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Мысли вслух на Exo 13:17-14:31

17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.
19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.
20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.
21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so.
And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?
And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:
And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand.
But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.
11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?
12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.
13 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever.
14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.
15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward:
16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.
21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.
29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.
31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.
Свернуть

Свобода! Вот главное чудо, произошедшее на Красном море — за израильтянами закончилась плодородная земля рабства и впереди открылась пустыня свободы. Они еще не раз пожалеют, что выбрали этот путь, потому что свобода и смерть всегда идут рядом. Все остальные чудеса, огненные и дымные столпы, путешествие через море посуху, и все, что ожидает Израиль в пустыне — лишь свидетельство того, что Бог рядом. Это не помешает им сомневаться и роптать в любой удобный для этого момент. Но именно в этом, в возможности поверить или не поверить (Богу, а не чудесам), реализуется спасение из рабства, где все было надежно и постоянно. Но теперь перед Моисеем и его спутниками только пустыня и небо — идеальные условия, чтобы многое понять и многое решить. Бог приглашает и нас сделать этот шаг от рабства к свободе, от уверенности — к вере.

Другие мысли вслух

 
На Exo 14:1-31
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so.
And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?
And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:
And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand.
But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.
11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?
12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.
13 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever.
14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.
15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward:
16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.
21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.
29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.
31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.
Свернуть
Уход евреев из Египта — самое настоящее чудо, чудо, совершенно неожиданное для египтян. Дело в том, что Моисей сразу же повёл народ совсем не туда, куда, как...  Читать далее

Уход евреев из Египта — самое настоящее чудо, чудо, совершенно неожиданное для египтян. Дело в том, что Моисей сразу же повёл народ совсем не туда, куда, как думали все, он направится, не в Беэр-Шеву, где было старое яхвистское святилище и где как раз можно было принести жертвы Яхве и отпраздновать Песах.

Вместо того, чтобы вести народ на восток, а затем на север, по приморской дороге, он поворачивает на юго-восток, к границе, туда, где теперь Суэцкий канал, а в те времена существовала целая цепочка лиманов, связанных частично со Средиземным, а частично с Красным морем. Эта цепочка лиманов носила название Тростникового моря, того самого, о пересечении которого и рассказывает Книга Исхода (в Синодальном переводе Тростниковое море названо Красным). Туда-то, к Тростниковому морю, и ведёт Моисей свой народ. Египтяне же поняли, что произошло нечто незапланированное, то, чего они боялись: народ двинулся не туда, куда ему было разрешено, а к границе, двинулся явно с тем, чтобы уйти из страны.

Беэр-Шева во время Исхода находилась на египетской территории, а вот Синай не был ею никогда, по крайней мере, в древности. Неудивительно, что египетская пограничная стража, состоявшая из лёгких колесниц и кавалерии, тут же двинулась следом за евреями с тем, чтобы не дать им уйти, и заблокировала беглецов в районе Горьких озёр — там, где Тростниковое море имело наименьшую ширину. Когда, в какой момент принимает Моисей решение уйти из страны? Трудно сказать точно.

Возможно, он знал об этом уже тогда, когда призвал народ отпраздновать Песах. Скорее всего, однако, он не знал ещё точно, каким именно маршрутом будет уводить народ из Египта. Тут надо было просто идти за Богом, и Моисей понимает это даже тогда, когда, казалось, ситуация стала совершенно безвыходной, когда египтяне блокировали народ в районе Горьких озёр. Вот тогда-то и произошло чудо, которого не ожидали ни евреи, ни египтяне: сильный ветер выдул воду из Горьких озёр, на время обнажив дно, представлявшее собой вязкую солёную жижу.

Идти по этой жиже было непросто, но зато ни колесницы, ни всадники не могли двигаться по ней быстрее пешехода. Эффективного преследования не получилось — разрыв между уходящими евреями и преследующими их египтянами неизбежно должен был сохраниться до выхода на твёрдую землю. Первыми на неё ступили евреи, и тогда ветер стих — вода хлынула назад, на своё обычное место, накрыв преследовавших евреев египтян. Египет был позади, а впереди — свобода и пустыня.

