает такое положение вещей как норму, даже если на словах он признает природу высшей и последней реальностью. И тогда, столкнувшись с силой Божией и не находя за ней Бога, человек пытается договориться с ней или с тем, кто, как ему кажется, за ней стоит, как фараон пытается договориться с Моисеем (ст. 8 – 11, 24 – 27). Казалось бы, здесь-то и можно было бы попробовать установить с фараоном контакт и попробовать смягчить его сердце. Но на самом деле никакого полноценного общения и даже подлинной встречи с Богом такой торг не предполагает: ведь признания власти Божией он не допускает, наоборот, целью его является попытка откупиться и отделаться от Бога Моисея, сделать что-то, чтобы Он оставил наконец в покое и Египет, и самого фараона, и добиться этого как можно меньшими издержками. Потому-то и важны фараону гарантии возвращения тех, кого он отпускает на праздник. Но в отношениях с Богом торг неуместен.

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