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Genesis, Chapter 12

1 Now the LORD said to Abram,
a Lit Go for yourselfGo forth from your country,
And from your relatives
And from your father’s house,
To the land which I will show you;
 2 And I will make you a great nation,
And I will bless you,
And make your name great;
And sob Lit be a blessingyou shall be a blessing;
 3 And I will bless those who bless you,
And the one whoc Or revilescurses you I willd Or bind under a cursecurse.
And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.”
4 So Abram went forth as the LORD had spoken to him; and Lot went with him. Now Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran. 5 Abram took Sarai his wife and Lot his nephew, and all their possessions which they had accumulated, and thee Lit soulspersons which they had acquired in Haran, and theyf Lit went forth to go toset out for the land of Canaan; thus they came to the land of Canaan. 6 Abram passed through the land as far as the site of Shechem, to theg Or terebinthoak of Moreh. Now the Canaanite was then in the land. 7 The LORD appeared to Abram and said, “To yourh Lit seeddescendants I will give this land.” So he built an altar there to the LORD who had appeared to him. 8 Then he proceeded from there to the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east; and there he built an altar to the LORD and called upon the name of the LORD. 9 Abram journeyed on, continuing toward thei I.e. South countryNegev.
10 Now there was a famine in the land; so Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there, for the famine was severe in the land. 11 It came about when hej Lit drew near to entercame near to Egypt, that he said to Sarai his wife, “See now, I know that you are ak Lit woman of beautiful appearancebeautiful woman; 12 and when the Egyptians see you, they will say, ‘This is his wife’; and they will kill me, but they will let you live. 13 Please say that you are my sister so that it may go well with me because of you, and thatl Lit my soulI may live on account of you.” 14 It came about when Abram came into Egypt, the Egyptiansm Lit saw the woman that she wassaw that the woman was very beautiful. 15 Pharaoh’s officials saw her and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house. 16 Therefore he treated Abram well for her sake; andn Lit he hadgave him sheep and oxen and donkeys and male and female servants and female donkeys and camels.
17 But the LORD struck Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram’s wife. 18 Then Pharaoh called Abram and said, “What is this you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife? 19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’ so that I took her for my wife? Now then,o Or beholdhere is your wife, take her and go.” 20 Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him; and theyp Lit sentescorted him away, with his wife and all that belonged to him.

Genesis, Chapter 13

1 So Abram went up from Egypt to thea I.e. South countryNegev, he and his wife and all that belonged to him, and Lot with him.
2 Now Abram was very rich in livestock, in silver and in gold. 3 He wentb Lit by his stageson his journeys from thec I.e. South countryNegev as far as Bethel, to the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Bethel and Ai, 4 to the place of the altar which he had made there formerly; and there Abram called on the name of the LORD. 5 Now Lot, who went with Abram, also had flocks and herds and tents. 6 And the land could notd Lit bearsustain theme Lit to dwellwhile dwelling together, for their possessions were so great that they were not able to remain together. 7 And there was strife between the herdsmen of Abram’s livestock and the herdsmen of Lot’s livestock. Now the Canaanite and the Perizzite were dwelling then in the land.
8 So Abram said to Lot, “Please let there be no strife between you and me, nor between my herdsmen and your herdsmen, for we are brothers. 9 Is not the whole land before you? Please separate from me; if to the left, then I will go to the right; or if to the right, then I will go to the left.” 10 Lot lifted up his eyes and saw all thef Lit circlevalley of the Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere—this was before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah—like the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt as you go to Zoar. 11 So Lot chose for himself all theg Lit circlevalley of the Jordan, and Lot journeyed eastward. Thus they separated from each other. 12 Abramh Lit dweltsettled in the land of Canaan, while Loti Lit dweltsettled in the cities of thej Lit circlevalley, and moved his tents as far as Sodom. 13 Now the men of Sodom were wickedk Lit wicked and sinners exceedinglyexceedingly and sinners against the LORD.
14 The LORD said to Abram, after Lot had separated from him, “Now lift up your eyes and look from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward; 15 for all the land which you see, I will give it to you and to yourl Lit seeddescendants forever. 16 I will make yourm Lit seeddescendants as the dust of the earth, so that if anyone can number the dust of the earth, then yourn Lit seeddescendants can also be numbered. 17 Arise, walk about the land through its length and breadth; for I will give it to you.” 18 Then Abram moved his tent and came and dwelt by theo Or terebinthsoaks of Mamre, which are in Hebron, and there he built an altar to the LORD.

