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Deuteronomy, Chapter 26

And it shall be, when thou art come in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and possessest it, and dwellest therein;
That thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit of the earth, which thou shalt bring of thy land that the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt put it in a basket, and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to place his name there.
And thou shalt go unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him, I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the country which the LORD sware unto our fathers for to give us.
And the priest shall take the basket out of thine hand, and set it down before the altar of the LORD thy God.
And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God, A Syrian ready to perish was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there with a few, and became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous:
And the Egyptians evil entreated us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage:
And when we cried unto the LORD God of our fathers, the LORD heard our voice, and looked on our affliction, and our labour, and our oppression:
And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders:
And he hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, even a land that floweth with milk and honey.
10 And now, behold, I have brought the firstfruits of the land, which thou, O LORD, hast given me. And thou shalt set it before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God:
11 And thou shalt rejoice in every good thing which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thine house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is among you.
12 When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be filled;
13 Then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God, I have brought away the hallowed things out of mine house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all thy commandments which thou hast commanded me: I have not transgressed thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them:
14 I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I taken away ought thereof for any unclean use, nor given ought thereof for the dead: but I have hearkened to the voice of the LORD my God, and have done according to all that thou hast commanded me.
15 Look down from thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and the land which thou hast given us, as thou swarest unto our fathers, a land that floweth with milk and honey.
16 This day the LORD thy God hath commanded thee to do these statutes and judgments: thou shalt therefore keep and do them with all thine heart, and with all thy soul.
17 Thou hast avouched the LORD this day to be thy God, and to walk in his ways, and to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and to hearken unto his voice:
18 And the LORD hath avouched thee this day to be his peculiar people, as he hath promised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all his commandments;
19 And to make thee high above all nations which he hath made, in praise, and in name, and in honour; and that thou mayest be an holy people unto the LORD thy God, as he hath spoken.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 27

And Moses with the elders of Israel commanded the people, saying, Keep all the commandments which I command you this day.
And it shall be on the day when ye shall pass over Jordan unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaister them with plaister:
And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over, that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land that floweth with milk and honey; as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee.
Therefore it shall be when ye be gone over Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in mount Ebal, and thou shalt plaister them with plaister.
And there shalt thou build an altar unto the LORD thy God, an altar of stones: thou shalt not lift up any iron tool upon them.
Thou shalt build the altar of the LORD thy God of whole stones: and thou shalt offer burnt offerings thereon unto the LORD thy God:
And thou shalt offer peace offerings, and shalt eat there, and rejoice before the LORD thy God.
And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this law very plainly.
And Moses and the priests the Levites spake unto all Israel, saying, Take heed, and hearken, O Israel; this day thou art become the people of the LORD thy God.
10 Thou shalt therefore obey the voice of the LORD thy God, and do his commandments and his statutes, which I command thee this day.
11 And Moses charged the people the same day, saying,
12 These shall stand upon mount Gerizim to bless the people, when ye are come over Jordan; Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin:
13 And these shall stand upon mount Ebal to curse; Reuben, Gad, and Asher, and Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali.
14 And the Levites shall speak, and say unto all the men of Israel with a loud voice,
15 Cursed be the man that maketh any graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and putteth it in a secret place. And all the people shall answer and say, Amen.
16 Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen.
17 Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's landmark. And all the people shall say, Amen.
18 Cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander out of the way. And all the people shall say, Amen.
19 Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say, Amen.
20 Cursed be he that lieth with his father's wife; because he uncovereth his father's skirt. And all the people shall say, Amen.
21 Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say, Amen.
22 Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen.
23 Cursed be he that lieth with his mother in law. And all the people shall say, Amen.
24 Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour secretly. And all the people shall say, Amen.
25 Cursed be he that taketh reward to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say, Amen.
26 Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say, Amen.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 28

And it shall come to pass, if thou shalt hearken diligently unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe and to do all his commandments which I command thee this day, that the LORD thy God will set thee on high above all nations of the earth:
And all these blessings shall come on thee, and overtake thee, if thou shalt hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God.
Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field.
Blessed shall be the fruit of thy body, and the fruit of thy ground, and the fruit of thy cattle, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep.
Blessed shall be thy basket and thy store.
Blessed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and blessed shalt thou be when thou goest out.
The LORD shall cause thine enemies that rise up against thee to be smitten before thy face: they shall come out against thee one way, and flee before thee seven ways.
The LORD shall command the blessing upon thee in thy storehouses, and in all that thou settest thine hand unto; and he shall bless thee in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
The LORD shall establish thee an holy people unto himself, as he hath sworn unto thee, if thou shalt keep the commandments of the LORD thy God, and walk in his ways.
10 And all people of the earth shall see that thou art called by the name of the LORD; and they shall be afraid of thee.
11 And the LORD shall make thee plenteous in goods, in the fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy cattle, and in the fruit of thy ground, in the land which the LORD sware unto thy fathers to give thee.
12 The LORD shall open unto thee his good treasure, the heaven to give the rain unto thy land in his season, and to bless all the work of thine hand: and thou shalt lend unto many nations, and thou shalt not borrow.
13 And the LORD shall make thee the head, and not the tail; and thou shalt be above only, and thou shalt not be beneath; if that thou hearken unto the commandments of the LORD thy God, which I command thee this day, to observe and to do them:
14 And thou shalt not go aside from any of the words which I command thee this day, to the right hand, or to the left, to go after other gods to serve them.
15 But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee:
16 Cursed shalt thou be in the city, and cursed shalt thou be in the field.
17 Cursed shall be thy basket and thy store.
18 Cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, and the fruit of thy land, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep.
19 Cursed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and cursed shalt thou be when thou goest out.
20 The LORD shall send upon thee cursing, vexation, and rebuke, in all that thou settest thine hand unto for to do, until thou be destroyed, and until thou perish quickly; because of the wickedness of thy doings, whereby thou hast forsaken me.
21 The LORD shall make the pestilence cleave unto thee, until he have consumed thee from off the land, whither thou goest to possess it.
22 The LORD shall smite thee with a consumption, and with a fever, and with an inflammation, and with an extreme burning, and with the sword, and with blasting, and with mildew; and they shall pursue thee until thou perish.
23 And thy heaven that is over thy head shall be brass, and the earth that is under thee shall be iron.
24 The LORD shall make the rain of thy land powder and dust: from heaven shall it come down upon thee, until thou be destroyed.
25 The LORD shall cause thee to be smitten before thine enemies: thou shalt go out one way against them, and flee seven ways before them: and shalt be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth.
26 And thy carcase shall be meat unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and no man shall fray them away.
27 The LORD will smite thee with the botch of Egypt, and with the emerods, and with the scab, and with the itch, whereof thou canst not be healed.
28 The LORD shall smite thee with madness, and blindness, and astonishment of heart:
29 And thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness, and thou shalt not prosper in thy ways: and thou shalt be only oppressed and spoiled evermore, and no man shall save thee.
30 Thou shalt betroth a wife, and another man shall lie with her: thou shalt build an house, and thou shalt not dwell therein: thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not gather the grapes thereof.
31 Thine ox shall be slain before thine eyes, and thou shalt not eat thereof: thine ass shall be violently taken away from before thy face, and shall not be restored to thee: thy sheep shall be given unto thine enemies, and thou shalt have none to rescue them.
32 Thy sons and thy daughters shall be given unto another people, and thine eyes shall look, and fail with longing for them all the day long: and there shall be no might in thine hand.
33 The fruit of thy land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest not eat up; and thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed alway:
34 So that thou shalt be mad for the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see.
35 The LORD shall smite thee in the knees, and in the legs, with a sore botch that cannot be healed, from the sole of thy foot unto the top of thy head.
36 The LORD shall bring thee, and thy king which thou shalt set over thee, unto a nation which neither thou nor thy fathers have known; and there shalt thou serve other gods, wood and stone.
37 And thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a byword, among all nations whither the LORD shall lead thee.
38 Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather but little in; for the locust shall consume it.
39 Thou shalt plant vineyards, and dress them, but shalt neither drink of the wine, nor gather the grapes; for the worms shall eat them.
40 Thou shalt have olive trees throughout all thy coasts, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olive shall cast his fruit.
41 Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, but thou shalt not enjoy them; for they shall go into captivity.
42 All thy trees and fruit of thy land shall the locust consume.
43 The stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high; and thou shalt come down very low.
44 He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him: he shall be the head, and thou shalt be the tail.
45 Moreover all these curses shall come upon thee, and shall pursue thee, and overtake thee, till thou be destroyed; because thou hearkenedst not unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep his commandments and his statutes which he commanded thee:
46 And they shall be upon thee for a sign and for a wonder, and upon thy seed for ever.
47 Because thou servedst not the LORD thy God with joyfulness, and with gladness of heart, for the abundance of all things;
48 Therefore shalt thou serve thine enemies which the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things: and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee.
49 The LORD shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand;
50 A nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old, nor shew favour to the young:
51 And he shall eat the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruit of thy land, until thou be destroyed: which also shall not leave thee either corn, wine, or oil, or the increase of thy kine, or flocks of thy sheep, until he have destroyed thee.
52 And he shall besiege thee in all thy gates, until thy high and fenced walls come down, wherein thou trustedst, throughout all thy land: and he shall besiege thee in all thy gates throughout all thy land, which the LORD thy God hath given thee.
53 And thou shalt eat the fruit of thine own body, the flesh of thy sons and of thy daughters, which the LORD thy God hath given thee, in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee:
54 So that the man that is tender among you, and very delicate, his eye shall be evil toward his brother, and toward the wife of his bosom, and toward the remnant of his children which he shall leave:
55 So that he will not give to any of them of the flesh of his children whom he shall eat: because he hath nothing left him in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee in all thy gates.
56 The tender and delicate woman among you, which would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon the ground for delicateness and tenderness, her eye shall be evil toward the husband of her bosom, and toward her son, and toward her daughter,
57 And toward her young one that cometh out from between her feet, and toward her children which she shall bear: for she shall eat them for want of all things secretly in the siege and straitness, wherewith thine enemy shall distress thee in thy gates.
58 If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name, THE LORD THY GOD;
59 Then the LORD will make thy plagues wonderful, and the plagues of thy seed, even great plagues, and of long continuance, and sore sicknesses, and of long continuance.
60 Moreover he will bring upon thee all the diseases of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of; and they shall cleave unto thee.
61 Also every sickness, and every plague, which is not written in the book of this law, them will the LORD bring upon thee, until thou be destroyed.
62 And ye shall be left few in number, whereas ye were as the stars of heaven for multitude; because thou wouldest not obey the voice of the LORD thy God.
63 And it shall come to pass, that as the LORD rejoiced over you to do you good, and to multiply you; so the LORD will rejoice over you to destroy you, and to bring you to nought; and ye shall be plucked from off the land whither thou goest to possess it.
64 And the LORD shall scatter thee among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which neither thou nor thy fathers have known, even wood and stone.
65 And among these nations shalt thou find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest: but the LORD shall give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and sorrow of mind:
66 And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt fear day and night, and shalt have none assurance of thy life:
67 In the morning thou shalt say, Would God it were even! and at even thou shalt say, Would God it were morning! for the fear of thine heart wherewith thou shalt fear, and for the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see.
68 And the LORD shall bring thee into Egypt again with ships, by the way whereof I spake unto thee, Thou shalt see it no more again: and there ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bondmen and bondwomen, and no man shall buy you.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 29

These are the words of the covenant, which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the covenant which he made with them in Horeb.
And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them, Ye have seen all that the LORD did before your eyes in the land of Egypt unto Pharaoh, and unto all his servants, and unto all his land;
The great temptations which thine eyes have seen, the signs, and those great miracles:
Yet the LORD hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day.
And I have led you forty years in the wilderness: your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot.
Ye have not eaten bread, neither have ye drunk wine or strong drink: that ye might know that I am the LORD your God.
And when ye came unto this place, Sihon the king of Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, came out against us unto battle, and we smote them:
And we took their land, and gave it for an inheritance unto the Reubenites, and to the Gadites, and to the half tribe of Manasseh.
Keep therefore the words of this covenant, and do them, that ye may prosper in all that ye do.
10 Ye stand this day all of you before the LORD your God; your captains of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, with all the men of Israel,
11 Your little ones, your wives, and thy stranger that is in thy camp, from the hewer of thy wood unto the drawer of thy water:
12 That thou shouldest enter into covenant with the LORD thy God, and into his oath, which the LORD thy God maketh with thee this day:
13 That he may establish thee to day for a people unto himself, and that he may be unto thee a God, as he hath said unto thee, and as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.
14 Neither with you only do I make this covenant and this oath;
15 But with him that standeth here with us this day before the LORD our God, and also with him that is not here with us this day:
16 (For ye know how we have dwelt in the land of Egypt; and how we came through the nations which ye passed by;
17 And ye have seen their abominations, and their idols, wood and stone, silver and gold, which were among them:)
18 Lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood;
19 And it come to pass, when he heareth the words of this curse, that he bless himself in his heart, saying, I shall have peace, though I walk in the imagination of mine heart, to add drunkenness to thirst:
20 The LORD will not spare him, but then the anger of the LORD and his jealousy shall smoke against that man, and all the curses that are written in this book shall lie upon him, and the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven.
21 And the LORD shall separate him unto evil out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covenant that are written in this book of the law:
22 So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land, and the sicknesses which the LORD hath laid upon it;
23 And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the LORD overthrew in his anger, and in his wrath:
24 Even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this land? what meaneth the heat of this great anger?
25 Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of their fathers, which he made with them when he brought them forth out of the land of Egypt:
26 For they went and served other gods, and worshipped them, gods whom they knew not, and whom he had not given unto them:
27 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against this land, to bring upon it all the curses that are written in this book:
28 And the LORD rooted them out of their land in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation, and cast them into another land, as it is this day.
29 The secret things belong unto the LORD our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 30

And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt call them to mind among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath driven thee,
And shalt return unto the LORD thy God, and shalt obey his voice according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul;
That then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee.
If any of thine be driven out unto the outmost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee:
And the LORD thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers.
And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.
And the LORD thy God will put all these curses upon thine enemies, and on them that hate thee, which persecuted thee.
And thou shalt return and obey the voice of the LORD, and do all his commandments which I command thee this day.
And the LORD thy God will make thee plenteous in every work of thine hand, in the fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy cattle, and in the fruit of thy land, for good: for the LORD will again rejoice over thee for good, as he rejoiced over thy fathers:
10 If thou shalt hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep his commandments and his statutes which are written in this book of the law, and if thou turn unto the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul.
11 For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not hidden from thee, neither is it far off.
12 It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it?
13 Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it?
14 But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it.
15 See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil;
16 In that I command thee this day to love the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways, and to keep his commandments and his statutes and his judgments, that thou mayest live and multiply: and the LORD thy God shall bless thee in the land whither thou goest to possess it.
17 But if thine heart turn away, so that thou wilt not hear, but shalt be drawn away, and worship other gods, and serve them;
18 I denounce unto you this day, that ye shall surely perish, and that ye shall not prolong your days upon the land, whither thou passest over Jordan to go to possess it.
19 I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live:
20 That thou mayest love the LORD thy God, and that thou mayest obey his voice, and that thou mayest cleave unto him: for he is thy life, and the length of thy days: that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 31

And Moses went and spake these words unto all Israel.
And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in: also the LORD hath said unto me, Thou shalt not go over this Jordan.
The LORD thy God, he will go over before thee, and he will destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt possess them: and Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as the LORD hath said.
And the LORD shall do unto them as he did to Sihon and to Og, kings of the Amorites, and unto the land of them, whom he destroyed.
And the LORD shall give them up before your face, that ye may do unto them according unto all the commandments which I have commanded you.
Be strong and of a good courage, fear not, nor be afraid of them: for the LORD thy God, he it is that doth go with thee; he will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.
And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel, Be strong and of a good courage: for thou must go with this people unto the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it.
And the LORD, he it is that doth go before thee; he will be with thee, he will not fail thee, neither forsake thee: fear not, neither be dismayed.
And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, which bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.
10 And Moses commanded them, saying, At the end of every seven years, in the solemnity of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles,
11 When all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which he shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing.
12 Gather the people together, men, and women, and children, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law:
13 And that their children, which have not known any thing, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over Jordan to possess it.
14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thy days approach that thou must die: call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tabernacle of the congregation, that I may give him a charge. And Moses and Joshua went, and presented themselves in the tabernacle of the congregation.
15 And the LORD appeared in the tabernacle in a pillar of a cloud: and the pillar of the cloud stood over the door of the tabernacle.
16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and this people will rise up, and go a whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them.
17 Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and I will hide my face from them, and they shall be devoured, and many evils and troubles shall befall them; so that they will say in that day. Are not these evils come upon us, because our God is not among us?
18 And I will surely hide my face in that day for all the evils which they shall have wrought, in that they are turned unto other gods.
19 Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach it the children of Israel: put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel.
20 For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers, that floweth with milk and honey; and they shall have eaten and filled themselves, and waxen fat; then will they turn unto other gods, and serve them, and provoke me, and break my covenant.
21 And it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are befallen them, that this song shall testify against them as a witness; for it shall not be forgotten out of the mouths of their seed: for I know their imagination which they go about, even now, before I have brought them into the land which I sware.
22 Moses therefore wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel.
23 And he gave Joshua the son of Nun a charge, and said, Be strong and of a good courage: for thou shalt bring the children of Israel into the land which I sware unto them: and I will be with thee.
24 And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished,
25 That Moses commanded the Levites, which bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD, saying,
26 Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee.
27 For I know thy rebellion, and thy stiff neck: behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the LORD; and how much more after my death?
28 Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your officers, that I may speak these words in their ears, and call heaven and earth to record against them.
29 For I know that after my death ye will utterly corrupt yourselves, and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you; and evil will befall you in the latter days; because ye will do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke him to anger through the work of your hands.
30 And Moses spake in the ears of all the congregation of Israel the words of this song, until they were ended.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 32

Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth.
My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers upon the grass:
Because I will publish the name of the LORD: ascribe ye greatness unto our God.
He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.
They have corrupted themselves, their spot is not the spot of his children: they are a perverse and crooked generation.
Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? is not he thy father that hath bought thee? hath he not made thee, and established thee?
Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations: ask thy father, and he will shew thee; thy elders, and they will tell thee.
When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel.
For the LORD's portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.
10 He found him in a desert land, and in the waste howling wilderness; he led him about, he instructed him, he kept him as the apple of his eye.
11 As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, beareth them on her wings:
12 So the LORD alone did lead him, and there was no strange god with him.
13 He made him ride on the high places of the earth, that he might eat the increase of the fields; and he made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock;
14 Butter of kine, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape.
15 But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness; then he forsook God which made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation.
16 They provoked him to jealousy with strange gods, with abominations provoked they him to anger.
17 They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared not.
18 Of the Rock that begat thee thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee.
19 And when the LORD saw it, he abhorred them, because of the provoking of his sons, and of his daughters.
20 And he said, I will hide my face from them, I will see what their end shall be: for they are a very froward generation, children in whom is no faith.
21 They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God; they have provoked me to anger with their vanities: and I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people; I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation.
22 For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains.
23 I will heap mischiefs upon them; I will spend mine arrows upon them.
24 They shall be burnt with hunger, and devoured with burning heat, and with bitter destruction: I will also send the teeth of beasts upon them, with the poison of serpents of the dust.
25 The sword without, and terror within, shall destroy both the young man and the virgin, the suckling also with the man of gray hairs.
26 I said, I would scatter them into corners, I would make the remembrance of them to cease from among men:
27 Were it not that I feared the wrath of the enemy, lest their adversaries should behave themselves strangely, and lest they should say, Our hand is high, and the LORD hath not done all this.
28 For they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understanding in them.
29 O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end!
30 How should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had sold them, and the LORD had shut them up?
31 For their rock is not as our Rock, even our enemies themselves being judges.
32 For their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah: their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are bitter:
33 Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.
34 Is not this laid up in store with me, and sealed up among my treasures?
35 To me belongeth vengeance, and recompence; their foot shall slide in due time: for the day of their calamity is at hand, and the things that shall come upon them make haste.
36 For the LORD shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that their power is gone, and there is none shut up, or left.
37 And he shall say, Where are their gods, their rock in whom they trusted,
38 Which did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink offerings? let them rise up and help you, and be your protection.
39 See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand.
40 For I lift up my hand to heaven, and say, I live for ever.
41 If I whet my glittering sword, and mine hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to mine enemies, and will reward them that hate me.
42 I will make mine arrows drunk with blood, and my sword shall devour flesh; and that with the blood of the slain and of the captives, from the beginning of revenges upon the enemy.
43 Rejoice, O ye nations, with his people: for he will avenge the blood of his servants, and will render vengeance to his adversaries, and will be merciful unto his land, and to his people.
44 And Moses came and spake all the words of this song in the ears of the people, he, and Hoshea the son of Nun.
45 And Moses made an end of speaking all these words to all Israel:
46 And he said unto them, Set your hearts unto all the words which I testify among you this day, which ye shall command your children to observe to do, all the words of this law.
47 For it is not a vain thing for you; because it is your life: and through this thing ye shall prolong your days in the land, whither ye go over Jordan to possess it.
48 And the LORD spake unto Moses that selfsame day, saying,
49 Get thee up into this mountain Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession:
50 And die in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people:
51 Because ye trespassed against me among the children of Israel at the waters of Meribah-Kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin; because ye sanctified me not in the midst of the children of Israel.
52 Yet thou shalt see the land before thee; but thou shalt not go thither unto the land which I give the children of Israel.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 33

And this is the blessing, wherewith Moses the man of God blessed the children of Israel before his death.
And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.
Yea, he loved the people; all his saints are in thy hand: and they sat down at thy feet; every one shall receive of thy words.
Moses commanded us a law, even the inheritance of the congregation of Jacob.
And he was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people and the tribes of Israel were gathered together.
Let Reuben live, and not die; and let not his men be few.
And this is the blessing of Judah: and he said, Hear, LORD, the voice of Judah, and bring him unto his people: let his hands be sufficient for him; and be thou an help to him from his enemies.
And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one, whom thou didst prove at Massah, and with whom thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;
Who said unto his father and to his mother, I have not seen him; neither did he acknowledge his brethren, nor knew his own children: for they have observed thy word, and kept thy covenant.
10 They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law: they shall put incense before thee, and whole burnt sacrifice upon thine altar.
11 Bless, LORD, his substance, and accept the work of his hands: smite through the loins of them that rise against him, and of them that hate him, that they rise not again.
12 And of Benjamin he said, The beloved of the LORD shall dwell in safety by him; and the LORD shall cover him all the day long, and he shall dwell between his shoulders.
13 And of Joseph he said, Blessed of the LORD be his land, for the precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the deep that coucheth beneath,
14 And for the precious fruits brought forth by the sun, and for the precious things put forth by the moon,
15 And for the chief things of the ancient mountains, and for the precious things of the lasting hills,
16 And for the precious things of the earth and fulness thereof, and for the good will of him that dwelt in the bush: let the blessing come upon the head of Joseph, and upon the top of the head of him that was separated from his brethren.
17 His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of unicorns: with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth: and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh.
18 And of Zebulun he said, Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out; and, Issachar, in thy tents.
19 They shall call the people unto the mountain; there they shall offer sacrifices of righteousness: for they shall suck of the abundance of the seas, and of treasures hid in the sand.
20 And of Gad he said, Blessed be he that enlargeth Gad: he dwelleth as a lion, and teareth the arm with the crown of the head.
21 And he provided the first part for himself, because there, in a portion of the lawgiver, was he seated; and he came with the heads of the people, he executed the justice of the LORD, and his judgments with Israel.
22 And of Dan he said, Dan is a lion's whelp: he shall leap from Bashan.
23 And of Naphtali he said, O Naphtali, satisfied with favour, and full with the blessing of the LORD: possess thou the west and the south.
24 And of Asher he said, Let Asher be blessed with children; let him be acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil.
25 Thy shoes shall be iron and brass; and as thy days, so shall thy strength be.
26 There is none like unto the God of Jeshurun, who rideth upon the heaven in thy help, and in his excellency on the sky.
27 The eternal God is thy refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms: and he shall thrust out the enemy from before thee; and shall say, Destroy them.
28 Israel then shall dwell in safety alone: the fountain of Jacob shall be upon a land of corn and wine; also his heavens shall drop down dew.
29 Happy art thou, O Israel: who is like unto thee, O people saved by the LORD, the shield of thy help, and who is the sword of thy excellency! and thine enemies shall be found liars unto thee; and thou shalt tread upon their high places.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 34

And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD shewed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan,
And all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea,
And the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar.
And the LORD said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.
So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD.
And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day.
And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated.
And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days: so the days of weeping and mourning for Moses were ended.
And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him: and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses.
10 And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face,
11 In all the signs and the wonders, which the LORD sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land,
12 And in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of all Israel.
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26  A form of confession made by him that offered the first - fruits, Deu 26:1-11.
A prayer to be made after the disposal of the third year's tithe, Deu 26:12-15.
He binds all these precepts upon them, by the divine authority, and the covenant between God and them, Deu 26:16-19.

26:2 Thou shalt take - This seems to be required of each master of a family, either upon his first settlement, or once every year at one of their three feasts, when they were obliged to go up to Jerusalem.

26:5 A Syrian - So Jacob was, partly by his original, as being born of Syrian parents, as were Abraham and Rebecca, both of Chaldea or Mesopotamia, which was a part of Syria largely so called, partly by his education and conversation; and partly by his relations, his wives being such, and his children too by their mother's.Ready to perish - Either through want and poverty; (See Gen 28:11, Gen 28:20, Gen 32:10), or through the rage of his brotherEsau, and the treachery of his father - in - law Laban.

26:10 It - The basket of first - fruits, Deu 26:2.

26:11 Thou shalt rejoice - Thou shalt hereby enabled to take comfort in all thy employments, when thou hast sanctified them by giving God his portion. It is the will of God, that we should be chearful not only in our attendance upon his holy ordinances, but in our enjoyment of the gifts of his providence. Whatever good thing God gives us, we should make the most comfortable use of it we can, still tracing the streams to the fountain of all consolation.

26:12 The year of tithing - Heb. the year of that tithe, so called, either

  1. because these tithes were gathered only in that year. Or rather,
  2. because then only they were so bestowed; and whereas these secondtithes for two years together were eaten only by the owners and Levites, and that in Jerusalem, in the third year they were eaten also by the strangers, fatherless, and widows, and that in their own dwellings.

26:13 Before the Lord - In thy private addresses to God; for this is to be said presently upon the distribution of these tithes, which was not done at Jerusalem, but in their own private gates or dwellings.And this is to be spoken before the Lord, that is, solemnly, seriously, and in a religious manner, with due respect to God's presence, and will, and glory.

26:14 In my mourning - In sorrow, or grieving that I was to give away so much of my profits to the poor, but I have chearfully eaten and feasted with them, as I was obliged to do. Unclean use - For any common use; for any other use than that which thou hast appointed, which would have been a pollution of them. For the dead - For any funeral pomp or service; for the Jews used to send in provisions to feast with the nearest relations of the party deceased; and in that case both the guests and food were legally polluted, Num 19:11, Num 19:14, and therefore the use of these tithes in such cases had been a double fault, both the defiling of sacred food, and the employing those provisions upon sorrowful occasions, which by God's express command were to be eaten with rejoicing.

26:15 Look down - After that solemn profession of their obedience to God's commands, they are taught to pray for God's blessing whereby they are instructed how vain and ineffectual the prayers of unrighteous or disobedient persons are.

26:17 Avouched - Or, declared, or owned.

26:18 Avouched thee - Hath owned thee for such before all the world by eminent and glorious manifestations of his power and favour, by a solemn entering into covenant with thee, and giving peculiar laws, promises, and privileges to thee above all mankind.

27  A command to write all the law upon stones, Deu 27:1-8.
A charge to Israel, to obey God, Deu 27:9-10.
To pronounce a blessing on mount Gerizzim, and a curse on mount Ebal, Deu 27:11-13.
To the Levites, to pronounce the whole curse, Deu 27:14-26.

27:2 On that day - About that time, for it was not done 'till some days after their passing over.

27:3 This law - The law properly so called, that is, the sum and substance of the precepts or laws of Moses, especially such as were moral, particularly the decalogue. Write it, that thou mayest go in - As the condition of thy entering into the land. For since Canaan is given only by promise, it must be held by obedience.

27:4 Mount Ebal - The mount of cursing. Here the law is written, to signify that a curse was due to the violators of it, and that no man could expect justification from the works of the law, by the sentence whereof all men are justly accused, as being all guilty of the transgression of it in one kind and degree or other. Here the sacrifices are to be offered, to shew that there is no way to be delivered from this curse, but by the blood of Christ, which all these sacrifices did typify, and by Christ's being made a curse for us.

27:6 Whole stones - Rough, not hewed or polished. By the law written on the stones, God spake to them: by the altar and sacrifices upon it, they spake to God: and thus was communion kept up between them and God.

27:9 The people of the Lord - By thy solemn renewing of thy covenant with him.

27:12 Upon mount Gerizzim - These words may be rendered beside or near to mount Gerizzim. There were in Canaan two mountains that lay near together, with a valley between, one called Gerizzim, the other Ebal. On the sides of these which faced each other, all the tribes were to be drawn up, six on a side, so that in the valley they came near each other, so near that the priests standing between them, might be heard by them that were next them on both sides. Then one of the priests, or perhaps more, at some distance from each other, pronounced with a loud voice, one of the curses following. And all the people who stood on the foot and side of mount Ebal, (those farther off taking the signal from those who were nearer) said Amen! Then the contrary blessing was pronounced, "Blessed is he that doth so or so:" To which all who stood on the foot and side of mount Gerizzim, said, Amen! Simeon - All these were the children of the free - women, Leah and Rachel, to shew both the dignity of the blessings above the curses, and that the blessings belong only to those who are evangelically such, as this is expounded and applied, Gal 4:22, even to those that receive the Spirit of adoption and liberty. Joseph is here put for both his sons and tribes Manasseh and Ephraim, which are reckoned as one tribe, because Levi is here numbered; but when Levi is omitted, as it is where the division of the land is made, there Manasseh and Ephraim pass for two tribes.

27:13 To curse - Of the former tribes, 'tis said, they stood to bless the people: of these, that they stood to curse. Perhaps the different way of speaking intimates, That Israel in general were an happy people, and should ever be so, if they were obedient. And to that blessing, they on mount Gerizzim said, Amen! But the curses come in, only as exceptions to the general rule: "Israel is a blessed people: but if there be any even among them, that do such and such things, they have no part or lot in this matter, but are under a curse." This shews how ready God is to bestow the blessing: if any fall under the curse, they bring it on their own head. Four of these are children of the bond - woman, to shew that the curse belongs to those of servile and disingenuous spirits. With these are joined Reuben, who by his shameful sin fell from his dignity, and Zebulun, the youngest of Leah's children, that the numbers might be equal.

27:14 The Levites - Some of the Levites, namely, the priests, who bare the ark, as it is expressed Jos 8:33, for the body of the Levites stood upon mount Gerizzim, Deu 27:12.But these stood in the valley between Gerizzim and Ebal, looking towards the one or the other mountain as they pronounced either the blessings or the curses.

27:15 Cursed - The curses are expressed, but not the blessings. For as many as were under the law, were under the curse. But it was an honour reserved for Christ to bless us; to do that which the law could not do. So in his sermon on the mount, the true mount Gerizzim, we have blessings only. The man - Under this particular he understands all the gross violations of the first table, as under the following branches he comprehends all other sins against the second table. Amen - 'Tis easy to understand the meaning of Amen to the blessings. But how could they say it to the curses? It was both a profession of their faith in the truth of it, and an acknowledgment of the equity of these curses. So that when they said Amen, they did in effect Say, not only, it is certain it shall be so, but it is just it should be so.

27:16 Light - Or, despiseth in his heart: or reproacheth or curseth, secretly: for if the fact was notorious, it was punished with death.

27:17 Out of the way - That misleadeth simple souls, giving them pernicious counsel, either for this life, or for the next.

27:24 Smiteth - That is, killeth. This includes murder under colour of law, which is of all others the greatest affront to God.Cursed therefore is he that any ways contributes to accuse, or convict, or condemn an innocent person.

27:26 Confirmeth not - Or, performeth not. To this we must all say, Amen! Owning ourselves to be under the curse, and that we must have perished for ever, if Christ had not redeemed us from the curse of the law, by being made a curse for us.

28  The blessings of obedience, personal, family and national, Deu 28:1-14.
The curses of the disobedient; their extreme vexation, Deu 28:15-44.
Their utter ruin and destruction, Deu 28:45-68.

28:2 Overtake thee - Those blessings which others greedily follow after, and never overtake, shall follow after thee, and shall be thrown into thy lap by special kindness.

28:3 In the city, and in the field - Whether they were husbandmen or tradesmen, whether in the town or country, they should be preserved from the dangers of both, and have the comforts of both. How constantly must we depend upon God, both for the continuance and comfort of life! We need him at every turn: we cannot be safe, if he withdraw his protection, nor easy, if he suspends his savour: but if he bless us, go where we will, 'tis well with us.

28:5 Store - Store - house, it shall always be well replenished and the provision thou hast there shall be preserved for thy use and service.

28:6 Comest in - That is, in all thy affairs and administrations.

28:9 Establish thee - Shall confirm his covenant with thee, by which he separated thee to himself as an holy and peculiar people.

28:10 Of the Lord - That you are in truth his people and children: A most excellent and glorious people, under the peculiar care and countenance of the great God.

28:11 The same things which were said before are repeated, to shew that God would repeat and multiply his blessings upon them.

28:12 His treasure - The heaven or the air, which is God's storehouse, where he treasures up rain or wind for man's use.

28:13 The head - The chief of all people in power, or at least in dignity and privileges; so that even they that are not under thine authority shall reverence thy greatness and excellency. So it was in David's and Solomon's time, and so it should have been much oftner and much more, if they had performed the conditions.

28:15 Overtake thee - So that thou shalt not be able to escape them, as thou shalt vainly hope and endeavour to do. There is no running from God, but by running to him; no flying from his justice, but by flying to his mercy.

28:20 Vexation - This seems chiefly to concern the mind, arising from the disappointment of hopes and the presages of its approaching miseries.Rebuke - Namely, from God, not so much in words as by his actions, by cross providences, by sharp and sore afflictions.

28:23 Brass - Like brass, hard and dry, and shut up from giving rain.Iron - Hard and chapt and barren.

28:24 Dust - Either thy rain shall be as unprofitable to thy ground and seed as if it were only so much dust. Or instead of rain shall come nothing but dust from heaven, which being raised and carried up by the wind in great abundance, returns, and falls upon the earth as it were in clouds or showers.

28:27 The botch of Egypt - Such boils and blains as the Egyptians were plagued with, spreading from head to foot: The emerodes - Or piles.

28:28 Blindness - Of mind, so that they shall not know what to do: Astonishment - They shall be filled with wonder and horror because of the strangeness and soreness of their calamities.

28:29 Grope at noon day - In the most clear and evident matters thou shalt grossly mistake. Thy ways - Thy counsels and enterprizes shall be frustrated and turn to thy destruction.

28:32 Unto another people - By those who have conquered them, and taken them captives, who shall give or sell them to other persons. Fail - Or, be consumed, partly with grief and plentiful tears; and partly with earnest desire, and vain and long expectation of their return. No might - No power to rescue, nor money to ransom them.

28:33 Which thou knowest not - Which shall come from a far country, which thou didst not at all expect or fear, and therefore will be the more dreadful when they come; a nation whose language thou understandest not, and therefore canst not plead with them for mercy, nor expect any favour from them.

28:34 Thou shalt be mad for the sight of thine eyes - Quite put out of the possession of their own souls; quite bereaved of all comfort and hope, and abandoned to utter despair. They that walk by sight, and not by faith, are in danger of losing reason itself, when all about them looks frightful; and their condition is bad indeed, who are mad for the sight of their eyes.

28:36 Thy king - The calamity shall be both universal, which even thy king shall not be able to avoid, much less the subjects, who have far less advantage and opportunity for escape; and irrecoverable, because he who should protect or rescue them is lost with them, Lam 4:10.Wood and stone - So what formerly was their choice and delight now becomes their plague and misery. And this doubtless was the condition of many Israelites under the Assyrian and Balylonish captivities.

28:43 Within thee - Within thy gates; who formerly honoured and served thee, and were some of them glad of the crumbs which fell from thy table.