Свернуть
 
На Exo 14:1-31
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so.
And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?
And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:
And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand.
But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.
11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?
12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.
13 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever.
14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.
15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward:
16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.
21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.
29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.
31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.
Свернуть
Переход через Красное море всегда служит для неверующих людей прямым указанием на то, что Библия рассказывает...  Читать далее

Переход через Красное море всегда служит для неверующих людей прямым указанием на то, что Библия рассказывает сказки, которых в принципе быть не может. Вместе с тем, чудо состоит не в том, что морская вода расступилась, обнажив дно. Подобные явления происходят в этих местах и сейчас при особом направлении ветра. Чудесное спасение чаще всего не невозможное и невероятное событие, а возможное и произошедшее в нужное время в нужном месте. Кроме того, здесь мы видим такую реакцию Бога на мольбу Моисея, которой никого не найдешь у безличной и равнодушной силы или энергии, не найдешь и на слащавых картинках, изображающих старика с длинной белой бородой. Бог говорит Моисею: «...что ты вопиешь ко Мне? скажи сынам Израилевым, чтоб они шли». В этом состоит основа чуда – в личных и близких взаимоотношениях Бога и Моисея и в доверии Моисея. Можно оставаться на месте и продолжать вопить, но чтобы жить, надо встать и идти дальше.

Свернуть
 
На Exo 13:17-14:31
17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.
19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.
20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.
21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so.
And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?
And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:
And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand.
But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.
11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?
12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.
13 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever.
14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.
15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward:
16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.
21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.
29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.
31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.
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При чтении сегодняшнего отрывка внимание привлекает, прежде всего, описание расступившихся морских вод...  Читать далее

При чтении сегодняшнего отрывка внимание привлекает, прежде всего, описание расступившихся морских вод (Исх 14:19–22). Между тем, это чудо, как и все чудеса Исхода, при желании можно было бы объяснить вполне естественными причинами, как это не раз уже и делалось критически настроенными комментаторами. Бог ненавязчив, и чудеса становятся чудесами лишь для тех, кто хотел бы увидеть в исторических событиях руку Божию. Тем же, кто этого не хочет, остаётся лишь естественный ход событий. В самом деле, сильный ветер со стороны пустыни вполне мог согнать воду в море и сделать непроходимые места проходимыми, ведь речь в еврейском тексте идёт не о Красном море собственно, а о «Тростниковом море», которое находилось в районе Горьких озёр (сегодня по этой территории проходит Суэцкий канал). А Горькие озёра представляли собой систему лиманов, связанных с Красным морем, так что ветер из пустыни, отогнав воду в море, обнажил на время дно, что и позволило евреям уйти в пустыню. Но самое важное, быть может, связано даже не с чудесным переходом через Тростниковое море, а с самим присутствием Божиим, сопровождавшим народ на пути из Египта к Синаю (Исх 13:21–22; 14:19–20). Это присутствие будет отныне сопровождать народ Божий на всём протяжении его последующей истории, проявляясь в разных формах и в различных ситуациях. И именно оно делает народ Божий народом Божиим. А расступившиеся воды — лишь одно из чудес, один из примеров вмешательства Божия в ситуацию, когда Его народу потребовалась помощь. Ни один народ на земле сам по себе недостоин того, чтобы стать народом Божиим. И только непосредственное присутствие Божие, Его, так сказать, прямое воздействие может сделать достойным тот народ, который Бог изберёт, чтобы сделать его Своим народом. Но и после избрания избранный народ остаётся избранным лишь до тех пор, пока хранит верность Избравшему. И потому каждому поколению придётся снова и снова отвечать на призыв Божий: ведь избранничества нет без реальных, живых отношений с Богом, которые не передаются по наследству и не устанавливаются сами по себе, по какому-то особому «праву избранника». Это верно для Церкви Ветхозаветной; тем более это верно для Церкви Христовой.