Genesis, Chapter 14

1 And it came about in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king ofa Or nationsGoiim, 2 that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar). 3 All theseb Lit joined togethercame as allies to the valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea). 4 Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer, but the thirteenth year they rebelled. 5 In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, came andc Lit smotedefeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim and the Zuzim in Ham and the Emim ind Or the plain of KiriathaimShaveh-kiriathaim, 6 and the Horites in their Mount Seir, as far as El-paran, which is by the wilderness. 7 Then they turned back and came to En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh), ande Lit smoteconquered all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, who lived in Hazazon-tamar. 8 And the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) came out; and they arrayed for battle against them in the valley of Siddim, 9 against Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king off Or nationsGoiim and Amraphel king of Shinar and Arioch king of Ellasar—four kings against five. 10 Now the valley of Siddim was full of tar pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fellg Lit thereinto them. But those who survived fled to the hill country. 11 Then they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food supply, and departed. 12 They also took Lot, Abram’s nephew, and his possessions and departed, for he was living in Sodom.
13 Thenh Lit thea fugitive came and told Abram the Hebrew. Now he wasi Lit abidingliving by thej Or terebinthsoaks of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol and brother of Aner, and these werek Lit possessors of the covenantallies with Abram. 14 When Abram heard that hisl Lit brotherrelative had been taken captive, hem Or musteredled out his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and went in pursuit as far as Dan. 15 He dividedn Lit himselfhis forces against them by night, he and his servants, ando Lit smotedefeated them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which isp Lit on the leftnorth of Damascus. 16 He brought back all the goods, and also brought back hisq Lit brotherrelative Lot with his possessions, and also the women, and the people.
17 Then after his return from ther Lit smitingdefeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley). 18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest ofs Heb El ElyonGod Most High. 19 He blessed him and said,
“Blessed be Abram oft Heb El ElyonGod Most High,
u Or CreatorPossessor of heaven and earth;
 20 And blessed bev Heb El ElyonGod Most High,
Who has delivered your enemies into your hand.”
He gave him a tenth of all.
 21 The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give thew Lit soulpeople to me and take the goods for yourself.” 22 Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I havex Lit lifted up my handsworn to the LORDy Heb El ElyonGod Most High,z Or Creatorpossessor of heaven and earth, 23 that I will not take a thread or a sandal thong or anything that is yours, for fear you would say, ‘I have made Abram rich.’ 24 aa Lit Not to me exceptI will take nothing except what the young men have eaten, and the share of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their share.”

Genesis, Chapter 15

1 After these things the word of the LORD came to Abram in a vision, saying,
“Do not fear, Abram,
I am a shield to you;
a Or Your very great rewardYour reward shall be very great.”
2 Abram said, “O Lordb Heb YHWH, usually rendered LordGOD, what will You give me, since Ic Lit goam childless, and thed Lit son of acquisitionheir of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?” 3 And Abram said, “e Lit BeholdSince You have given nof Lit seedoffspring to me,g Lit and behold, a son ofone born in my house is my heir.” 4 Then behold, the word of the LORD came to him, saying, “This man will not be your heir; but one who will come forth from your ownh Lit inward partsbody, he shall be your heir.” 5 And He took him outside and said, “Now look toward the heavens, and count the stars, if you are able to count them.” And He said to him, “So shall youri Lit seeddescendants be.” 6 Then he believed in the LORD; and He reckoned it to him as righteousness. 7 And He said to him, “I am the LORD who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to give you this land toj Or inheritpossess it.” 8 He said, “O Lordk Heb YHWH, usually rendered LordGOD, how may I know that I willl Or inheritpossess it?” 9 So He said to him, “m Lit TakeBring Me a three year old heifer, and a three year old female goat, and a three year old ram, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon.” 10 Then hen Lit tookbrought all these to Him and cut themo Lit in the midstin two, and laid each half opposite the other; but he did not cut the birds. 11 The birds of prey came down upon the carcasses, and Abram drove them away.
12 Now when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and behold,p Or a terror of great darknessterror and great darkness fell upon him. 13 God said to Abram, “Know for certain that yourq Lit seeddescendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs,r Lit and shall serve them; and they shall afflict themwhere they will be enslaved and oppressed four hundred years. 14 But I will also judge the nation whom they will serve, and afterward they will come out withs Lit greatmany possessions. 15 As for you, you shall go to your fathers in peace; you will be buried at a good old age. 16 Then in the fourth generation they will return here, for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet complete.”
17 It came about when the sun had set, that it was very dark, and behold, there appeared a smoking oven and a flaming torch which passed between these pieces. 18 On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying,
“To yourt Lit seeddescendants I have given this land,
From the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates:
19 the Kenite and the Kenizzite and the Kadmonite 20 and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Rephaim 21 and the Amorite and the Canaanite and the Girgashite and the Jebusite.”