28:45 Moreover all these curses - It seems Moses has been hitherto foretelling their captivity in Babylon, by which even after their return, they were brought to the low condition mentioned, Deu 28:44.But in the following he foretells their last destruction by the Romans.And the present deplorable state of the Jewish nation, so exactly answers this prediction, that it is an incontestable proof of the truth of the prophecy, and consequently of the divine authority of the scriptures.And this destruction more dreadful than the former shews, that their sin in rejecting Christ, was more provoking to God than idolatry itself, and left them more under the power of Satan. For their captivity in Babylon cured them effectually of idolatry in seventy years. But under this last destruction, they continue above sixteen hundred years incurably averse to the Lord Jesus.

28:46 They - These curses now mentioned. A wonder - Signal and wonderful to all that hear of them. 'Tis amazing, a people so incorporated, should be so universally disperst! And that a people scattered in all nations, should not mix with any, but like Cain, be fugitives and vagabonds, and yet so marked as to be known.

28:54 Evil - Unkind, envious, covetous to monopolize these dainty bits to themselves, and grudging that their dearest relations should have any part of them.

28:56 Evil - Unmerciful: she will desire or design their destruction for her food.

28:57 Her young one - Heb. after - birth: that which was loathsome to behold, will now be pleasant to eat; and together with it she shall eat the child which was wrapt up in it, and may be included in this expression.Which she shall bear - Or, which she shall have born, that is, her more grown children. She shall eat them - This was fulfilled more than once, to the perpetual reproach of the Jewish nation. Never was the like done either by Greek or Barbarian. See the fruit of being abandoned by God!

28:63 To destroy you - His just indignation against you will be so great, that it will be a pleasure to him to take vengeance on you. For though he doth not delight in the death of a sinner in itself, yet he doth delight in glorifying his justice upon incorrigible sinners, seeing the exercise of all his attributes must needs please him, else he were not perfectly happy.

28:65 Neither shall thy foot have rest - Ye shall have no settlement in the land whither you are banished, but there you shall be tossed about from place to place, and sold from person to person, or Cain - like, wander about.

28:66 Thy life shall hang in doubt - Either because thou art in the hands of thy enemies that have power, and want no will, to destroy thee: or because of the terrors of thy own mind, and the guilt of thy conscience making thee to fear, even where no fear is.

28:68 Into Egypt - Which was literally fulfilled under Titus, when multitudes of them were carried thither in ships, and sold for slaves.And this expression seems to mind them of that time when they went over the sea without ships, God miraculously drying up the sea before them, which now they would have occasion sadly to remember. By the way - Or, to the way. And the way seems not to be meant here of the usual road - way from Canaan to Egypt, which was wholly by land, but to be put for the end of the way or journey, even the land of Egypt, for to this, and not to the road - way between Canaan and Egypt, agree the words here following, whereof I speak unto thee, thou shalt see it, (that is, Egypt) no more again. No man shall buy you - Either because the number of your captives shall be so great, that the market shall be glutted with you; or because you shall be so loathsome and contemptible that men shall not be willing to have you for slaves. And this was the condition of the Jews after the destruction of Jerusalem, as Josephus the Jew hath left upon record. Let us all learn hence, to stand in awe and not to sin. I have heard of a wicked man (says Mr. Henry) who on reading these threatenings, was so enraged, that he tore the leaf out of his bible. But to what purpose is it, to deface a copy, while the original remains unchangeable? By which it is determined, that the wages of sin is death: yea, a death more dreadful than all that is here spoken!

29  The preface of God's covenant, Deu 29:1.
A recital of his dealings with them, Deu 29:2-8.
A solemn exhortation to keep covenant with God, Deu 29:9-17.
A severe threatning to them that break it, Deu 29:18-28.
The end of the revealed will of God, Deu 29:29.

29:1 These are the terms or conditions upon which God hath made, that is renewed his covenant with you. The covenant was but one in substance, but various in the time and manner of its dispensation.

29:4 Yet the Lord - That is, you have perceived and seen them with the eyes of your body, but not with your minds and hearts; you have not yet learned rightly to understand the word and works of God, so as to know them for your good, and to make a right use of them, and to comply with them: which he expresseth thus, the Lord hath not given you, etc not to excuse their wickedness, but to direct them to whom they must have recourse for a good understanding of God's works; and to intimate that although the hearing ear, and the seeing eye, be the workmanship of God, yet their want of his grace was their own fault, and the just punishment of their former sins; their present case being like theirs in Isaiah's time, who first shut their own eyes and ears that they might not see and hear, and would not understand, and then by the righteous judgment of God, had their eyes and ears closed that they should not see and hear, and understand. God's readiness to do us good in other things, is a plain evidence, that if we have not grace, that best of gifts, 'tis our own fault and not his: he would have gathered us, and we would not.

29:6 Ye have not eaten bread - Common bread purchased by your own money, or made by your own hands, but heavenly and angelical bread.Neither drank wine - But only water out of the rock.The Lord - Omnipotent and all - sufficient for your provision without the help of any creatures, and your God in covenant with you who hath a true affection to you, and fatherly care of you.

29:11 Thy stranger - Such strangers as had embraced their religion: all sorts of persons, yea, even the meanest of them.

29:12 Into covenant and into his oath - Into covenant, confirmed by a solemn oath.

29:13 That he may establish thee - Here is the summary of that covenant whereof Moses was the mediator, and in the covenant relation between God and them, all the precepts and promises of the covenant are included. That they should be established for a people to him, to fear, love, obey, and be devoted to him, and that he should be to them a God, to make them holy and happy; and a due sense of the relation we stand in to God as our God, and the obligation we are under to him as his people, is enough to bring us to all the duties, and all the comforts of the covenant.And does this covenant include nothing spiritual? nothing that refers to eternity?

29:15 So also - With your posterity. For so the covenant was made at first with Abraham and his seed, by which as God engaged himself to continue the blessing of Abraham upon his posterity, so he also engaged them to the same duties which were required of Abraham. So it is even among men, where a king confers an estate upon a subject and his heirs for ever, upon some certain conditions, all his heirs who enjoy that benefit, are obliged to the same conditions. It may likewise include those who were then constrained to be absent, by sickness, or any necessary occasion.Nay one of the Chaldee pharaphrasts reads it, all the generations that have been from the first days of the world, and all that shall arise to the end of the whole world, stand with us here this day.And so taking this covenant as a typical dispensation of the covenant of grace, 'tis a noble testimony to the Mediator of that covenant, who is the same yesterday, to day, and for ever.

29:16 Egypt - Where you have seen their idolatries, and learned too much of them, as the golden calf shewed, and therefore have need to renew your covenant with God; where also we were in dreadful bondage whence God alone hath delivered us, to whom therefore we are deeply obliged, and have all reason to renew our covenant with him.Through the nations - With what hazard, if God had not appeared for us!

29:18 A root - An evil heart inclining you to such cursed idolatry, and bringing forth bitter fruits.

29:19 Of this curse - Of that oath where - in he swore he would keep covenant with God, and that with a curse pronounced against himself if he did not perform it. Bless himself - Flatter himself in his own eyes, with vain hopes, as if God did not mind such things, and either could not, or would not punish them. Peace - Safety and prosperity.My own heart - Though I do not follow God's command, but my own devices.To add drunkenness to thirst - The words may be rendered, to add thirst to drunkenness, and so the sense may be, that when he hath multiplied his sins, and made himself as it were drunk with them, yet he is not satisfied therewith, but still whets his appetite, and provokes his thirst after more, as drunkards often use means to make themselves thirst after more drink.

29:20 Shall smoke - Shall burn and break forth with flame and smoke as it were from a furnace.

29:21 Unto evil - Unto some peculiar and exemplary plague; he will make him a monument of his displeasure to the whole land.

29:23 Salt and burning - Is burnt up and made barren, as with brimstone and salt.

29:26 Whom God had not given to them - For their worship, but hath divided them unto all nations, for their use and service.So he speaks here of the sun and moon and stars, which were the principal gods worshipped by the neighbouring nations.

29:29 The secret things - Having mentioned the amazing judgments of God upon the whole land and people of Israel, and foreseeing the utter extirpation which would come upon them for their wickedness, he breaks out into this pathetic exclamation, either to bridle their curiosity, who would be apt to enquire into the time and manner of so great an event; or to quiet his own mind, and satisfy the scruples of others, who perceiving God to deal so severely with his own people, when in the meantime he suffered those nations which were guilty of grosser atheism and idolatry, might thence take occasion to deny his providence or question the equity of his proceedings.To this he answers, that the ways and judgments of God, tho' never unjust, are often times hidden from us, unsearchable by our shallow capacities, and matter for our admiration, not our enquiry. But the things which are revealed by God and his word, are the proper object of our enquiries, that thereby we may know our duty, and be kept from such terrible calamities as these now mentioned.

30  Promises upon their repentance, Deu 30:1-10.
The righteousness of faith set before them, Deu 30:11-14.
Life and death offered to their choice, Deu 30:15-20.

30:1 The blessing - When thou art obedient. The curse - When thou becomest rebellious.

30:6 And the Lord - Or, For the Lord will circumcise thine heart, will by his word and spirit change and purge thy heart from all thine idolatry and wickedness, and incline thy heart to love him. God will first convert and sanctify them, the fruit whereof shall be, that they shall return and obey God's commandments, Deu 30:8, and then shall prosper in all things, Deu 30:9. This promise principally respects the times of the gospel, and the grace which was to be then imparted to all Israel by Christ.

30:9 For good - Whereas thou did formerly receive these mercies for thy hurt, now thou shalt have them for thy good, thy heart shall be so changed that thou shalt not now abuse them, but employ them to the service of God the giver. Over thee for good - To do thee good; as he did rejoice to destroy thee.

30:10 If thou wilt hearken - This is added to warn them that they should not receive the grace of God in vain, and to teach them that the grace of God doth not discharge man's obligation to his duty, nor excuse him for the neglect of it. It is observable, that Moses calls God, the Lord thy God twelve times in these ten verses. In the threatnings of the former chapter, he is all along called the Lord, a God of power, and the judge of all. But in the promises of this chapter, the Lord thy God, a God of grace, and in covenant with thee.

30:11 This commandment - The great command of loving and obeying God, which is the sum of the law, of which yet he doth not here speak, as it is in itself, but as it is molified and accompanied with the grace of the gospel. The meaning is, that tho' the practice of God's laws be now far from us, and above our strength, yet, considering the advantage of gospel grace, whereby God enables us to do our duty, it is near and easy to us, who believe. And so this well agrees with Rom 10:6, etc where St. Paul applies this place to the righteousness of faith.Is not hidden - Heb. Is not too wonderful for thee, not too hard for thee to know and do. The will of God, which is but darkly manifested to other nations, Act 17:27, is clearly and fully revealed unto thee: thou canst not pretend ignorance or invincible difficulty.

30:12 In heaven - Shut up there, but it hath been thence delivered and published in thy hearing.

30:13 Neither beyond the sea - The knowledge of this commandment is not to be fetched from far distant places, to which divers of the wise Heathens travelled for their wisdom; but it was brought to thy very doors and ears, and declared to thee in this wilderness.

30:14 In thy mouth - Thou knowest it so well, that it is the matter of thy common discourse. In thy heart - In thy mind, (as the heart is very commonly taken) to understand and believe it. In a word, the Law is plain and easy: but the gospel is much more so.

30:19 Chuse life - They shall have life that chuse it: they that chuse the favour of God, and communion with him, shall have what they chuse.They that come short of life and happiness, must thank themselves only.They had had them, if they had chosen them, when they were put to their choice: but they die, because they will die.

30:20 That thou mayest love the Lord thy God - Here he shews them in short, what their duty is; To love God as the Lord, a being most amiable, and as their God, a God in covenant with them: as an evidence of their love, to obey his voice in every thing, and by constancy in this love and obedience, to cleave to him all their days. And what encouragement had they to do this? For he is thy life and the length of thy days - He gives life, preserves life, restores life, and prolongs it, by his power, tho' it be a frail life, and by his presence, tho' it be a forfeited life. He sweetens life by his comforts, and compleats all in life everlasting.

31  Moses encourages the people and Joshua, Deu 31:1-8, Deu 31:23
Delivers to the priests the law, to be read every seventh year, Deu 31:9-13.
God informs Moses of his approaching death, and the future apostasy of Israel, Deu 31:14-18.
Orders him to write a song, which should be a testimony against them, Deu 31:19-22.
Moses gives the law to the Levites to lay up beside the ark, and bids them assemble the people to hear his song, Deu 31:24-30.

31:1 Went and spake - Continued to speak, an usual Hebrew phrase.

31:2 Go out and come in - Perform the office of a leader or governor, because the time of my death approaches.

31:9 This law - Largely so called, the whole law or doctrine delivered unto Moses contained in these five books. To the priests - That they might keep it carefully and religiously, and bring it forth upon occasion, and read it, and instruct the people out of it. The elders - Who were assistants to the priests, to take care that the law should be kept, and read, and observed.

31:10 The year of release - When they were freed from debts and troubles, and cares of worldly matters, and thereby fitter to attend on God and his service.

31:11 Thou shalt read - Thou shalt cause it to be read by the priest or Levites; for he could not read it himself in the hearing of all Israel, but this was to be done by several persons, and so the people met in several congregations.

31:12 Together - Not in one place. But into divers assemblies or synagogues. Women who hereby are required to go to Jerusalem at this solemnity, as they were permitted to do in other solemnities.Children - Such of them as could understand, as appears from Neh 8:2-3, the piousJews doubtless read it daily in their houses, and Moses of old time was read in the synagogues every sabbath day. But once in seven years, the law was thus to be read in public, to magnify it and make it honourable.

31:14 Give him a charge - Immediately from myself for his greater encouragement, and to gain him more authority with the people.

31:16 The strangers of the land - That is, of the Canaanites, who will be turned out of their possessions, and become as strangers in their own land. This aggravates their folly to worship such gods as could neither preserve their friends, nor annoy their enemies.

31:17 Hide my face - Withdraw my favour and help. Whatever outward troubles we are in if we have but the light of God's countenance, we are safe. But if God hide his face from us then we are undone.

31:19 Write this song - Which is contained Deu 32:1-43, and is put into a song that it may be better learned, and more fixed in their minds and memories. Put it in their mouths - Cause them to learn it, and sing it one to another, to oblige them to more circumspection.A witness - Of my kindness in giving them so many blessings, of my patience in bearing so long with them, of my clemency in giving them such fair and plain warnings, and my justice in punishing such an incorrigible people.

31:21 Their imaginations - Inclinations to Idolatry, which they do not check, as they ought; and some of them do not only cherish it in their hearts, but as far as they can and dare, secretly practise it, as may be gathered from Amo 5:25 Deu 31, Act 7:43, .

31:25 The Levites - The priests, Deu 31:9, who also were Levites.

31:26 Take this book - Probably the very same book, which (after having been some way misplaced) was found in the house of the Lord, in the days of Josiah, and publickly read by the king himself, for a witness against a people, who were then almost ripe for ruin. In the side - In the outside, in a little chest fixed to it, for nothing but the tables of stone were contained in the ark, Ki1 8:9, here it was kept for greater security and reverence. A witness against thee - Against thy people, to whom he turns his speech that they might be the more affected with it.

32  The song of Moses contains the preface, Deu 32:1-2.
A high character of God, Deu 32:3-6.
A recital of the great things God had done for them, and as their carriage toward him, Deu 32:7-18.
A prediction of judgments for their aggravated impieties, Deu 32:19-35.
A promise of vengeance upon their enemies, and deliverance for a remnant, Deu 32:36-43.
An exhortation annext, Deu 32:44-47.
Orders given to Moses, to go up to the mount and die, Deu 32:48-52.

32:1 O heavens, O earth - You lifeless and senseless creatures, which he calls upon partly to accuse the stupidity of Israel, that were more dull of hearing than these: and partly as witnesses of the truth of his sayings and the justice of God's proceedings against them.

32:2 As the rain - Look what effect rain and dew have upon herbs and grass which they make fresh and fragrant and growing, the same effect may my discourse have upon your hearts, that is, to make them soft and pliable and fruitful.

32:3 The name of the Lord - His glorious excellencies and righteous actions, by which he hath made himself known as a man is known by his name, and by which it will appear both that there is no blame to be laid upon him whatsoever befals you, and that it is gross madness to forsake such a God for dumb idols. Ascribe ye - As I am about to publish the majesty and glory of God, so do you also acknowledge it.

32:4 A rock - As for the stability of his nature, and invincibleness of his power, so also for his fixedness and immutability in his counsels and promises and ways; so that is there shall be a sad change in your affairs, remember that this proceeds from yourselves and from the change of your ways towards God, and not from God, in whom there is no variableness or shadow of change, Deu 1:17.His work - All his works and actions are unblameable, perfect, wise and righteous. His ways - All his administrations in the world and particularly with you are managed with wisdom and justice.A God of truth - Constant to his promises: you cannot accuse him of any unfaithfulness to this day.

32:5 They - The Israelites. Their spot - The wickedness with which they are stained, is not of his children - Plainly shews they are not his children, but the devil's. God's children have no such spot.Indeed this text does not affirm, they have any spot at all.Perverse - Froward and untractable: Crooked - Irregular and disorderly.

32:6 O foolish people and unwise! - Fools and double fools!Fools indeed, to disoblige one, on whom you so entirely depend!Who hath bewitched you! To forsake your own mercies for lying vanities!Bought thee - That hath redeemed thee from Egyptian bondage.Made thee - Not only in a general by creation, but in a peculiar manner by making thee his peculiar people. Established - That is, renewed and confirmed his favour to thee, and not taken it away, which thou hast often provoked him to do.

32:7 The days of old - The events of ancient days or former ages, and thou wilt find that I had a respect unto thee not only in Abraham's time, but long before it.

32:8 Their inheritance - When God by his providence allotted the several parts of the world to several people, which was done Gen 10:1-32, Gen 11:1-9. When he separated - Divided them in their languages and habitations according to their families. He set the bounds - That is, he disposed of the several lands and limits of the people so as to reserve a sufficient place for the great numbers of the people of Israel. And therefore he so guided the hearts of several people, that the posterity of Canaan, which was accursed of God, and devoted to ruin, should be seated in that country which God intended for the children of Israel, that so when their iniquities were ripe, they might be rooted out, and the Israelites come in their stead.

32:9 His people - It is no wonder God had so great a regard to this people, for he chose them out of all mankind to be his peculiar portion.