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На Exo 13:1-22
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.
And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten.
This day came ye out in the month Abib.
And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month.
Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD.
Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters.
And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt.
And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.
10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.
11 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee,
12 That thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast; the males shall be the LORD's.
13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem.
14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage:
15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.
16 And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.
17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.
19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.
20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.
21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.
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Собираясь в дорогу, даже перед долгожданным отпуском, человек все равно волнуется. Как что получится, как доеду...  Читать далее

Собираясь в дорогу, даже перед долгожданным отпуском, человек все равно волнуется. Как что получится, как доеду, а как здесь все оставлять? Уходя из Египта, уходя со скандалом, не мирно, очевидно, что каждый из уходящих испытывает не просто волнение, а страх. Что будет завтра? Здесь плохо, но там неизвестность. Куда мы все идем, мало ли что нас ждет. И как еще фараон отреагирует на наш уход? Все бросить, пусть немногое, пусть плохое, но все свое — и идти в никуда, где ничего еще нет. Доверяясь только вере отцов и настойчивому косноязычному человеку. Что же говорит глава народа своим соплеменникам? Что брать в дорогу? Куда идем? Как будем идти? Что ждет впереди? Он говорит, что каждый год много сотен и тысяч лет будет происходить одно и тоже: все будут вспоминать уход из рабства.

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На Exo 13:1-22
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.
And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten.
This day came ye out in the month Abib.
And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month.
Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD.
Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters.
And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt.
And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.
10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.
11 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee,
12 That thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast; the males shall be the LORD's.
13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem.
14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage:
15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.
16 And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.
17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.
19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.
20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.
21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.
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Если следовать логике текста, приведённого в Книге Исхода и вложенного её автором в уста Моисея, обычай посвящать всё первородное Богу и выкупать при этом первенца-ребёнка восходит к тому...  Читать далее

Если следовать логике текста, приведённого в Книге Исхода и вложенного её автором в уста Моисея, обычай посвящать всё первородное Богу и выкупать при этом первенца-ребёнка восходит к тому празднованию Песаха, которое имело место накануне Исхода. Трудно сказать, насколько древним является сам обычай — не исключено, что Моисей не устанавливает его, а лишь о нём напоминает как о чём-то когда-то известном, а теперь, в Египте, основательно забытом.

Во всяком случае, очевидна связь его с тем пониманием праздника, которое отражено в Книге Исхода. Сам же Песах осмысливается здесь как праздник жизни, вернее, как праздник торжества жизни над смертью. Жизни Божьей — ведь это Бог освобождает Свой народ от меча того ангела смерти, который поразил дома египтян. Жизнь принадлежит Богу, и только Ему — таков смысл устанавливаемого или восстанавливаемого Моисеем обычая.

Если так, тогда понятно: первые плоды, первый приплод скота, всё первое — Богу. Не только для того, чтобы, как принято думать, Он после этого освятил бы то, что последует — плоды, которые уродятся после первинок, или скот, родившийся после первого приплода. Просто жизнь должна вернуться к первоисточнику. К Тому, Кто её дал. Вопрос лишь в том, как тут быть с человеком. С растениями, с животными понятно: они сотворены Богом, как говорит Библия, «по роду их», согласно соответствующему себе Божьему замыслу. Один прототип для каждого рода, вида, подвида — и жизнь отдельной особи не так уж важна.

С другой стороны, тогда и освятить можно сразу весь приплод, освятив одно жертвенное животное — ведь у животных одного рода, вида, подвида, тем более у особей из одного стада жизнь одна на всех. С человеком же не так, тут каждый уникален. Людей, даже принадлежащих к одному роду или племени, не освятишь, как животных. К тому же и жизнь у людей не одна на всех, а у каждого своя. Как же быть? Выход прост: человек освящается по-человечески, а значит, осознанно, так, как положено человеку освящаться через жертвоприношение, посредством жертвенной трапезы, но младенца освящают его родители. Это они впускают Бога в свою жизнь и в жизнь своего ребёнка.

У животных одного вида одна душа на всех — одно приносится в жертву, а освящаются все. У людей души различны, но у супругов души соединяются воедино, и душа ребёнка входит в круг их общения. Когда же родители впускают в свою общую жизнь Бога, Он освящает не только их жизнь, но и жизнь их первенца — в едином пространстве отношений, связывающих его с родителями, а родителей между собой. Так освящается человек, впуская в свою жизнь Бога.

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