Genesis, Chapter 16

1 Now Sarai, Abram’s wife had borne him no children, and she had an Egyptian maid whose name was Hagar. 2 So Sarai said to Abram, “Now behold, the LORD has prevented me from bearing children. Please go in to my maid; perhaps I willa Lit be built from herobtain children through her.” And Abram listened to the voice of Sarai. 3 After Abram hadb Lit dweltlived ten years in the land of Canaan, Abram’s wife Sarai took Hagar the Egyptian, her maid, and gave her to her husband Abram as his wife. 4 He went in to Hagar, and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her sight. 5 And Sarai said to Abram, “May the wrong done me be upon you. I gave my maid into yourc Lit bosomarms, but when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in herd Lit eyessight. May the LORD judge betweene Lit me and youyou and me.” 6 But Abram said to Sarai, “Behold, your maid is in yourf Lit handpower; do to her what is good in yourg Lit eyessight.” So Sarai treated her harshly, and she fled from her presence.
7 Now the angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. 8 He said, “Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from and where are you going?” And she said, “I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.” 9 Then the angel of the LORD said to her, “Return to your mistress, and submit yourselfh Lit under her handsto her authority.” 10 Moreover, the angel of the LORD said to her, “I will greatly multiply youri Lit seeddescendants so thatj Or it shall not be counted for multitudethey will be too many to count.” 11 The angel of the LORD said to her further,
“Behold, you are with child,
And you will bear a son;
And you shall call his namek I.e. God hearsIshmael,
Because the LORDl Lit has heardhas given heed to your affliction.
 12 “He will be a wild donkey of a man,
His hand will be against everyone,
And everyone’s hand will be against him;
And he willm Lit dwellliven Lit before the face of; or in defiance ofto the east of all his brothers.”
13 Then she called the name of the LORD who spoke to her, “o Or You, God, see meYou arep Heb Elroia God who sees”; for she said, “Have I evenq Lit seen here after the one who saw meremained alive here after seeing Him?” 14 Therefore the well was calledr I.e. the well of the living one who sees meBeer-lahai-roi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.
15 So Hagar bore Abram a son; and Abram called the name of his son, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael. 16 Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael tos Lit Abramhim.

Genesis, Chapter 17

1 Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him,
“I ama Heb El ShaddaiGod Almighty;
Walk before Me, and beb Lit complete, perfect; or having integrityblameless.
 2 “I willc Lit giveestablish My covenant between Me and you,
And I will multiply you exceedingly.”
3 Abram fell on his face, and God talked with him, saying,
 4 “As for Me, behold, My covenant is with you,
And you will be the father of a multitude of nations.
 5 “No longer shall your name be calledd I.e. exalted fatherAbram,
But your name shall bee I.e. father of a multitudeAbraham;
For I have made you the father of a multitude of nations.
6 I will make you exceedingly fruitful, and I will make nations of you, and kings will come forth from you. 7 I will establish My covenant between Me and you and yourf Lit seeddescendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to yourg Lit seeddescendants after you. 8 I will give to you and to yourh Lit seeddescendants after you, the land of your sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.”
9 God said further to Abraham, “Now as for you, you shall keep My covenant, you and youri Lit seeddescendants after you throughout their generations. 10 This is My covenant, which you shall keep, between Me and you and yourj Lit seeddescendants after you: every male among you shall be circumcised. 11 And you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be the sign of the covenant between Me and you. 12 And every male among you who is eight days old shall be circumcised throughout your generations, a servant who is born in the house or who is bought with money from any foreigner, who is not of yourk Lit seeddescendants. 13 A servant who is born in your house or who is bought with your money shall surely be circumcised; thus shall My covenant be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. 14 But an uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant.”
15 Then God said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, butl I.e. princessSarah shall be her name. 16 I will bless her, and indeed I will give you a son by her. Then I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; kings of peoples willm Lit become from her.” 17 Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed, and said in his heart, “Will a child be born to a man one hundred years old? And will Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child?” 18 And Abraham said to God, “Oh that Ishmael might live before You!” 19 But God said, “No, but Sarah your wife will bear you a son, and you shall call his namen I.e. he laughsIsaac; and I will establish My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant for hiso Lit seeddescendants after him. 20 As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I will bless him, and will make him fruitful and will multiply him exceedingly. He shallp Lit beget twelve princesbecome the father of twelve princes, and I will make him a great nation. 21 But My covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at this season next year.” 22 When He finished talking with him, God went up from Abraham.
23 Then Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all the servants who were born in his house and all who were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s household, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the very same day, as God had said to him. 24 Now Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 In the very same day Abraham was circumcised, and Ishmael his son. 27 All the men of his household, who were born in the house or bought with money from a foreigner, were circumcised with him.