32:10 He found him - Not by chance, but as it were looking out and seeking for him. He did indeed manifest himself to him in Egypt, but it was in the wilderness at Sinai, God found him in an eminent manner, and revealed his will to him, and entered into covenant with him, and imparted himself and his grace and blessing to him. By this word he also signifies both their lost condition in themselves, and that their recovery was not from themselves, but only from God who sought and found them out by his grace. In the waste howling wilderness - In a place destitute of all the necessaries and comforts of life, which also was a type of that desolate and comfortless condition in which all men are before the grace of God finds them out; where instead of the voices of men, is nothing heard but the howlings and yellings of ravenous birds and beasts. He led them - He conducted them frons place to place by his cloudy pillar and providence.Or, he compassed him about, by his provident care, watching over him and preserving him on every side. As the apple of his eye - As men use to keep the apple of their eye, that is, with singular care and diligence, this being as a most tender, so a most useful part.

32:11 Her nest - Her young ones in the nest; which she by her cry and motion provoketh to fly. Her wings - As preparing herself to fly.On her wings - Or, as on her wings, that is, gently, and tenderly and safely too, as if she carried them not in her claws for fear of hurting them, but upon her wings. Some say, the eagle doth usually carry her young ones upon her wings.

32:12 Did lead them - When they were shut up in Egypt as in their nest whence they durst not venture to fly nor stir, he taught and encouraged and enabled them to fly out from that bondage, he dealt tenderly with them, bearing with their infirmities, keeping them from all harms. With him - To assist him at that work or to deliver them. The more unworthy they in giving to idols a share in that worship which they owe to God only.

32:13 The high places - To conquer their strongest holds, which often are in the mountains, and their cities fenced with walls of greatest height and strength. To ride upon, in scripture phrase, is to subdue or conquer. Out of the rock - This being a land flowing with honey, where the bees made honey in the holes of rocks, or in the trees that grew upon or among the rocks. Out of the flinty rocks - The olive - trees grow and bear most fruit in rocky or hilly places.

32:14 Fat of lambs - For though the fat wherewith the inward parts were covered was not to be eaten by them, but offered to God, yet that fat which was mixed with the flesh they might eat, as the Jewish doctors note.Basham - A place famous for excellent cattle. Fat of kidneys of wheat - With the finest of the grains of wheat; compared to kidneys for their shape and largeness.

32:15 Jeshurun - Israel whom he calls right or upright, (as the word signifies) partly by way of instruction to mind them what theyprofessed and ought to be; and partly by way of exprobration, to shew them what a shame it was to degenerate so much from their name and profession.Kicked - As well fed cattle use to do: he grew insolent and rebellious against God and against his word and spirit.

32:16 To jealousy - To anger and fury, for jealousy is the rage of a man. And withall it implies the ground of his anger, their falseness to God whom they had accepted as their husband, and their spiritual whoredom with other gods.

32:17 Unto devils - Unto idols, which the devils brought into the world in opposition to God, in and by which the devils often manifested themselves to men, and gave them answers, and received their worship. The Gentiles pretended to worship God in those idols, and the devils which inspired them, deluded the nations with pretences that they were a sort of lower gods.Moses takes off this mark, and shews the Israelites that these pretended gods were really devils, and therefore that it was the height of madness to honour or worship them. Not to God - For God utterly rejected those sacrifices which they offered to him together with idols.They knew not - Or, who never knew them, that is, never shewed any kindness to them, or did them any good: New gods - Not simply or absolutely, for some of these had been worshipped for many generations, but comparatively to the true God, who is the ancient of days, Deu 7:9, and who was worshipped from the beginning of the world.Feared not - Served not, worshipped not.

32:18 Of the rock - Of God, one of whose titles this is, or of Christ, who is called the rock, Co1 10:4, whom the Israelites tempted.

32:19 His sons and daughters - Such they were by calling and profession.

32:20 I will see - I will make them and others see, what the fruit of such actions shall be. No faith - No fidelity: perfidious, that have broken their covenant so solemnly made with me.

32:21 I will move them to jealousy with those that are not a people - With the Heathen nations, who are none of my people, who scarce deserve the name of a people, as being without the knowledge and fear of God, which is the foundation of all true policy and government, and many of them destitute of all government, laws and order. And yet these people I will take in your stead, receive them and reject you; which, when it came to pass how desperately did it provoke the Jews to jealousy? A foolish nation - So the Gentiles were both in the opinion of the Jews and in truth and reality, notwithstanding all their pretences to wisdom, there being nothing more foolish or brutish than the worship of idols.

32:22 A fire is kindled - Great and grievous judgments shall be inflicted, which often come under the name of fire. Are they proud of their plenty? It shall burn up the increase of the earth. Are they confident of their strength? It shall destroy the very foundations of the mountains. It shall burn unto the lowest hell: it shall bring them to the very depth of misery in this world, which yet will he but a faint resemblance of their endless misery in the next.

32:23 Spend mine arrows - Even empty my quiver, and send upon them all my plagues, which, like arrows shot by a skilful and strong hand, shall speedily reach and certainly hit and mortally wound them.

32:24 With hunger - With famine, which burns and parches the inward parts, and make the face black as a coal, Lam 4:8.Burning heat - From fevers or carbuncles, or other inflaming distempers.

32:27 The wrath - Their rage against me, as it is expressed, Isa 37:28-29, their furious reproaches against my name, as if I werecruel to my people or unable to deliver them. The fear hereof is ascribed to God after the manner of men. Strangely - Insolenty and arrogantly above what they used to do.

32:28 Void of counsel - Their enemies are foolish people, and therefore make so false and foolish a judgment upon things.

32:29 They - Israel. Latter end - What their end will be, and that tho' God spare them long, yet at last judgment will certainly overtake them.

32:30 One - Israelite. Their rock - Their God, who was their refuge and defence. Sold them - Namely, for bond - slaves, had given themselves up into their enemies hands. Shut them up - As it were in the net which their enemies had laid for them.

32:31 Being judges - Who by their dear bought experience have been forced to acknowledge that our God was far stronger than they and their false gods together.

32:32 For - As if he had said, This is the reason why their rock hath shut them up. Their vine is of the vine of Sodom - The people of Israel, which I planted as a choice vine, are now degenerated and become like the vine of Sodom, their principles and practices are all corrupt and abominable. Bitter - Their fruits are loathsome to me, mischievous to others, and at last will be pernicious to themselves.

32:34 This - All their wickedness mentioned before. My long suffering towards them may make them think I have forgotten their sins, but I remember them punctually, they are sealed up as in a bag, Job 14:17, and as men seal up their treasures.

32:35 Their feet shall slide - They who now think they stand fast and unmoveable, shall fall into utter destruction. In due time - Though not so soon as some may expect, yet in that time when it shall be most proper, when they have filled up the measure of their sins. At hand - Heb.is near. So the scripture often speaks of those things which are at many hundred years distance, to signify, that though they may be afar off as to our measures of time, yet in God's account they are near, they are as near as may be, when the measure of their sins is once full, the judgment shall not be deferred.

32:36 For - Or, nevertheless, having spoken of the dreadful calamity which would come upon his people, he now turns his discourse into a more comfortable strain, and begins to shew that after God had sorely chastised his people, he would have mercy upon them and turn their captivity. Judge his people - Shall plead their cause, shall protect and deliver them. Repent - Of the evils he hath brought upon them. None shut up - Either in their strong cities or castles or other hiding places, or in the enemies hands or prisons, whence there might be some hope or possibility of redemption; and none left, as the poor and contemptible people are neglected and usually left by the conquerors in the conquered land, but all seem to be cut off and destroyed.

32:37 He shall say - The Lord, before he deliver his people, will first convince them of their former folly in forsaking him and following idols.

32:38 Which did eat - That is, to whom you offered sacrifices and oblations after the manner of the Gentiles. Help you - If they can.

32:39 See now - Learn by your own sad experience what vain and impotent things idols are. I am he - The only true, omnipotent and irresistible God.

32:40 I lift up my hand - I solemnly swear, that I will do what here follows. I live - As sure as I live.

32:41 If I whet my sword - If once I begin to prepare for war and for the execution of my sentence. Judgment - Of the instruments of judgment, of the weapons of war. A metaphor from warriors, that take their weapons into their hand, when they intend to fight.

32:42 Captives - Whom my sword hath sorely wounded, though not utterly killed. From the beginning - When once I begin to revenge myself and my people upon mine and their enemies, I will go on and make a full end.

32:43 Rejoice - He calls upon the nations to rejoice and bless God for his favours, and especially for the last wonderful deliverance which shall be given to the Jews, when they shall be converted to the gospel in the last days; which they have all reason to do, because of that singular advantage which all nations will have at that time and upon that occasion.

32:44 He and Hoshea - Or Joshua. Probably Moses spoke it to as many as could hear him, while Joshua in another assembly at the same time delivered it to as many as his voice would reach. Thus Joshua, as well as Moses, would be a witness against them, if ever they forsook God.

32:47 Not vain - It is not an unprofitable or contemptible work I advise you to, but well worthy of your most serious care.

32:48 That self - same day - Now he had finished his work, why should he desire to live a day longer? He had indeed formerly desired and prayed, that he might go over Jordan: but now he is entirely satisfied, and saith no more of that matter.

32:49 Nebo - A ridge or top of the mountains of Abarim.

32:51 Because ye trespassed - God reminds him of the sin he had committed long before. It is good for the holiest of men to die repenting, even of their early sins.

32:52 Yet thou shalt see the land - And see it as the earnest of that better country, which is only seen with the eye of faith. What is death to him who has a believing prospect and a steadfast hope of eternal life?

33  The blessing of Moses. He pronounces them all blessed, in what God had done for them, already, Deu 33:1-5.
He pronounces a blessing upon each tribe, Deu 33:6-25.
He pronounces them all in general blessed, on account of what God would be to them, and do for them, if they were obedient, Deu 33:26-29.

33:1 Moses blessed Israel - He is said to bless them, by praying to God with faith for his blessing upon them; and by foretelling the blessings which God would confer upon them. And Moses calls himself here the man of God, that is, the servant or prophet of God, to acquaint them that the following prophecies were not his own inventions, but divine inspirations. The children of Israel - The several tribes: only Simeon is omitted, either in detestation of their parent Simeon's bloody carriage, for which Jacob gives that tribe a curse rather than a blessing, in Gen 49:5-7. Or, because that tribe had no distinct inheritance, but was to have its portion in the tribe of Judah, Jos 19:1.

33:2 The Lord came - Namely, to the Israelites, manifested himself graciously and gloriously among them. From Sinai - Beginning at Sinai, where the first appearance of God was, and so going on with them to Seir and Paran. And rose up - He appeared or shewed himself, as the sun doth when it riseth. From Seir - From the mountain or land of Edom, to which place the Israelites came, Num 20:14, etc and from thence God led them on towards the land of promise, and then gloriously appeared for them in subduing Sihon and Og before them. But because the land of Edom is sometimes taken more largely, and so reacheth even to the Red - sea, and therefore mount Sinai was near to it, and because Paran was also near Sinai, being the next station into which they came from the wilderness of Sinai: all this verse may belong to God's appearance in mount Sinai, where that glorious light which shone upon mount Sinai directly, did in all probability scatter its beams into adjacent parts, such as Seir and Paran were. And if so, this is only a poetical expression of the same thing in divers words, and God coming or rising or shining from or to or in Sinai and Seir and Paran note one and the same illustrious action of God appearing there with ten thousands of his saints or holy angels, and giving a fiery law to them. Paran - A place where God eminently manifested his presence and goodness both in giving the people flesh which they desired, and in appointing the seventy elders and pouring forth his spirit upon them. With ten thousands of saints - That is, with a great company of holy angels, Psa 68:17 Dan 7:10, which attended upon him in this great and glorious work of giving the law, as may be gathered from Act 7:53 Gal 3:19, .From his right hand - Which both wrote the law and gave it to men. An allusion to men who ordinarily write and give gifts with their right hand.A fiery law - The law is called fiery, because it is of a fiery nature purging and searching and inflaming, to signify that fiery wrath which it inflicteth upon sinners for the violation of it, and principally because it was delivered out of the midst of the fire.

33:3 The people - The tribes of Israel. The sense is, this law, though delivered with fire and smoke and thunder, which might seem to portend nothing but hatred and terror, yet in truth was given to Israel, in great love, as being the great mean of their temporal and eternal salvation. Yea, he, embraced the people, and laid them in his bosom! so the word signifies, which speaks not only the dearest love, but the most tender and careful protection. All God's saints or holy ones, that is, his people, were in thy hand, that is, under God's care to protect, direct and govern them. These words are spoken to God: the change of persons, his and thy, is most frequent in the Hebrew tongue. This clause may farther note God's kindness to Israel, in upholding them when the fiery law was delivered, which was done with so much terror that not only the people were ready to sink under it, but even Moses did exceedingly fear and quake. But God sustained both Moses and the people, in or by his hand, whereby he in a manner covered them that no harm might come to them. At thy feet - Like scholars to receive instructions. He alludes to the place where the people waited when the law was delivered, which was at the foot of the mount. Every one - Of the people will receive or submit to thy instructions and commands. This may respect either, the peoples promise when they heard the law, that they would hear and do all that was commanded. Or, their duty to do so.

33:4 Moses - He speaks this of himself in the third person, which is very usual in the Hebrew language. The law is called their inheritance, because the obligation of it was hereditary, passing from parents to their children, and because this was the best part of their inheritance, the greatest of all those gifts which God bestowed upon them.

33:5 He was king in Jeshurun - Moses was their king not in title, but in reality, being under God, their supreme governor, and law giver.Gathered together - When the princes and people met together for the management of public affairs, Moses was owned by them as their king and lawgiver.

33:6 Let Reuben live - Though Reuben deserve to be cut off or greatly diminished and obscured, according to Jacob's prediction, Gen 49:4, yet God will spare them and give them a name and portionamong the tribes of Israel, and bless them with increase of their numbers. All the ancient paraphrasts refer this to the other world, so far were they from expecting temporal blessings only. Let Reuben live in life eternal, says Onkelos, and not die the second death.Let Reuben live in this world, so Jonathan and the Jerusalem Targum, and not die that death which the wicked die in the world to come.

33:7 Hear, Lord - God will hear his prayer for the accomplishment of those great things promised to that tribe, Gen 49:8-12. This implies the delays and difficulties Judah would meet with, that would drive him to his prayers, which would be with success. Unto his people - When he shall go forth to battle against his enemies and shall fall fiercely upon them, as was foretold, Gen 49:8-9. Bring him back with honour and victory, to his people, to the rest of his tribe who were left at home when their brethren went to battle: and to his brethren the other tribes of Israel. Let his hands be sufficient for him - This tribe shall be so numerous and potent that it shall suffice to defend itself without any aid, either from foreign nations or from other tribes; as appeared when this tribe alone was able to grapple with nine or ten of the other tribes.From his enemies - Thou wilt preserve this tribe in a special manner, so that his enemies shall not be able to ruin it, as they will do other tribes, and that for the sake of the Messiah who shall spring out of it.

33:8 Let thy Urim - The Thummim and the Urim, which are thine, O Lord by special institution and consecration, (by which he understands the ephod in which they were put, and the high priesthood, to which they were appropriated, and withal the gifts and graces signified by the Urim and Thummim, and necessary for the discharge of that high - office) shall be with thy holy one, that is, with that priest, whom thou hast consecrated to thyself, and who is holy in a more peculiar manner than all the people were; that is, the priesthood shall be confined to and continued in Aaron's family. Whom thou didst prove - Altho' thou didst try him, and rebuke him, yet thou didst not take away the priesthood from him.At Massah - Not at that Massah mentioned Exo 17:7, which is also called Meribah, but at that other Meribah, Num 20:13.Thou didst strive - Whom thou didst reprove and chastise.

33:9 I have not seen him - That is, I have no respect unto them. The sense is, who followed God and his command fully, and executed the judgment enjoined by God without any respect of persons, Exo 32:26-27. They kept thy covenant - When the rest broke their covenant with God by that foul sin of idolatry with the calf, that tribe kept themselves pure from that infection, and adhered to God and his worship.

33:11 His substance - Because he hath no inheritance of his own and therefore wholly depends upon thy blessing. The work of his hands - All his holy administrations, which he fitly calls the work of his hands, because a great part of the service of the Levites and priests was done by the labour of their hand and body, whereas the service of evangelical ministers is more spiritual and heavenly. Smite - He pray's thus earnestly for them, because he foresaw they who were to teach and reprove, and chastise others would have many enemies, and because they were under God, the great preservers and upholders of religion, and their enemies were the enemies of religion itself.

33:12 Of Benjamin - Benjamin is put next to Levi, because the temple, where the work of the Levites lay, was upon the edge of the lot of this tribe. And 'tis put before Joseph, because of the dignity of Jerusalem, (part of which was in this lot) above Samaria, which was in the tribe of Ephraim: likewise because Benjamin adhered to the house of David and to the temple of God, when the rest of the tribes deserted both. The beloved of the Lord - So called in allusion to their father Benjamin who was the beloved of his father Jacob; and because of the kindness of God to this tribe which appeared both in this, that they dwelt in the best part of the land, as Josephus affirms, and in the following privilege. Shall dwell in safety by him - Shall have his lot nigh to God's temple, which was both a singular comfort and safeguard to him. Shall cover - Shall protect that tribe continually while they cleave to him. He - The Lord shall dwell, that is, his temple shall be placed, between his shoulders, that is, in his portion, or between his border's as the word shoulder is often used. And this was truly the situation of the temple, on both sides whereof was Benjamin's portion. And though mount Sion was in the tribe of Judah, yet mount Moriah, on which the temple was built, was in the tribe of Benjamin.

33:13 And of Joseph - Including both Ephraim and Manasseh.In Jacob's blessing that of Joseph's is the largest. And so it is here. His land - His portion shall be endowed with choice blessings from God. Of heaven - That is, the precious fruits of the earth brought forth by the influences of heaven, the warmth of the sun, and the rain which God will send from heaven. The deep - The springs of water bubbling out of the earth: perhaps it may likewise refer to the great deep, the abyss of waters, which is supposed to be contained in the earth.

33:14 By the sun - Which opens and warms the earth, cherishes and improves and in due time ripens the seeds and fruits of it.The moon - Which by its moisture refreshes and promotes them.Heb. Of the moons, or months, that is, which it bringeth forth in the several months or seasons of the year.

33:15 The chief things - That is, the excellent fruits, as grapes, olives, figs, etc which delight in mountains, growing upon, or the precious minerals contained in, their mountains and hills called ancient and lasting, that is, such as have been from the beginning of the world, and are likely to continue to the end of it, in opposition to those hills or mounts which have been cast up by man.