Genesis, Chapter 18

1 Now the LORD appeared to him by thea Or terebinthsoaks of Mamre, while he was sitting at the tent door in the heat of the day. 2 When he lifted up his eyes and looked, behold, three men were standing opposite him; and when he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth, 3 and said, “b Or O LordMy Lord, if now I have found favor in Your sight, please do notc Lit pass away from Your servantpass Your servant by. 4 Please let a little water be brought and wash your feet, andd Lit supportrest yourselves under the tree; 5 and I wille Lit takebring a piece of bread, that you mayf Lit sustain your heartrefresh yourselves; after that you may go on, since you haveg Lit come tovisited your servant.” And they said, “So do, as you have said.” 6 So Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah, and said, “h Lit Hasten three measuresQuickly, prepare threei Heb seah; i.e. one seah equals approx eleven qtsmeasures of fine flour, knead it and make bread cakes.” 7 Abraham also ran to the herd, and took a tender andj Lit goodchoice calf and gave it to the servant, and he hurried to prepare it. 8 He took curds and milk and the calf which he had prepared, and placed it before them; and he was standing by them under the treek Lit andas they ate.
9 Then they said to him, “Where is Sarah your wife?” And he said, “There, in the tent.” 10 He said, “I will surely return to youl Lit when the time revivesat this time next year; and behold, Sarah your wife will have a son.” And Sarah was listening at the tent door, which was behind him. 11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in age; Sarah was pastm Lit the manner of womenchildbearing. 12 Sarah laughedn Lit withinto herself, saying, “After I have become old, shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?” 13 And the LORD said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh, saying, ‘Shall I indeedo Lit surely bearbear a child, when I am so old?’ 14 Is anything toop Or wonderfuldifficult for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you,q Lit when the time revivesat this time next year, and Sarah will have a son.” 15 Sarah denied it however, saying, “I did not laugh”; for she was afraid. And He said, “No, but you did laugh.”
16 Then the men rose up from there, and looked down toward Sodom; and Abraham was walking with them to send them off. 17 The LORD said, “Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, 18 since Abraham will surely become a great andr Or populousmighty nation, and in him all the nations of the earth will be blessed? 19 For I haves Lit knownchosen him, so that he may command his children and his household after him to keep the way of the LORD by doing righteousness and justice, so that the LORD may bring upon Abraham what He has spoken about him.” 20 And the LORD said, “The outcry of Sodom and Gomorrah is indeed great, and their sin is exceedingly grave. 21 I will go down now, and see if they have done entirely according to its outcry, which has come to Me; and if not, I will know.”
22 Then the men turned away from there and went toward Sodom, while Abraham was still standing before the LORD. 23 Abraham came near and said, “Will You indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked? 24 Suppose there are fifty righteous within the city; will You indeed sweep it away and nott Or forgivespare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous who are in it? 25 Far be it from You to dou Lit after this mannersuch a thing, to slay the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous and the wicked are treated alike. Far be it from You! Shall not the Judge of all the earthv Lit do justicedeal justly?” 26 So the LORD said, “If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I willw Or forgivespare the whole place on their account.” 27 And Abraham replied, “Now behold, I havex Lit undertakenventured to speak to the Lord, although I am but dust and ashes. 28 Suppose the fifty righteous are lacking five, will You destroy the whole city because of five?” And He said, “I will not destroy it if I find forty-five there.” 29 He spoke to Him yet again and said, “Suppose forty are found there?” And He said, “I will not do it on account of the forty.” 30 Then he said, “Oh may the Lord not be angry, and I shall speak; suppose thirty are found there?” And He said, “I will not do it if I find thirty there.” 31 And he said, “Now behold, I havey Lit undertakenventured to speak to the Lord; suppose twenty are found there?” And He said, “I will not destroy it on account of the twenty.” 32 Then he said, “Oh may the Lord not be angry, and I shall speak only this once; suppose ten are found there?” And He said, “I will not destroy it on account of the ten.” 33 As soon as He had finished speaking to Abraham the LORD departed, and Abraham returned to his place.