33:16 And for - And in general for all the choice fruits which the land produceth in all the parts of it, whither hills or valleys. Fulness thereof - That is, the plants and cattle and all creatures that grow, increase, and flourish in it. The good will - For all other effects of the good will and kindness of God who not long since did for a time dwell or appear in the bush to me in order to the relief of his people, Exo 3:2.Of Joseph - That is, of Joseph's posterity. Him that was separated from his brethren - His brethren separated him from them by making him a slave, and God distinguished him from them by making him a prince. The preceeding words might be rendered, My dweller in the bush.That was an appearance of the divine majesty to Moses only, in token of his particular favour. Many a time had God appeared to Moses; but now he is just dying, he seems to have the most pleasing remembrance, of the first time that he saw the visions of the Almighty. It was here God declared himself the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and so confirmed the promise made to the father, that promise which our Lord shews, reaches as far as the resurrection and eternal life.

33:17 His glory is like the firstling of his bullock - Or young bull, which is a stately creature, and was therefore formerly used as an emblem of royal majesty. This seems to note the kingdom which Ephraim should obtain in Jeroboam and his successors. His horns - His strength and power shall be very great. The people - All that shall oppose him, and particularly the Canaanites. The ten thousands - Of the land of Canaan. Though Manasseh be now more numerous, yet Ephraim shall shortly outstrip him, as was foretold Gen 48:17-19.

33:18 Rejoice - Thou shalt prosper and have cause of rejoicing.In thy going out -

  1. To war, as this phrase is often used.
  2. To sea, in way of traffick, because their portion lay near the sea.And in both respects his course is opposite to that of Issachar, who was a lover of peace and pasturage. He is here joined with Zebulun, both because they were brethren by father and mother too, and because their possessions lay near together. In thy tents - Thou shalt give thyself to the management of laud and cattle, living quietly in thy own possessions.

33:19 They - Zebulun of whom Moses takes more special notice.And so having dispatched Issachar in two words, he returns to Zebulun. The people - the Gentiles, either those of Galilee, which was called Galilee of the Gentiles, who were their neighbours; or people of other nations, with whom they had commerce, which they endeavoured to improve in persuading them to worship the true God. The mountain - That is, to the temple, which Moses knew was to be seated upon a mountain. Sacrifices of righteousness - Such as God requires. Their trafficking abroad with Heathen nations shall not make them forget their duty at home, nor shall their distance from the place of sacrifice hinder them from coming to it to discharge that duty. Of the abundance of the sea - They shall grow rich by the traffick of the sea, and shall consecrate themselves and their riches to God.Hid in the sand - Such precious things as either

  1. Are contained in the sand of the sea and rivers, in which sometimes thereis mixed a considerable quantity of gold and silver. Or,
  2. Such as grow in the sea, or are fetched from the sandy bottom of it, aspearls, coral, ambergrease. Or,
  3. Such as being cast into the sea by shipwreck are cast upon the shore bythe workings of the sea.It were well, if the enlargement of our trade with foreign countries, were made to contribute to the spreading of the gospel.

33:20 Enlargeth - That bringeth him out of his straits amid troubles, which he was often engaged in, because he was encompassed with potent enemies. As a lion - Safe and secure from his enemies, and terrible to them when they rouse and molest him. Teareth the arm - Utterly destroys his enemies, both the head, the seat of the crown, their dignity and principality, and the arm, the subject of strength and instrument of action; both chief princes, and their subjects.

33:21 The first part - The first fruits of the land of promise, the country of Sihon, which was first conquered, which he is said to provide for himself, because he desired and obtained it of Moses.Of the law - giver - Of Moses, whose portion this is called, either because this part of the land beyond Jordan was the only part of the land which Moses was permitted to enter upon: or because it was given him by Moses, whereas the portions beyond Jordan were given to the several tribes by Joshua according to the direction of the lot.Seated - Heb. hid or protected: for their wives and children were secured in their cities, while many of their men went over to the war in Canaan. He came - He went, or he will go, to the war in Canaan, with the princes, or captains, or rulers of the people of Israel, that is, under their command and conduct, as indeed they did; or with the first of the people; or, in the front of the people, as the Syriack renders it; for this tribe and their brethren whose lot fell beyond Jordan, were to march into Canaan before their brethren.He executed - The just judgment of God against the Canaanites, as the rest of the Israelites did.

33:22 A lion's whelp - Courageous, and generous, and strong, and successful against his enemies. Which leapeth - From Bashan, because there were many and fierce lions in those parts, whence they used to come forth and leap upon the prey. Or this may refer either to the particular victories obtained by Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan, or to a more general achievement of that tribe, when a party of them surprised Laish, which lay in the farthest part of the land of Canaan from them. And the mountain of Bashan lying not far from that city, from whence they probably made their descent upon it, thus leaping from Basham.

33:23 Satisfied with favour - With the favour of God. That only is the favour that satisfies the soul. They are happy indeed that have the favour of God; and they shall have it, that place their satisfaction in it.And full with the blessing of the Lord - Not Only with corn, wine and oil, the fruit of the blessing, but with the blessing itself, the grace of God, according to his promise and covenant. Possess thou the west and the south - Or, the sea and the south. This is not to be understood of the place, that his lot should fall there, for he was rather in the east and north of the land; but of the pleasures and commodities of the west or of the sea, which were conveyed to him from his neighbour Zebulun; and of the south, that is, from the southern tribes and parts of Canaan, which were brought to him down the river Jordan, and both sorts of commodities were given him in exchange for the fruitful rich soil which he had in great abundance.

33:24 Let Asher - Who carries blessedness in his very name, be blessed with children - He shall have numerous, strong and healthful children. Acceptable to his brethren - By his sweet disposition and winning carriage. In oil - He shall have such plenty of oil that he may not only wash his face, but his feet also in it.

33:25 Iron and brass - The mines of iron and copper, which were in their portion, whence Sidon their neighbor was famous among the Heathens for its plenty of brass, and Sarepta is thought to have its name from the brass and iron which were melted there in great quantity.Thy strength shall be - Thy strength shall not be diminished with age, but thou shalt have the vigor of youth even in thine old age: thy tribe shalt grow stronger and stronger.

33:26 There us none - These are the last words that ever Moses wrote, perhaps the greatest writer that ever lived upon the earth. And this man of God, who had as much reason to know both as ever any mere man had, with his last breath magnifies both the God of Israel, and the Israel of God. Unto the God of Jeshurun, who to help thee, rideth upon the heaven, and with the greatest state and magnificence, on the sky.Riding on the heaven denotes the greatness and glory, in which he manifests himself to the upper world, and the use he makes of the influences of heaven and the products of the clouds, in bringing to pass his own counsels in this lower world. All these he manages and directs, as a man doth the horse he rides on.

33:27 The eternal God - He who was before all worlds, and will be, when time shall be no more: Is thy refuge - Or, thy habitation or mansion - house (so the word signifies) in whom thou art safe, and easy, and at rest, as a man is in his own house. Every true Israelite is at home in God: the soul returns to him, and reposes in him. And they that make him their habitation shall have all the comforts and benefits of an habitation in him. And underneath are the everlasting arms - The almighty power of God, which protects and comforts all that trust in him, in their greatest straits and distresses. He shall thrust out the enemy from before thee - Shall make room for thee by his resistless power, and shall say, Destroy them - Giving thee not only a commission but strength to put it in execution. And, has he not given the same commission and the same strength to believers, to destroy all sin?

33:28 Alone - Either

  1. Tho' they be alone, and have no confederates to defend them, but haveall the world against them, yet my single protection shall be sufficient for them. Or,
  2. Distinct and separated from all other nations, with whom I will nothave them mingle themselves.The fountain - That is, the posterity of Jacob, which flowed from him as waters from a fountain, in great abundance. The fountain is here put for the river or streams which flow from it, as Jacob or Israel who is the fountain is often put for the children of Israel. His heavens - That is, those heavens or that air which hangs over his land.

33:29 The shield of they help - By whom thou are sufficiently guarded against all assailants; and the sword of thy excellency - Or, thy most excellent sword, that is, thy strength and the author of all thy past or approaching victories. Those in whose hearts is the excellency of holiness, have God himself for their shield and sword. They are defended by the whole armour of God: His word is their sword, and faith their shield.And thine enemies shall be found liars unto thee - Who said they would destroy thee: or at least, that they would never submit: and thou shalt tread upon their high places - Their strong holds, palaces and temples.Thus shall the God of peace tread Satan under the feet of all believers, and that shortly.

34  Moses having finished his testimony, finishes his life. This chapter was probably added by Samuel, who wrote by divine authority what he found in the records of Joshua, and his successors the Judges. Here is, The view Moses had of the land, Deu 34:1-4.
His death, burial, and age, Deu 34:5-7.
Israel's mourning for him, Deu 34:8.
His successor, Deu 34:9.
His character, Deu 34:10-12.

34:1 And Moses went up - When he knew the place of his death he chearfully mounted a steep hill to come to it. Those who are well acquainted with another world, are not afraid to leave this. When God's servants are sent for out of the world, the summons runs go up and die!Unto Dan - To that city which after Moses's death was called so.

34:2 All Naphtali - The land of Naphtali, which together with Dan, was in the north of Canaan, as Ephraim and Manasseh were in the midland parts, and Judah on the south, and the sea, on the west. So these parts lying in the several quarters are put for all the rest. He stood in the east and saw also Gilead, which was in the eastern part of the land, and thence he saw the north and south and west.The utmost sea - The midland sea, which was the utmost bound of the land of promise on the west.

34:3 The south - The south quarter of the land of Judah, which is towards the salt sea, the city of palm - trees - Jericho, so called from the multitude of palm - trees, which were in those parts, as Josephus and Strabo write. From whence and the balm there growing it was called Jericho, which signifies, odoriferous or sweet smelling.

34:4 I have caused thee to see it - For tho' his sight was good, yet he could not have seen all Canaan, an hundred and sixty miles in length, and fifty or sixty in breadth, if his sight had not been miraculously assisted and enlarged. He saw it at a distance. Such a sight the Old Testament believers had of the kingdom of the Messiah. And such a sight believers have now of the glory that shall he revealed. Such a sight have we now, of the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, which shall cover the earth. Those that come after us shall undoubtedly enter into that promised land: which is a comfort to us, when we find our own carcases falling in this wilderness.

34:5 So Moses the servant of the Lord died - He is called the servant of the Lord, not only as a good man, (all such are his servants) but as a man eminently useful, who had served God's counsels in bringing Israel out of Egypt, and leading them thro' the wilderness. And it was more his honour, to be the servant of the Lord, than to be king in Jeshurun. Yet he dies. Neither his piety nor his usefulness would exempt him from the stroke of death. God's servants must die, that they may rest from their labours, receive their recompense, and make room for others. But when they go hence, they go to serve him better, to serve him day and night in his temple. The Jews say, God sucked his soul out of his body with a kiss. No doubt he died in the embraces of his love.

34:6 He - The Lord, buried him either immediately, or by the ministry of angels, whereof Michael was the chief or prince. Of his sepulchre - Of the particular place where he was buried: which God hid from the Israelites, to prevent their superstition and idolatry, to which he knew their great proneness. And for this very reason the devil endeavoured to have it known and contended with Michael about it, Jud 1:9. God takes care even of the dead bodies of his servants.As their death is precious, so is their dust. Not one grain of it shall be lost, but the covenant with it shall be remembered.

34:7 His eye was not dim - By a miraculous work of God in mercy to his church and people.

34:8 Thirty day's - Which was the usual time of mourning for persons of high place and eminency. 'Tis a debt owing to the surviving honour of deceased worthies, to follow them with our tears, as those who loved and valued them, are sensible of the loss, and humbled for the sins which have provoked God to deprive us of them.

34:9 Wisdom - And other gifts and graces too, but wisdom is mentioned as being most necessary for the government to which he was now called. Upon him - And this was the thing which Moses at that time asked of God for him.

34:10 Whom the Lord - Whom God did so freely and familiarly converse with.

34:12 Moses was greater than any other of the prophets of the Old Testament. By Moses God gave the law, and moulded and formed the Jewish church. By the other prophets he only sent particular reproofs, directions and predictions. But as far as the other prophets came short of him, our Lord Jesus went beyond him. Moses was faithful as a servant, but Christ as a son: his miracles more illustrious, his communion with the father more intimate: for he is in his bosom from eternity.Moses lies buried: but Christ is sitting at the right - hand of God, and of the increase of his government there shall be no end.

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26 Первенцы человека и животных принадлежат Богу (Исх 13:12); Ему также посвящаются и первые плоды земли (Исх 22:29; Исх 23:19; Исх 34:26; Лев 2:12, Лев 2:14; Лев 23:10-17; Втор 18:4). Согласно Числ 18 12, они причитаются священникам (ср. Иез 44 30). Это принесение плодов земли, связанное в древнем календаре с праздником жатвы и собирания плодов земли - ханаанского происхождения; оно ассоциируется здесь с событием истории спасения : вступлением в Землю Обетованную (стт Втор 26:1, Втор 26:3, Втор 26:9-10). Т. о., снова напоминается основная тема Втор: дар земли Израилю.

26:5-10 Древний текст, который читался во время праздничного богослужения. Это исповедание веры резюмирует историю спасения, в центре которой находится избавление от египетского рабства. Те же мотивы звучат во Втор 6:20-23, в Ис Нав 24:1-13и в Неем 9:7-25. Упоминание земли, где течет молоко и мед, предшествует приношению начатков.

26:14 "Десятина", посвященная Богу, должна быть предохранена от какого бы то ни было осквернения (ср. Агг 2:13и Ос 9:4). Речь идет здесь скорее о идолопоклонническом культе умирающего и воскресающего бога (Ваал-Адониса), чем о культе мертвых.

26:16-19 Заключающая Второзаконнический свод хартия Союза представлена как торжественный договор, обязующий обе стороны: Ягве будет Богом Израиля, а Израиль - Его народом, если будет хранить Его заповеди. Благословения и проклятия (Втор 28) будут санкцией исполнения "контракта".

27:12-26 Угрозы нарушителям Закона. Эти "проклятия" повторялись в Сихеме во время торжества "возобновления Завета".

28 Эта глава продолжает изложение гл. Втор 26:16-19 и Втор 27:9-10, где Второзаконнический свод был представлен как хартия Союза-Завета Ягве с Израилем. Она заканчивается "благословениями и проклятиями", как это было принято на Востоке.

28:53 Во время осады Самарии голод довел жителей до того, что иногда матери ели своих собственных детей (4 Цар 6:28-29). Иеремия (Иер 19:9) и Иезекииль (Иез 5:10) грозят жителям Иерусалима тем же ужасным бедствием, и эти угрозы не остались пустыми словами (Плач 2:10; Плач 4:10; ср. Иосиф Флавий, Иудейская война).

29:1 Этот стих служит заглавием третьей речи Моисея, которая заканчивается 30-ой гл.

Начало третьей части книги. Она открывается историческим прологом. Далее объясняется смысл Завета как договора, нарушение которого влечет за собой кару. Моисей предстает здесь, более чем где-либо, посредником Союза-Завета, главное положение которого содержится в ст. Втор 29:12(ср. Втор 26:6). Стт Втор 29:4-15распространяют обязательства и на отсутствующих. Т. о., договор приобретает перманентное значение.

30:11 В кн. Мудрых часто говорится о том, что Премудрость Божия недоступна человеческому пониманию (напр, Иов 28; в обратном смысле Притч 8:1сл.). Но Бог открывает ее людям в Законе (Сир 24:25-26; Пс 118).

30:15-20 Бог есть источник жизни. Отдаляющийся от Него подпадает под власть смерти. Из этого вытекают условия Завета.

31 Глава открывает три заключительных раздела книги. В первом повествуется о вручении власти Иисусу Навину.

31:26 Книга Закона, возвещенного через посредство Моисея (Втор 4:14), кладется т. о., "одесную ковчега Завета Господа", содержавшего Десятисловие, данное Самим Господом.

32 Великая "песнь Моисея" - замечательное лирическое произведение, прославляющее Бога Израилева, единого истинного Владыку мира. Как полагают исследователи, до своего включения во Втор она являлась самостоятельным произведением. Аналогичные мысли и образы встречаются в псалмах и у пророков, в особенности у Isa 40-55и Иез.

32:8 Экзегеты считают, что текст греч. перевода более древний. Вместо "сынов Израилевых" стояло, вероятно, "сынов Божиих". Сыны Божии (или "боги") - ангелы (Иов 1:6), члены небесного двора, ст. Втор 32:43и Пс 28:1; Пс 81:1; Пс 88:7; Тов 5:4; здесь- небесные покровители народов (ср. Дан 10:13); избранный же народ Ягве сохранил для себя (Втор 7:6).

32:39 Исповедание строгого единобожия (ср. Ис 44:6).

32:43 "Очистит землю Свою" - букв, "совершит обряд искупления": выражение, часто встречающееся в обрядовых текстах (Исх 25:17), где говорится о "крышке" ковчега - евр "каппорет" от "капар" - покрывать, искупать.

33 "Благословение Моисея", по мнению экзегетов, есть богослужебный текст, вставленный во Втор между возвещением о смерти Моисея и утверждением факта его смерти. "Благословение" есть особая форма литургической поэзии (ср. Быт 49; ср. 2 Цар 7:21-29). Здесь оно представлено как завещание Моисея, наподобие "благословения" Иакова.

33:7 Этот стих, по-видимому, содержит указание на отделение колена Иудина от других колен в период образования двух царств.

34:5-6 Этот текст евр. Библии может быть понят так: "Ягве похоронил его". Это окружает таинственностью смерть Моисея, человека, жизнь которого была исполнена необычайных знамений и великих событий.

34:10 В заключительных стихах Второзакония Моисей прославляется как величайший из пророков израильских, удостоившийся видеть Бога лицом к Лицу.

Являясь последней частью Пятикнижия, Второзаконие в то же время открывает собой новый цикл библ. книг, который принято называть на Западе «Девтерономической (Второзаконнической) историей». В нем составитель собрал в назидательных целях сказания об истории народа Божия. Сюда входят кн. Иисуса Навина, Судей и Царств, находящиеся — согласно распространенной на Западе теории — под сильным влиянием Второзакония. Второзаконнической же «редакцией» западные библеисты называют послепленную редакцию этих книг, являющуюся окончательной.

В отличие от других законоположительных частей ВЗ Второзаконие характеризуется ярким проповедническим стилем. Основой его явилось завещание Моисея. Испытывая тревогу при мысли о соблазнах, ожидавших израильтян в Ханаане, пророк стремился запечатлеть в их сердцах сущность своего учения. Впоследствии эти заповеди и проповеди повторялись левитами северо-израильских городов во время праздника возобновления Завета.

По-видимому, существовало три варианта данной книги (Втор 1:4-40; Втор 4:26-41 и Втор 28; Втор 29-30); каждый вариант состоял из исторического пролога, заповедей, благословений и проклятий. Как полагают библеисты, один из этих вариантов (или три слитых воедино) был спрятан в Иерусалимском храме и обнаружен при царе Иосии (4 Цар 22). В пользу этого предположения говорит тот факт, что в книге, найденной при Иосии, имелась заповедь совершать богослужение только в одном месте, избранном Богом. А такая заповедь встречается лишь во Второзаконии (Втор 12:5). Первоначально, очевидно, речь шла о Сихеме (именно там совершался обряд возобновления Завета — Втор 27:4). После разрушения Северного израильского царства (722 г. до Р.Х.) этим центром стали считать Иерусалим. Культовый моноцентризм — одна из главных идей исторических книг.

Второзаконие содержит главные библейские заповеди — о любви к Богу и ближнему. В ответах искусителю Христос приводит слова из этой книги (Мф 4:4-10). С другой стороны, на Второзаконии лежит печать напряженной борьбы с язычеством, происходившей на протяжении всего того времени, когда книга составлялась. Это придает ей местами резкий и суровый тон. Второзаконие — книга веры, которая отстаивает свое существование перед лицом врагов. Она проникнута высоким религиозно-этическим пафосом. Социальное законодательство Втор направлено против деспотизма царской власти и угнетения неимущих.

Названия, разделения и содержание

Пять первых книг Библии составляют одно целое, которое по-еврейски называется Тора, т.е. Закон. Первое достоверное свидетельство об употреблении слова Закон (греч. «νομος») в этом смысле мы встречаем в предисловии кн. Премудрости Иисуса, сына Сирахова. В начале христианской эры название «Закон» уже было общепринятым, как мы это видим в НЗ (Luk 10:26; ср. Luk 24:44). Иудеи, говорившие по-еврейски, называли первую часть Библии также «Пять пятых Закона», чему соответствовало в эллинизированных еврейских кругах η πεντατευχος (подраз. «βιβλος» ., т.е. Пятитомник). Это разделение на пять книг засвидетельствовано еще до нашей эры греческим переводом Библии семьюдесятью толковниками (LXX). В этом, принятом Церковью, переводе каждой из пяти книг было дано название, согласно ее содержанию или содержанию ее первых глав:

Кн. Бытия (собств. — книга о происхождении мира, рода человеческого и избранного народа); Исход (начинается с рассказа об уходе евреев из Египта); Левит (закон для священников из колена Левиина); Числа (книга начинается с описания переписи народа: гл. Num 1-4); Второзаконие («второй закон», воспроизводящий в более пространном изложении Закон, данный на Синае). Иудеи же до сих пор называют каждую книгу евр. Библии по ее первому значимому слову.

Кн. Бытия разделяется на две неравные части: описание происхождения мира и человека (Gen 1-11) и история праотцев народа Божия (Gen 12-50). Первая часть — как бы пропилеи, вводящие в историю, о которой повествует вся Библия. В ней описывается сотворение мира и человека, грехопадение и его последствия, постепенное развращение людей и постигшее их наказание. Происшедший затем от Ноя род расселяется по земле. Генеалогические же таблицы все суживаются и, наконец, ограничиваются родом Авраама, отца избранного народа. История праотцев (Gen 12-50) описывает события из жизни великих предков: Авраама, человека веры, послушание которого вознаграждается: Бог обещает ему многочисленных потомков и Святую Землю, которая станет их наследием (Быт 12 1—25:8); Иакова, отличающегося хитростью: выдав себя за старшего брата, Исава, он получает благословение своего отца Исаака и затем превосходит изворотливостью своего дядю Лавана; однако его ловкость оказалась бы напрасной, если бы Бог не предпочел его Исаву и не возобновил в его пользу обетования, данные Аврааму, и заключенный с ним союз (Gen 25:19-36:43). Бог избирает людей не только высокого нравственного уровня, ибо он может исцелить всякого человека, открывающегося Ему, как бы он ни был греховен. По сравнению с Авраамом и Иаковом Исаак выглядит довольно бледно. О его жизни говорится главным образом в связи с его отцом или сыном. Двенадцать сыновей Иакова — родоначальники двенадцати колен Израилевых. Одному из них посвящена последняя часть кн. Бытия: гл. Gen 37-50 — биография Иосифа. В них описывается, как добродетель мудрого вознаграждается и Божественное Провидение обращает зло в добро (Gen 50:20).

Две главные темы Исхода: освобождение из Египта (Exo 1:1-15:21) и Синайский Союз-Завет (Exo 19:1-40:38) связаны с менее значимой темой — странствия по пустыне (Exo 15:22-18:27). Моисей, получивший откровение неизреченного имени Ягве на горе Божией Хориве, приводит туда израильтян, освобожденных от рабства. В величественной теофании Бог вступает в союз с народом и дает ему Свои Заповеди. Как только союз был заключен, народ его нарушил, поклонившись золотому тельцу, но Бог прощает виновных и возобновляет союз. Ряд предписаний регулирует богослужение в пустыне.

Кн. Левит носит почти исключительно законодательный характер, так что повествование о событиях, можно сказать, прерывается. Она содержит ритуал жертвоприношений (Lev 1-7): церемониал поставления в священники Аарона и его сыновей (Lev 8-10); предписания о чистом и нечистом (Lev 11-15), завершающиеся описанием ритуала Дня Очищения (Lev 16); «Закон святости» (Lev 17-26), содержащий богослужебный календарь и заканчивающийся благословениями и проклятиями (Lev 26). В гл. Lev 27 уточняются условия выкупа людей, животных и имущества, посвященных Ягве.

В кн. Числа вновь говорится о странствии в пустыне. Уходу от Синая предшествуют перепись народа (Num 1-4) и богатые приношения по случаю освящения скинии (Num 7). Отпраздновав второй раз Пасху, евреи покидают святую гору (Num 9-10) и доходят до Кадеса, где предпринимают неудачную попытку проникнуть в Ханаан с юга (Num 11-14). После долгого пребывания в Кадесе они отправляются в Моавские равнины, прилегавшие к Иерихону (Num 20-25). Мадианитяне разбиты, и колена Гада и Рувима поселяются в Заиорданьи (Num 31-32). В гл. Num 33 перечисляются остановки в пустыне. Повествования чередуются с предписаниями, дополняющими синайское законодательство или подготовляющими поселение в Ханаане.

Второзаконие отличается особой структурой: это кодекс гражданских и религиозных узаконений (Deu 12:26-15:1), включенный в большую речь Моисея (Deu 5-11; Deu 26:16-28:68), которую предваряет его первая речь (Deu 1-4); за ней следует третья речь (Deu 29-30); наконец говорится о возложении миссии на Иисуса Новина, приводятся песнь и благословения Моисея, даются краткие сведения о конце его жизни (Deu 31-34).

Второзаконнический кодекс отчасти воспроизводит заповеди, данные в пустыне. Моисей напоминает в своих речах о великих событиях Исхода, об откровении на Синае и начале завоевания Земли Обетованной. В них раскрывается религиозный смысл событий, подчеркивается значение Закона, содержится призыв к верности Богу.

Литературная композиция

Составление этого обширного сборника приписывалось Моисею, что засвидетельствовано в НЗ (Joh 1:45; Joh 5:45-47; Rom 10:5). Но в более древних источниках нет утверждения, что все Пятикнижие написано Моисеем. Когда в нем, хотя очень редко, говорится: «Моисей написал» — эти слова относятся лишь к определенному месту. Исследователи Библии обнаружили в этих книгах различие в стиле, повторения и некоторую непоследовательность повествований, что не дает возможности считать их произведением, целиком принадлежащим одному автору. После долгих исканий библеисты, главным образом под влиянием К.Г. Графа и Ю. Велльгаузена, склонились в основном к т.н. документарной теории, которую схематически можно формулировать так: Пятикнижие представляет компиляцию из четырех документов, возникших в различное время и в различной среде. Первоначально было два повествования: в первом автор, т. н. Ягвист, условно обозначаемый буквой «J», употребляет в рассказе о сотворении мира имя Ягве, которое Бог открыл Моисею; другой автор, т. н. Элогист (Е), называет Бога распространенным в то время именем Элогим. Согласно этой теории повествование Ягвиста было записано в 11 веке в Иудее, Элогист же писал немного позже в Израиле. После разрушения Северного царства оба документа были сведены воедино (JE). После царствования Иосии (640-609) к ним было прибавлено Второзаконие «D», а после Плена ко всему этому (JED) был присоединен священнический кодекс (Р), содержащий главным образом законы и несколько повествований. Этот кодекс составил своего рода костяк и образовал рамки этой компиляции (JEDP). Такой литературно-критический подход связан с эволюционной концепцией развития религиозных представлений в Израиле.

Уже в 1906 г Папская Библейская Комиссия предостерегла экзегетов от переоценки этой т. н. документарной теории и предложила им считать подлинным авторство Моисея, если иметь в виду Пятикнижие в целом, и в то же время признавать возможность существования, с одной стороны устных преданий и письменных документов, возникших до Моисея, а с другой — изменений и добавлений в более позднюю эпоху. В письме от 16 января 1948 г, обращенном к кардиналу Сюару, архиепископу Парижскому, Комиссия признала существование источников и постепенных приращений к законам Моисея и историческим рассказам, обусловленных социальными и религиозными установлениями позднейших времен.

Время подтвердило правильность этих взглядов библейской Комиссии, ибо в наше время классическая документарная теория все больше ставится под сомнение. С одной стороны, попытки систематизировать ее не дали желаемых результатов. С другой стороны, опыт показал, что сосредоточение интереса на чисто литературной проблеме датировки окончательной редакции текста имеет гораздо меньшее значение, чем подход исторический, при котором на первое место выдвигается вопрос об источниках устных и письменных, лежащих в основе изучаемых «документов». Представление о них стало теперь менее книжным, более близким к конкретной действительности. Выяснилось, что они возникли в далеком прошлом. Новые данные археологии и изучение истории древних цивилизаций Средиземноморья показали, что многие законы и установления, о которых говорится в Пятикнижии, сходны с законами и установлениями эпох более давних, чем те, к которым относили составление Пятикнижия, и что многие его повествования отражают быт более древней среды.

Не будучи 8 состоянии проследить, как формировалось Пятикнижие и как в нем слилось несколько традиций, мы, однако, вправе утверждать, что несмотря на разнохарактерность текстов явистского и элогистского, в них по существу идет речь об одном и том же. Обе традиции имеют общее происхождение. Кроме того, эти традиции соответствуют условиям не той эпохи, когда они были окончательно письменно зафиксированы, а эпохи, когда произошли описываемые события. Их происхождение восходит, следовательно, к эпохе образования народа Израильского. То же в известной мере можно сказать о законодательных частях Пятикнижия: пред нами гражданское и религиозное право Израиля; оно эволюционировало вместе с общиной, жизнь которой регулировало, но по своему происхождению оно восходит ко времени возникновения этого народа. Итак, первооснова Пятикнижия, главные элементы традиций, слившихся с ним, и ядро его узаконений относятся к периоду становления Израильского народа. Над этим периодом доминирует образ Моисея, как организатора, религиозного вождя и первого законодателя. Традиции, завершающиеся им, и воспоминания о событиях, происходивших под его руководством, стали национальной эпопеей. Учение Моисея наложило неизгладимый отпечаток на веру и жизнь народа. Закон Моисеев стал нормой его поведения. Толкования Закона, вызванные ходом исторического развития, были проникнуты его духом и опирались на его авторитет. Засвидетельствованный в Библии факт письменной деятельности самого Моисея и его окружения не вызывает сомнений, но вопрос содержания имеет большее значение, чем вопрос письменного фиксирования текста, и поэтому так важно признать, что традиции, лежащие в основе Пятикнижия, восходят к Моисею как первоисточнику.

Повествования и история

От этих преданий, являвшихся живым наследием народа, вдохнувших в него сознание единства и поддерживавших его веру, невозможно требовать той строго научной точности, к которой стремится современный ученый; однако нельзя утверждать, что эти письменные памятники не содержат истины.

Одиннадцать первых глав Бытия требуют особого рассмотрения. В них описано в стиле народного сказания происхождение рода человеческого. Они излагают просто и картинно, в соответствии с умственным уровнем древнего малокультурного народа, главные истины, лежащие в основе домостроительства спасения: создание Богом мира на заре времен, последовавшее за ним сотворение человека, единство рода человеческого, грех прародителей и последовавшие изгнание и испытания. Эти истины, будучи предметом веры, подтверждены авторитетом Св. Писания; в то же время они являются фактами, и как истины достоверные подразумевают реальность этих фактов. В этом смысле первые главы Бытия носят исторический характер. История праотцев есть история семейная. В ней собраны воспоминания о предках: Аврааме, Исааке, Иакове, Иосифе. Она является также популярной историей. Рассказчики останавливаются на подробностях личной жизни, на живописных эпизодах, не заботясь о том, чтобы связать их с общей историей. Наконец, это история религиозная. Все ее переломные моменты отмечены личным участием Бога, и все в ней представлено в провиденциальном плане. Более того, факты приводятся, объясняются и группируются с целью доказать религиозный тезис: существует один Бог, образовавший один народ и давший ему одну страну. Этот Бог — Ягве, этот народ — Израиль, эта страна — святая Земля. Но в то же время эти рассказы историчны и в том смысле, что они по-своему повествуют о реальных фактах и дают правильную картину происхождения и переселения предков Израильских, их географических и этнических корней, их поведения в плане нравственном и религиозном. Скептическое отношение к этим рассказам оказалось несостоятельным перед лицом недавних открытий в области истории и археологии древнего Востока.

Опустив довольно длинный период истории, Исход и Числа, а в определенной мере и Второзаконие, излагают события от рождения до смерти Моисея: исход из Египта, остановка у Синая, путь к Кадесу (о долгом пребывании там хранится молчание), переход через Заиорданье и временное поселение на равнинах Моава. Если отрицать историческую реальность этих фактов и личности Моисея, невозможно объяснить дальнейшую историю Израиля, его верность ягвизму, его привязанность к Закону. Надо, однако, признать, что значение этих воспоминаний для жизни народа и отзвук, который они находят в обрядах, сообщили этим рассказам характер победных песен (напр, о переходе через Чермное море), а иногда и богослужебных песнопений. Именно в эту эпоху Израиль становится народом и выступает на арену мировой истории. И хотя ни в одном древнем документе не содержится еще упоминания о нем (за исключением неясного указания на стеле фараона Мернептаха), сказанное о нем в Библии согласуется в главных чертах с тем, что тексты и археология говорят о вторжении в Египет гиксосов, которые в большинстве своем были семитического происхождения, о египетской администрации в дельте Нила, о политическом положении Заиорданья.

Задача современного историка состоит в том, чтобы сопоставить эти данные Библии с соответствующими событиями всемирной истории. Несмотря на недостаточность библейских указаний и недостаточную определенность внебиблейской хронологии, есть основания предполагать, что Авраам жил в Ханаане приблизительно за 1850 лет до Р.Х., что история возвышения Иосифа в Египте и приезда к нему других сыновей Иакова относится к началу 17 в. до Р.Х. Дату Исхода можно определить довольно точно по решающему указанию, данному в древнем тексте Exo 1:11: народ сынов Израилевых «построил фараону Пифом и Рамзес, города для запасов». Следовательно, Исход произошел при Рамзесе II, основавшем, как известно, город Рамзес. Грандиозные строительные работы начались в первые же годы его царствования. Поэтому весьма вероятно, что уход евреев из Египта под водительством Моисея имел место около середины царствования Рамзеса (1290-1224), т.е. примерно около 1250 г до Р.Х.

Учитывая библейское предание о том, что время странствования евреев в пустыне соответствовало периоду жизни одного поколения, водворение в Заиорданьи можно отнести к 1225 г до Р.Х. Эти даты согласуются с историческими данными о пребывании фараонов XIX династии в дельте Нила, об ослаблении египетского контроля над Сирией и Палестиной в конце царствования Рамзеса II, о смутах, охвативших весь Ближний Восток в конце 13 в. до Р.Х. Согласуются они и с археологическими данными, свидетельствующими о начале Железного Века в период вторжения Израильтян в Ханаан.


В евр Библии Пятикнижие называется «Тора», т.е. Закон; и действительно здесь собраны предписания, регулировавшие нравственную, социальную и религиозную жизнь народа Божия. В этом законодательстве нас больше всего поражает его религиозный характер. Он свойственен и некоторым другим кодексам древнего Востока, но ни в одном из них нет такого взаимопроникновения религиозного и светского элементов. В Израиле Закон дан Самим Богом, он регулирует обязанности по отношению к Нему, его предписания мотивируются религиозными принципами. Это кажется вполне нормальным, когда речь идет о нравственных предписаниях Десятисловия (Синайских Заповедях) или о культовых законах кн. Левит, но гораздо более знаменательно, что в том же своде гражданские и уголовные законы переплетаются с религиозными наставлениями и что все представлено как Хартия Союза-Завета с Ягве. Из этого естественно следует, что изложение этих законов связано с повествованием о событиях в пустыне, где был заключен этот Союз.

Как известно, законы пишутся для практического применения и их необходимо с течением времени видоизменять, считаясь с особенностями окружающей среды и исторической ситуации. Этим объясняется, что в совокупности рассматриваемых документов можно встретить как древние элементы, так и постановления, свидетельствующие о возникновении новых проблем. С другой стороны, Израиль в известной мере испытывал влияние своих соседей. Некоторые предписания Книги Завета и Второзакония удивительно напоминают предписания Месопотамских кодексов, Свода Ассирийских Законов и Хеттского кодекса. Речь идет не о прямом заимствовании, а о сходстве, объясняющемся влиянием законодательства других стран и обычного права, отчасти ставшего в древности общим достоянием всего Ближнего Востока. Кроме того, в период после Исхода на формулировке законов и на формах культа сильно сказывалось ханаанское влияние.

Десятисловие (10 заповедей), начертанное на Синайских скрижалях, устанавливает основу нравственной и религиозной веры Союза-Завета. Оно приведено в двух (Exo 20:2-17 и Deu 5:6-21), несколько различающихся вариантах: эти два текста восходят к древнейшей, более краткой, форме и нет никаких серьезных данных, опровергающих ее происхождение от Моисея.