Genesis, Chapter 19

1 Now the two angels came to Sodom in the evening as Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he rose to meet them anda Lit bowed himselfbowed down with his face to the ground. 2 And he said, “Now behold, my lords, please turn aside into your servant’s house, and spend the night, and wash your feet; then you may rise early and go on your way.” They said however, “No, but we shall spend the night in the square.” 3 Yet he urged them strongly, so they turned aside to him and entered his house; and he prepared a feast for them, and baked unleavened bread, and they ate. 4 Before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the peopleb Or without exception; lit from every endfrom every quarter; 5 and they called to Lot and said to him, “Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us that we mayc I.e. have intercoursehave relations with them.” 6 But Lot went out to them at the doorway, and shut the door behind him, 7 and said, “Please, my brothers, do not act wickedly. 8 Now behold, I have two daughters who have notd I.e. had intercoursehad relations with man; please let me bring them out to you, and do to theme Lit as is good in your sightwhatever you like; only do nothing to these men, inasmuch as they have come under thef Lit shadowshelter of my roof.” 9 But they said, “Stand aside.” Furthermore, they said, “This one came ing Lit to sojournas an alien, and already he is acting like a judge; now we will treat you worse than them.” So they pressed hard againsth Lit the man, against LotLot and came near to break the door. 10 But the men reached out theiri Lit handhands and brought Lot into the housej Lit towith them, and shut the door. 11 Theyk Lit smotestruck the men who were at the doorway of the house with blindness, both small and great, so that they wearied themselves trying to find the doorway.
12 Then the two men said to Lot, “Whom else have you here? A son-in-law, and your sons, and your daughters, and whomever you have in the city, bring them out of the place; 13 for we are about to destroy this place, because their outcry has become so great before the LORD that the LORD has sent us to destroy it.” 14 Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law, whol Or had married; lit were takingwere to marry his daughters, and said, “Up, get out of this place, for the LORD will destroy the city.” But he appeared to his sons-in-lawm Lit like one who was jestingto be jesting.
15 When morning dawned, the angels urged Lot, saying, “Up, take your wife and your two daughters who are here, or you will be swept away in then Or iniquitypunishment of the city.” 16 But he hesitated. So the men seized his hand and the hand of his wife and theo Lit handhands of his two daughters, for the compassion of the LORD was upon him; and they brought him out, and put him outside the city. 17 When they had brought them outside,p Lit heone said, “Escape for your life! Do not look behind you, and do not stayq Lit in all the circleanywhere in the valley; escape to ther Lit mountainmountains, or you will be swept away.” 18 But Lot said to them, “Oh no, my lords! 19 Now behold, your servant has found favor in your sight, and you have magnified your lovingkindness, which you have shown me by saving my life; but I cannot escape to thes Lit mountainmountains, for the disaster will overtake me and I will die; 20 now behold, this town is near enough to flee to, and it is small. Please, let me escape there (is it not small?)t Lit and my soul will livethat my life may be saved.” 21 He said to him, “Behold, I grant you thisu Lit thingrequest also, not to overthrow the town of which you have spoken. 22 Hurry, escape there, for I cannot do anything until you arrive there.” Therefore the name of the town was calledv I.e. smallZoar.
23 The sun had risen over the earth when Lot came to Zoar. 24 Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven, 25 and He overthrew those cities, and all thew Lit circlevalley, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and what grew on the ground. 26 But his wife, from behind him, looked back, and she became a pillar of salt.
27 Now Abraham arose early in the morning and went to the place where he had stood before the LORD; 28 and he looked down toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of thex Lit circlevalley, and he saw, and behold, the smoke of the land ascended like the smoke of ay Lit kilnfurnace.
29 Thus it came about, when God destroyed the cities of thez Lit circlevalley, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, when He overthrew the cities in which Lot lived.
30 Lot went up from Zoar, andaa Lit dweltstayed in theab Lit mountainmountains, and his two daughters with him; for he was afraid toac Lit dwellstay in Zoar; and head Lit dweltstayed in a cave, he and his two daughters. 31 Then the firstborn said to the younger, “Our father is old, and there is not a manae Or in the landon earth to come in to us after the manner of the earth. 32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and let us lie with him that we may preserveaf Lit seed from our fatherour family through our father.” 33 So they made their father drink wine that night, and the firstborn went in and lay with her father; and he did not know when she lay down or when she arose. 34 On the following day, the firstborn said to the younger, “Behold, I lay last night with my father; let us make him drink wine tonight also; then you go in and lie with him, that we may preserveag Lit seed from our fatherour family through our father.” 35 So they made their father drink wine that night also, and the younger arose and lay with him; and he did not know when she lay down or when she arose. 36 Thus both the daughters of Lot were with child by their father. 37 The firstborn bore a son, and called his name Moab; he is the father of the Moabites to this day. 38 As for the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi; he is the father of theah Heb Bene-Ammonsons of Ammon to this day.