Элогистский кодекс Союза-Завета (Exo 20:22-23:19) представляет собой право пастушеско-земледельческого общества, соответствующее реальному положению Израиля, образовавшегося как народ и начавшего вести оседлый образ жизни. От более древних месопотамских кодексов, с которыми у него есть точки соприкосновения, он отличается большой простотой и архаическими чертами. Однако он сохранился в форме, свидетельствующей о некоторой эволюции: особое внимание, которое уделяется в нем рабочему скоту, работам в поле и на виноградниках, равно как и домам, позволяет думать, что он относится к периоду оседлой жизни. С другой стороны, различие в формулировке постановлений — то повелительных, то условных — указывает на разнородность состава свода. В своем настоящем виде он, вероятно, восходит к периоду Судей.

Ягвистский кодекс возобновления Завета (Exo 34:14-26) иногда называется, хотя и неправильно, вторым Десятисловием или обрядовым Декалогом. Он представляет собой собрание религиозных предписаний в повелительной форме и принадлежит к тому же времени, что и книга Завета, но под влиянием Второзакония он был переработан. Хотя кн. Левит получила свою законченную форму только после плена, она содержит и очень древние элементы. Так, например, запреты, касающиеся пищи (Lev 11), или предписания о чистоте (Lev 13-15) сохраняют завещанное первобытной эпохой. В ритуале великого Дня Очищения (Lev 16) тексты древних обрядовых предписаний дополняются более подробными указаниями, свидетельствующими о наличии разработанного представления о грехе. Гл. Lev 17-26 составляют целое, получившее название Закона Святости и относящееся, очевидно, к последнему периоду монархии. К той же эпохе надо отнести кодекс Второзакония, в котором собрано много древних элементов, но также отражается эволюция социальных и религиозных обычаев (напр, законы о единстве святилища, жертвеннике, десятине, рабах) и изменение духа времени (призывы к сердцу и свойственный многим предписаниям увещательный тон).

Религиозный смысл

Религия как Ветхого, так и Нового Завета есть религия историческая: она основывается на откровении Бога определенным людям, в определенных местах, при определенных обстоятельствах и на особом действии Бога в определенные моменты человеческой эволюции. Пятикнижие, излагающее историю первоначальных отношений Бога с миром, является фундаментом религии Израиля, ее канонической книгой по преимуществу, ее Законом.

Израильтянин находит в ней объяснение своей судьбы. Он не только получил в начале книги Бытия ответ на вопросы, которые ставит себе каждый человек — о мире и жизни, о страдании и смерти, — но получил ответ и на свой личный вопрос: почему Ягве, Единый Бог есть Бог Израилев? Почему Израиль — Его народ среди всех народов земли?

Это объясняется тем, что Израиль получил обетование. Пятикнижие — книга обетовании: Адаму и Еве после грехопадения возвещается спасение в будущем, т. н. Протоевангелие; Ною, после потопа, обещается новый порядок в мире. Еще более характерно обетование, данное Аврааму и возобновленное Исааку и Иакову; оно распространяется на весь народ, который произойдет от них. Это обетование прямо относится к обладанию землей, где жили праотцы, Землей Обетованной, но по сути дела в нем содержится большее: оно означает, что особые, исключительные отношения существуют между Израилем и Богом его отцов.

Ягве призвал Авраама, и в этом призыве прообразовано избрание Израиля. Сам Ягве сделал из него один народ. Свой народ по благоизволению Своему, по замыслу любви, предначертанному при сотворении мира и осуществляющемуся, несмотря на неверность людей. Это обетование и это избрание гарантированы Союзом. Пятикнижие есть также книга союзов. Первый, правда еще прямо не высказанный, был заключен с Адамом; союз с Ноем, с Авраамом и, в конечном итоге, со всем народом через посредство Моисея, получил уже ясное выражение. Это не союз между равными, ибо Бог в нем не нуждается, хотя почин принадлежит Ему. Однако Он вступает в союз и в известном смысле связывает Себя данными Им обетованиями. Но Он требует взамен, чтобы Его народ был Ему верен: отказ Израиля, его грех может нарушить связь, созданную любовью Бога. Условия этой верности определяются Самим Богом. Избранному Им народу Бог дает Свой Закон. Этот Закон устанавливает, каковы его обязанности, как он должен себя вести согласно воле Божией и, сохраняя Союз-Завет, подготовлять осуществление обетовании.

Темы обетования, избрания, союза и закона красной нитью проходят через всю ткань Пятикнижия, через весь ВЗ. Пятикнижие само по себе не составляет законченного целого: оно говорит об обетовании, но не об осуществлении его, ибо повествование прерывается перед вступлением Израиля в Землю Обетованную. Оно должно оставаться открытым будущему и как надежда и как сдерживающий принцип: надежда на обетование, которую завоевание Ханаана как будто исполнило (Jos 23), но грехи надолго скомпрометировали, и о которой вспоминают изгнанники в Вавилоне; сдерживающий принцип Закона всегда требовательного, пребывавшего в Израиле как свидетель против него (Deu 31:26). Так продолжалось до пришествия Христа, к Которому тяготела вся история спасения; в Нем она обрела весь свой смысл. Ап. Павел раскрывает ее значение, главным образом в послании к Галатам (Gal 3:15-29). Христос заключает новый Союз-Завет, прообразованный древними договорами, и вводит в него христиан, наследников Авраама по вере. Закон же был дан, чтобы хранить обетования, являясь детоводителем ко Христу, в Котором эти обетования исполняются.

Христианин уже не находится под руководством детоводителя, он освобожден от соблюдения обрядового Закона Моисея, но не освобожден от необходимости следовать его нравственному и религиозному учению. Ведь Христос пришел не нарушить Закон, а исполнить (Mat 5:17). Новый Завет не противополагается Ветхому, а продолжает его. В великих событиях эпохи патриархов и Моисея, в праздниках и обрядах пустыни (жертвоприношение Исаака, переход через Чермное море, празднование Пасхи и т.д.), Церковь не только признала прообразы НЗ (жертвоприношения Христа, крещения и христианский Пасхи), но требует от христианина того же глубокого к ним подхода, который наставления и рассказы Пятикнижия предписывали Израильтянам. Ему следует осознать, как развивается история Израиля (а в нем и через него всего человечества), когда человек предоставляет Богу руководить историческими событиями. Более того: в своем пути к Богу всякая душа проходит те же этапы отрешенности, испытания, очищения, через которые проходил избранный народ, и находит назидание в поучениях, данных ему.

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26:1-11 В праздник Пасхи совершалось приношение первого снопа ( Лев 23:10-14 ), в праздник седмиц (Пятидесятницы) — приношение первого хлеба из новой муки ( Лев 23:15-17 ). Комментируемые стихи отмечают новый вид приношений, время и количество которых закон не определяет, поставляя их в зависимость от удобства и благочестивого настроения жертвователя.

«Странствующим арамеянином» патр. Иаков назван потому, что долгое время прожил при стадах своего тестя Лавана в стране, называемой Арам. Греко-славянский текст дает другое чтение: LXX — Συρίαν ἀπέβαλεν ὁ πατήρ μου̃, славянскийСирию остави отец мой. Вероятно, LXX читали не — «arammi obed (avi)», как в масоретском тексте, а — «Atam (= Сирию) jobed (avi)».

26:12-15  См. прим. к Втор 12:6-14,17-19,26-27 .

26:14  Я не ел от нее в печали моей: печаль не соответствует смыслу радостного приношения Господу от начатков тех благ, которыми Он одарил человека.

Не отделял ее в нечистоте, т. е. находясь в состоянии очищения от скверны ( Лев 7:21-22; 21 ).

Не давал из нее для мертвого, по обычаю язычников приносить пищу на могилы мертвецов и справлять там тризны (св. Ефрем Сирин. Толк. на кн. Втор, гл. 24).

27:2  Поставь себе большие камни — на горе Гевал (ст. 4).

27:3  Все слова (т. е. все основные положения) закона сего. По иудейскому преданию, на камнях начертаны были ( Нав 8:30-32 ) гражданские и уголовные законы, а также нравственные положения, включенные в Пятикнижие, числом 613.

27:5  Жертвенник из камней, не поднимая на них железа, — согласно закону, изложенному в Исх 20:25 .

27:12-13 Горы Гаризим и Гевал образуют своими склонами ту долину, в которой лежит селение Наблус (древний Сихем). Гора Гевал расположена на Северной стороне долины, гора Гаризим — на южной.

27:15-26 В настоящей главе отмечены лишь проклятия, которые должны быть произнесены на горе Гевал. В следующей, 28-й, главе мы встречаем двенадцать благословений, как бы соответствующих двенадцати проклятиям 27-й главы. Заповедуемый обряд всенародного благословения и проклятия был совершен при преемнике Моисея, Иисусе Навине ( Нав 8:33-34 ).

27:15 Ср. Исх 20:4; Лев 26:1; Втор 4:15-19; 5:7-9 .

27:16 Ср. Исх 20:12; Лев 19:3; Втор 21:18 .

27:17 Ср. Втор 19:14 .

27:18 Ср. Лев 19:14 .

27:19 Ср. Исх 22:21-22; 23:6-9; Втор 24:17 .

27:20 Ср. Лев 20:11; Втор 22:30 .

27:21 Ср. Лев 18:23; 20:15 .

27:22 Ср. Лев 18:9; 20:17 .

27:23 Ср. Лев 18:17,18; 20:14 .

27:24 Ср. Исх 20:13; 21:14; Втор 19:11-13 .

27:25 Ср. Исх 23:1,7; Лев 19:16; Втор 19:18-19 .

27:26 Ср. Втор 28:15 .

28:9 Ср. Быт 22:16-18; Исх 19:5-6 .

28:10 Ср. Втор 4:5-8 .

28:21-22 Ср. Лев 26:14-18,39 .

28:23-24 Ср. Лев 26:19-20 .

28:25 Ср. Лев 26:17,33,36-38 .

28:27 О проказе см. Лев 13 . Почечуй — одна из накожных болезней.

28:36-37 Имеются в виду ассирийский и вавилонский плены.

28:48-50 Ср. Лев 26:25 . Имеются в виду сменявшиеся в Палестине иностранные владычества и гегемонии: Ассирии, Вавилона, Персии, Греции, Сирии, Египта, Рима.

28:53 Ср. Лев 26:29 .

28:54-57 Ужасные сцены голода, имевшие себе место при осаде Иерусалима римлянами и подробно описанные иудейским историком Иосифом Флавием, подтверждают грозное пророчество Моисея.

28:64 Ср. Лев 26:33 .

28:65-67 Ср. Лев 26:36-39 . Начиная с рассеяния евреев римлянами и по настоящее время, история еврейского народа является непрерывным подтверждением пророчества, изложенного во Втор 28:37,65-67 .

28:68 После разгрома Иудеи Навуходоносором, значительное количество евреев должно было бежать в Египет и там искать себе защиты от тех случайностей, каким могло подвергаться в разоренной и покинутой победителем стране ( 4 Цар 25:26 ). При окончательном разрушении Иерусалима римлянами, тысячи пленных иудеев отправлены были в Египет и иные страны — для продажи в рабство (Иосиф Флавий). В царствование императора Адриана в Римской империи сосредоточилось такое множество пленных иудеев, что они продавались по самой дешевой цене. Около 12 000 пленных погибло от голода (Bible Allioli, 1868 г., т. I, 727; Властов. Свящ. лет.).

29:1 Торжественное возобновление завета, заключенного Иеговой с предшествующим поколением при Синае.

29:5 Ср. Втор 8:4 .

29:6 Ср. Лев 10:8-10 . Хлеб и вино обыкновенного происхождения были заменены хлебом и водой, ниспосылаемыми чудесным образом.

29:7-8 Ср. Чис 21:21-35; 32; Втор 2:24-37; 3:1-20 .

29:18  Яд и полынь — образное выражение нравственного вреда и горечи идолослужения.

29:19  И пропадет таким образом сытый с голодным, по греко-славянскому тексту: «Да не погубит грешник безгрешного с собою», что более гармонирует с началом стиха.

29:20  И изгладит Господь имя его из поднебесной, как изглажено имя многих языческих народов древности и как уже прекращена историческая известность большей половины еврейского народа — израильтян, отведенных в плен Ассирией.

29:22-23 Теперешнее состояние Палестины отнюдь не напоминает собой земли, текущей медом и молоком.

29:27 Втор 27, 28.

29:28 Имеется в виду период преемственных иностранных владычеств в Палестине и неизбежно связанных с ними пленений, а также теперешний период всеобщего рассеяния евреев.

29:29 «Это сказано для того, чтобы евреи не трудились над изысканием и исследованием сокровенного, потому что оно непостижимо, но вникали бы, действительно ли они внимают и последуют тому, что им открыто и заповедано» (св. Ефрем Сирин. Толк. на кн. Втор, гл. 29).

30:1-10 Обращение евреев к Богу и возвращение их на родину ближайшим образом осуществилось при окончании вавилонского плена. Более полное и существенное обращение в грядущем таинственно предуказано ап. Павлом ( Рим 11 ).

30:11-14 Заповедь действительной любви к Богу, ближнему, самому себе начертана на скрижалях человеческого сердца самой природой ( Рим 2:14,15 ; ср. 10:6-8 ).

31:2 Выражение «я не могу уже выходить и входить» означает не упадок сил Моисея, так как последний сохранил бодрость до конца жизни ( Втор 34:7 ), а то, что он уже перестает быть вождем ( Чис 27:17 ) народа, так как Господь сказал ему: ты не перейдешь Иордана ( Чис 20:7-13 ).

31:3  Как говорил Господь. Ср. Чис 27:15-23; Втор 1:38; 3:28 .

31:4 См. Чис 21; Втор 2:31; 3:1-17 .

31:5 См. Чис 20:10-20 .

31:10  В год отпущения, т. е. в субботний год. См. прим. к Втор 15:1-11. О празднике кущей см. Исх 23:16; 23:33-36,39-43; Чис 29:12-38 .

31:23 Господь первый раз обращается непосредственно к И. Навину, так как время фактического вступления его в должность народного вождя уже приблизилось.

31:30 См. 30 гл. кн. Втор .

32:2 Сравнения, указывающие на благотворность внимательного отношения к последующим словам пророка.

32:8-9 Расселяя на земле после потопа и столпотворения человеческий род, Господь уже предвидел те географические грани, в которые будет заключен Его будущий избранный народ; расположение и пределы других народов как бы стояли в теснейшей связи с численностью, пределами и назначением Его «удела» ( Исх 19:15 ).

32:8  По числу сынов Израилевых — в греческом переводе: по числу Ангелов Божьих.

32:10 Фактическое усвоение еврейского народа Иеговой произошло в пустынях, лежавших на пути странствования из Египта в Ханаан.

32:13  Вознес его на высоту земли, т. е. возводил на высокие горы.

Питал его медом из камня, т. е. медом, который в безлесных местностях собирается и копится пчелами в расщелинах скал.

Елеем из твердой скалы, т. е. елеем маслин, растущих на твердой почве.

32:14 Скот, пасшийся на тучных пастбищах Васана, отличался особенной упитанностью ( Пс 21:13; Иез 39:18 ).

32:17  Приносили жертвы бесам. См. 1 Кор 10:19-21 .

32:21 В ближайшем смысле разумеются народы, порабощавшие Израиль; в более отдаленном — призвание темных, лишенных истинного боговедения, язычников в лоно Христовой Церкви, — вместо стоявших у ее порога израильтян. «Уверовавшие в Христа Спасителя, — замечает блаж. Феодорит, — не один народ, но бесчисленное множество народов. И они были некогда «неразумливы» и несмысленны, как говорит блаженный Павел: « Бехом бо иногда и мы несмысленни, и непокориви и прельщени, работающе похотем и отрастем различным » ( Тит 3:3 ). Потому Бог и говорит: «Как вы, оставив единого Бога, предпочли многих лжеименных богов; так и Я, отвергнув один народ дарую спасение всем народам. Но вы, воздав почитание тем, которые не суть боги, не сделали их богами; а Я и неразумливые народы исполню божественной мудрости; и вы, видя это, будете истаевать от зависти» (Толк. на кн. Втор, вопр. 41).

32:30-31  Сами враги наши судьи в том, что Иегова — крепость Израиля. См. Исх 12:25; Чис 22-24; Нав 2:7-11 .

32:32-33 Относятся к израильтянам, характеризуя их нравственную испорченность.

32:36  Господь будет судить народ Свой и над рабами Своими умилосердится (только тогда), когда Он увидит, что рука их ослабела (ослабела гордость и интенсивность порока, а вместе с тем истощились и их нецелесообразно расходуемые физические силы), и не стало ни заключенных, ни оставшихся вне. Образное выражение для обозначения грандиозности истребления.

32:43 Заключительный аккорд песни Моисея: грозен суд правды Божией, но он гибелен лишь для упорных отступников от Иеговы; верные же сыны Его будут спасены. Вместе с верными сынами Израиля должны торжествовать и язычники, так как «кровь рабов очищена», «мщение врагам воздано», «народ и земля очищены». Согласно толкованиям ап. Павла ( Рим 15:8-12 ) и христианских писателей, Моисей предызобразил в данном месте духовную радость членов Церкви Христовой, в которую должны войти как язычники, так и иудеи ( Рим 11 ).

32:47 Ср. Втор 30:15-20 .

32:48-52 Ср. Чис 20:7-13; 27:12-15; Втор 1:37; 3:23-28; 4:21-22 . Нево (Навав) — одна из возвышенностей горного хребта Аварим.

33:2 Имеются в виду моменты чудесного проявления всемогущества, премудрости и благости божественной во время путешествия евреев из Египта в Ханаан.

33:3 Ср. Исх 19:5-8 .

33:5  И он (Моисей) был (как бы) царь Израиля, когда (вокруг него) собирались главы народа вместе с коленами Израилевыми.

33:6 В еврейском тексте имя Симеона опущено. «Симеон не благословлен, — замечает св. Ефрем Сирин, — потому что был проклят отцом своим Иаковом за избиение сихемлян и, вместо того, чтобы покаяться в первом своем преступлении, приложил к сему новое преступление в лице Замврия, сына Салмона, подвергнув истреблению двадцать четыре тысячи ( Чис 25:9 ), которые, — за грехи его, — поражены были язвою. Левий же, хотя и был проклят вместе с Симеоном, но приял благословение от Моисея, во-первых, за ревность левитов, которые поразили поклонившихся тельцу; во-вторых, за ревность левита Финееса, с какою он устремился на Замврия, сына Салмона, и убил его» (Толк. на кн. Втор, гл. 33); наконец, в силу богоизбранности колена Левия для служения при скинии Иеговы. В греческом тексте перевода LXX имя Симеона не опущено.

33:7  Приведи его к народу его, как вождя и защитника, огражденного помощью свыше.

33:8  На святом муже Твоем (Аароне), которого Ты искусил (вместе с Моисеем) в Массе ( Исх 17:1-7 ), с которым Ты препирался при водах Меривы ( Чис 20:1-13,22-24 ).

33:9-10 Имеется ввиду самоотверженное служение левитов при скинии Иеговы и в народе.

33:12 В выражении «и Он покоится между раменами его» некоторые комментаторы видят предуказание на храм Иерусалимский, построенный в уделе Вениамина, на горе Мориа, между вершинами Сиона и Масличной горы.

33:19 Под сокровищами, сокрытыми в песке, разумеют: 1) богатство, добываемое путем земледелия; 2) богатство, добываемое путем изготовления стекла, известного с глубочайшей древности в Египте, Финикии и др. странах; 3) богатство, добываемое путем торговли пурпуровыми раковинами, встречавшимися на финикийском побережье.

33:21 Гад избрал себе начаток земли, т. е. (вместе с Рувимом и полуколеном Манассии) получил прежде других колен причитавшийся ему надел земли (в пределах первых завоеваний Израиля). Там (в Восточном Заиорданье) почтен уделом от законодателя.

И пришел с главами народа, и исполнил правду Господа и суды с Израилем, т. е. исполнил все то, что было предъявлено ему как непременное условие при даровании земельного надела ( Чис 32; Втор 3:12-20; Нав 4:12; 22:1-9 ).

33:22 Сравнение, выражающее силу и отвагу данитян.

33:23  Море и юг во владении его. Под именем моря нужно разуметь море Киннерет, т. е. Гениссаретское озеро. В слове «юг» многие из комментаторов видят указание на роскошный южный климат и богатую растительность окрестностей Гениссаретского озера.

33:24-25  Окунет в елей ногу свою; железо и медь — запоры твои. Образное указание на материальное благоденствие Асира: «богатство его будет умножаться с каждым днем».

33:28 Ср. Чис 23:9 . Израиль живет безопасно, один, находясь «под мышцами» божественного Промысла ( ст. 27,29 ).

34:1  Гора Нево (Навав) — одна из возвышенностей горного хребта Аварим.

Галаад — страна в Восточном Заиорданье.

Город Дан, расположенный к юго-западу от Дамаска, составлял северный пункт Палестины, как Вирсавия — южный. Отсюда выражения: «от Дана до Вирсавии», «от Вирсавии до Дана» ( 1 Цар 3:20; 2 Цар 3:10; 6:19; 17:11; 24:2; 3 Цар 4:25; 1 Пар 21:2; 2 Пар 30:5 ), для обозначения всего протяжения Палестины.

34:2  Удел Неффалима был расположен на севере, удел Иуды — на юге Западного Заиорданья.

Удел Ефрема и Манассии — в центральной Палестине.

Западное море — то же, что Средиземное.

34:3 Местоположение Сигора приурочивают к южным пределам Мертвого моря.

34:6  И погребен, т. е. нашел для себя место упокоения. И никто не знает места погребения его даже до сего дня, — в чем может быть усматриваема провиденциальная цель: место погребения великого Моисея могло стать в глаза евреев особенно священным, сделавшись впоследствии предметом суеверной или даже идолопоклоннического почитания.

34:10-12 Ср. Чис 12:1-9 .

Название книги. Ее содержание. В еврейском тексте пятая книга Моисея называется: 1) «Елле-гаддебарим» («Сии слова»), или сокращенно: «Дебарим», — соответственно начальным словам книги; совместно с этим, на языке раввинов: 2) «Мишне-гаттфа» («Повторение закона»), — по характеру своего содержания; 3) «Сефер токахот» («Книга обличений»), по той же причине.

На характер содержания книги указывают ее названия и в переводах: греческом, латинском, славянском, русском. В греческой Библии пятая книга Моисея носит название: «Δευτερονόμιον» («Второзаконие»), в латинской: «Deuteronomium («Второзаконие»), в славянской и русской «Второзаконие».

Господствующим содержанием книги Второзакония является воспроизведение исторического и законодательного элемента книг: Исход, Левит, Числ (с включением, по местам, некоторых новых законодательных положений). Цель воспроизведения — возобновление в памяти молодого еврейского поколения поучительных моментов божественного промышления об избранном народе и данных ему законов. Ту же поучительную цель имеют и обличительно-увещательные речи пророка, помещенные в заключение Второзакония. В общем, Второзаконие представляет подробное предсмертное завещание мудрого и опытного вождя, наделенного вдохновением свыше, молодому, неустойчивому, еврейскому народу.

Время и место произнесения речей Второзакония отмечены в первых стихах первой главы книги.


Пять первых книг Ветхого Завета, имеющих одного и того же автора — Моисея, представляли, по-видимому, сначала и одну книгу, как об этом можно судить из свидетельства кн. Второзакония, где говорится: «возьмите сию книгу закона и положите ее одесную ковчега завета» (Deu 31:26). Тем же самым именем «книги закона», или просто «закона», обозначались пять первых законоположительных книги в других местах Ветхого и Нового Завета (Ki1 2:3; Ki2 23:25; Psa 18:8; Isa 5:24; Mat 7:12; Mat 11:13; Luk 2:22 и др.).

Но у раввинов уже со времен глубокой древности существовало и другое, несколько своеобразное обозначение этой «торы» (закона), как «пять пятых закона», чем одновременно доказывается как единство Пятикнижия, так и состав его из пяти различных частей. Это пятичастное деление, по-видимому, окончательно определилось к эпохе перевода LXX переводчиков, где оно получает уже полное признание.

Наше современное слово «Пятикнижие» представляет буквальный перевод греческого — πεντάτευκος от πέντε — «пять» и τευ̃κος — «том книги». Это деление вполне точно, так как, действительно, каждый из пяти томов Пятикнижия имеет свои отличия и соответствует различным периодам теократического законодательства. Так, напр., первый том представляет собой как бы историческое к нему введение, а последний служит очевидным повторением закона; три же посредствующих тома содержат в себе постепенное развитие теократии, приуроченное к тем или иным историческим фактам, причем средняя из этих трех книг (Левит), резко различаясь от предыдущей и последующей (почти полным отсутствием исторической части), является прекрасной разделяющей их гранью.

Все пять частей Пятикнижия в настоящее время получили значение особых книг и имеют свои наименования, которые в еврейской Библии зависят от их начальных слов, а в греческой, латинской и славяно-русской — от главного предмета их содержания.

Евр. Греч. Слав.-рус.
Берешит («в начале») Γένεσις Бытие
Ве эллэ шемот («и сии суть имена») 'Έξοδος Исход
Вайкра («и воззвал») Λευϊτικòν Левит
Вай-едаббер («и сказал») 'Αριθμοὶ Числа
Эллэ хаддебарим («сии словеса») Δευτερονόμιον Второзаконие

Книга Бытия содержит в себе повествование о происхождении мира и человека, универсальное введение к истории человечества, избрание и воспитание еврейского народа в лице его патриархов — Авраама, Исаака и Иакова. Кн. Исход пространно повествует о выходе евреев из Египта и даровании Синайского законодательства. Кн. Левит специально посвящена изложению этого закона во всех его частностях, имеющих ближайшее отношение к богослужению и левитам. Кн. Числ дает историю странствований по пустыне и бывших в это время счислений евреев. Наконец, кн. Второзакония содержит в себе повторение закона Моисеева.

По капитальной важности Пятикнижия св. Григорий Нисский назвал его истинным «океаном богословия». И действительно, оно представляет собою основной фундамент всего Ветхого Завета, на который опираются все остальные его книги. Служа основанием ветхозаветной истории, Пятикнижие является базисом и новозаветной, так как оно раскрывает нам план божественного домостроительства нашего спасения. Поэтому-то и сам Христос сказал, что Он пришел исполнить, а не разорить закон и пророков (Mat 5:17). В Ветхом же Завете Пятикнижие занимает совершенно то же положение, как Евангелие в Новом.

Подлинность и неповрежденность Пятикнижия свидетельствуется целым рядом внешних и внутренних доказательств, о которых мы лишь кратко здесь упомянем.

Моисей, прежде всего, мог написать Пятикнижие, так как он, даже по признанию самых крайних скептиков, обладал обширным умом и высокой образованностью; следовательно, и независимо от вдохновения Моисей вполне правоспособен был для того, чтобы сохранить и передать то самое законодательство, посредником которого он был.

Другим веским аргументом подлинности Пятикнижия является всеобщая традиция, которая непрерывно, в течение целого ряда веков, начиная с книги Иисуса Навина (Jos 1:7.8; Jos 8:31; Jos 23:6 и др.), проходя через все остальные книги и кончая свидетельством самого Господа Иисуса Христа (Mar 10:5; Mat 19:7; Luk 24:27; Joh 5:45-46), единогласно утверждает, что писателем Пятикнижия был пророк Моисей. Сюда же должно быть присоединено свидетельство самаритянского Пятикнижия и древних египетских памятников.

Наконец, ясные следы своей подлинности Пятикнижие сохраняет внутри самого себя. И в отношении идей, и в отношении стиля на всех страницах Пятикнижия лежит печать Моисея: единство плана, гармония частей, величавая простота стиля, наличие архаизмов, прекрасное знание Древнего Египта — все это настолько сильно говорит за принадлежность Пятикнижия Моисею, что не оставляет места добросовестному сомнению.1Подробнее об этом см. Вигуру. Руководство к чтению и изучению Библии. Перев. свящ. Вл. Вас. Воронцова. Т. I, с. 277 и сл. Москва, 1897.

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26:7 См. примеч. к Исх 3:9.

26:12 В дополнение к тем десятинам, которые израильтяне регулярно отдавали левитам, десятины, выделяемые каждый третий год, были предназначены для нуждающихся в каждом городе и селении Израиля. Вероятно, эти десятины помещались в особые хранилища у ворот города.

26:13 Букв.: согласно всей Твоей заповеди; см. примеч. к 6:1.

27:3 Или: Наставления; см. примеч. к 1:5, то же и в ст. 8 и 26.

27:16 Или: относится с пренебрежением.

28:14 Букв.: не ходи вслед иных богов; см. примеч. к 6:14.

28:20 Масоретский текст: Меня.

28:22 а) Так в Вульгате, масоретский текст: мечом.

28:22 б) Значение этих слов не вполне ясно.

28:25 Друг. чтение: презирать будут тебя.

28:58 Или: Наставления; см. примеч. к 1:5.

29:1 а) Или: слова.

29:1 б) Здесь говорится не о другом Союзе / Завете в дополнение к тому, что был заключен у Хорива (Синая), а скорее, о подтверждении прежде заключенного и об обновлении условий Союза в связи с изменением обстоятельств - вступлением израильтян в Ханаан.

29:5 Внутри речи Моисея в ст. 4 и 5 приведены слова Самого Господа.

29:9 Букв.: исполняйте все слова.

29:19 Это один из возможных переводов заключительной части этого стиха.

29:20 а) Букв.: Его ревность.

29:20 б) Букв.: на него (т.е. на того человека); то же и в ст. 28, где стоит местоимение они.

29:21 Или: в этом свитке Наставления; см. примеч. к 1:5; то же и в ст. 29.

30:4 Букв.: до края небес.

30:6 См. примеч. к 10:16.

30:10 Или: в свитке Наставления; см. примеч. к 1:5.

30:11 Букв.: заповедь; то же и в ст. 12; см. примеч. к 6:1.

30:16 LXX: если будешь послушен заповедям Господа, которые даю тебе ныне.

31:1 Так в друг. древн. пер.; масоретский текст: Моисей пошел и говорил эти слова.

31:2 Букв.: выходить и входить.

31:9 Или: это Наставление; см. примеч. к 1:5; то же в ст. 11-13 и 24.

32:3 Или (ближе к букв.): имя Господа прославляю - концепция личных имен в ВЗ, как правило, включает в себя такие смыслы, как существование, характер и присущие той или иной личности черты (1 Цар 25:25).

32:8 Так в Кумранских рукописях и в большинстве рукописей LXX; масоретский текст: сынов Израилевых.

32:15 Возможно, праведный, т.е. Израиль в идеале, поэтическое обращение к Божьему народу; то же в 33:5, 26.

32:21 Ближе к букв.: вызвали во Мне ревность - «ревность» Бога - это не мелочные придирки, побуждаемые неуверенностью и подозрительностью, а праведное негодование, вызываемое неверностью Его народа. В ВЗ о Боге нередко говорится как о Муже Израиля. Он - Бог, не терпящий измены (Исх 20:5), и слово «ревность» применительно к Богу может лишь образно показать, а не представить в действительности реакцию Бога.

32:22 Шеол - место пребывания мертвых. Сопоставление всех случаев использования этого слова в книгах ВЗ показывает, что в Шеол попадают и праведники, и грешники; там нет ни деятельности, ни разумения, ни мудрости, ни знания (ср. Эккл 9:10).

32:36 Поэтическая гипербола, говорящая о таком истреблении народа, которое коснулось всего общества.

32:44 Так в LXX; масоретский текст: Осия.

32:46 Или: Наставления; см. примеч. к 1:5.

33:2 а) Букв.: их; LXX: нас. В своем стремлении создать у слушателей более полное представление о славе Завета-Союза, заключенного Богом с Израилем, Моисей описывает величие и славу, с которой Господь явился израильтянам у Синая, чтобы дать им Закон и стать их царем. Три географических наименования в предложении «Господь пришел / явил Себя с Синая... с Сеира... с гор Парана» не говорят о трех отдельных теофаниях (богоявлениях), а об одном явлении Бога у Синая. Подобно тому, как солнце при своем восходе озаряет своими лучами всё до далекого горизонта, так и слава Господа при Его явлении на Синае не была ограничена каким-то одним местом, ее лучи, отражаясь от соседних гор, озаряли народ израильский со всех сторон.

33:2 б) Возможно, в смысле «Закон, данный из среды огня». В этом переводе евр. эш дат взяты как два отдельных слова масоретского текста. Однако второе слово дат («Закон») встречается только в книгах Библии, написанных в более поздние времена. Поэтому некоторые переводы, принимая исправление, сделанное масоретами, так передают этот трудный для понимания и перевода стих: «Справа от Него вспышки молнии, их освещающие».

33:3 а) LXX: Он любит.

33:3 б) Так в LXX; масоретский текст: народы / племена (Израиля).

33:4 Букв.: собрания.

33:5 а) Букв.: Он.

33:5 б) См. примеч. к 32:15; то же в ст. 26.

33:8 а) Урим и туммим священные камни, предназначенные для определения воли Божьей. Вероятное значение этих слов: свет огня / освещение и полнота / совершенство; в LXX: проявление и истина.

33:8 б) Масса - испытание, искушение; Мерива - раздор, тяжба, спор.

33:19 а) По всей видимости, в пророчестве-благословении имеется в виду гора Божья в Иерусалиме.

33:19 б) Букв.: жертвы праведности; возможно, в знач. глубокого сожаления о грехах (ср. Пс 50:17).

33:19 в) Букв.: пески - скорее всего, речь идет об изготовлении стекла.

33:20 Возможно, это образ враждебного войска (рука) и его предводителей (голова).

34:2 Т.е. Средиземного моря.

34:6 Так в некоторых древн. пер., масоретский текст: Он (Бог) похоронил его.

…И там, если станете искать Господа, Бога вашего, - только тогда сможете найти Его, если возжелаете того всем сердцем своим и всей душою своей (4:29).

Второзаконие - это дошедший до нас через тысячелетия древний текст, по сути запись того, что престарелый Моисей лично (и фактически от первого лица) в последний раз сказал собравшимся перед ним израильтянам. Об этом мы узнаем из первой же фразы в этой книге: «Вот слова, с которыми обратился Моисей ко всему народу Израиля в пустыне, за Иорданом», то есть непосредственно перед торжественным входом израильтян в ханаанскую землю. Обстоятельства, в которых прозвучали эти слова, определенно отражаются на всем содержании книги. Говорящий на виду у всех - он уже не где-то на заднем плане, как в большинстве других частей Пятикнижия. Он обращается прямо к живой аудитории, включающей в себя не только тех древних слушателей, о которых идет речь в тексте, но и нас - слушателей современных.

Моисей использует последнюю возможность, чтобы приготовить как собравшихся перед ним людей, так и стоящих за ними, к новой жизни в стране, которую они получают во владение. А так как ему самому не суждено войти вместе с народом в ту страну, он хочет убедиться в том, что народ этот не забыл о своем Завете, Союзе с Богом. Ради этого Моисей произносит перед собравшимися и тщательно объясняет Божественные законы и наставления; и ради того же, по завершении его речей, они были записаны и составили эту книгу.

Русское название книги «Второзаконие» пришло к нам из Септуагинты, древнего греческого перевода Ветхого Завета, где еврейское выражение мишне ха-тора (17:18), означающее, собственно, «копия этого закона / наставления», было переведено как «второй закон» и этими словами была названа книга, но это название оказалось ошибочным: Второзаконие не содержит в себе второго закона. В книге дается толкование Закона Божьего, объявленного на Синае, и делается это уже для второго поколения израильтян, вышедших из Египта.

Во все века христиане и иудеи считали, что Второзаконие написал Моисей. (Речь идет о главах, содержащих законы, установления и их толкование.) И в наши дни это убеждение опирается на проходящее через книгу красной нитью богословское понятие о Союзе-Завете, на заявления самой книги о Моисее как авторе, а также на свидетельства писателей Нового Завета. Согласно иудейской традиции, запись о смерти Моисея была сделана Иисусом Навином.

Во Второзаконии голос Моисея, провозгласившего наказы, заповеди, законы и установления, в известной степени неотделим от голоса Самого Бога. Вот почему оправдано продиктованное Моисеем требование: ничто в будущем не должно быть добавлено к сказанному и ничто не может быть изъято из него (4:2). Следовательно, мы имеем дело с безусловно авторитетным текстом, с серией речей, которые, согласно пониманию того, кто их произнес, уже имели статус «Торы», то есть Наставления, полученного от Бога. Так Второзаконие впервые вводит в Священном Писании концепцию канона - связанной, непреложной части богодухновенных книг.

По мнению многих внимательных и вдумчивых читателей, в этой книге Моисея слились воедино и слова пророка из пророков, и речи великого законодателя, и его своеобразный «дневник», и наконец его трогательная лебединая песнь.


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