Genesis, Chapter 20

1 Now Abraham journeyed from there toward the land of thea I.e. South countryNegev, andb Lit dweltsettled between Kadesh and Shur; then he sojourned in Gerar. 2 Abraham said of Sarah his wife, “She is my sister.” So Abimelech king of Gerar sent and took Sarah. 3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream of the night, and said to him, “Behold, you are a dead man because of the woman whom you have taken, for she isc Lit married to a husbandmarried.” 4 Now Abimelech had not come near her; and he said, “Lord, will You slay a nation, even thoughd Lit righteousblameless? 5 Did he not himself say to me, ‘She is my sister’? And she herself said, ‘He is my brother.’ In the integrity of my heart and the innocence of mye Lit palmshands I have done this.” 6 Then God said to him in the dream, “Yes, I know that in the integrity of your heart you have done this, and I alsof Lit restrainedkept you from sinning against Me; therefore I did not let you touch her. 7 Now therefore, restore the man’s wife, for he is a prophet, and he will pray for you and you will live. But if you do not restore her, know that you shall surely die, you and all who are yours.”
8 So Abimelech arose early in the morning and called all his servants and told all these things in their hearing; and the men were greatly frightened. 9 Then Abimelech called Abraham and said to him, “What have you done to us? Andg Lit whathow have I sinned against you, that you have brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? You have done to meh Lit deedsthings that ought not to be done.” 10 And Abimelech said to Abraham, “What have youi Lit seenencountered, that you have done this thing?” 11 Abraham said, “Because I thought, surely there is no fear of God in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife. 12 Besides, she actually is my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother, and she became my wife; 13 and it came about, when God caused me to wander from my father’s house, that I said to her, ‘This isj Lit yourthe kindness which you will show to me:k Lit at every place whereeverywhere we go, say of me, “He is my brother.”’” 14 Abimelech then took sheep and oxen and male and female servants, and gave them to Abraham, and restored his wife Sarah to him. 15 Abimelech said, “Behold, my land is before you;l Lit dwellsettle whereverm Lit it is good in your sightyou please.” 16 To Sarah he said, “Behold, I have given your brother a thousand pieces of silver; behold, it isn Lit for you a covering of the eyesyour vindication before all who are with you, and before all men you are cleared.” 17 Abraham prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech and his wife and his maids, so that they bore children. 18 For the LORD had closed fast all the wombs of the household of Abimelech because of Sarah, Abraham’s wife.

Genesis, Chapter 21

1 Then the LORD took note of Sarah as He had said, and the LORD did for Sarah as He hada Lit spokenpromised. 2 So Sarah conceived and bore a son to Abraham in his old age, at the appointed time of which God had spoken to him. 3 Abraham called the name of his son who was born to him, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac. 4 Then Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him. 5 Now Abraham was one hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him. 6 Sarah said, “God has made laughter for me; everyone who hears will laughb Lit forwith me.” 7 And she said, “Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.”
8 The child grew and was weaned, and Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.
9 Now Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham,c Or playingmocking. 10 Therefore she said to Abraham, “Drive out this maid and her son, for the son of this maid shall not be an heir with my sond Lit with IsaacIsaac.” 11 The mattere Lit was very grievous in Abraham’s sightdistressed Abraham greatly because of his son. 12 But God said to Abraham, “f Lit Do not let it be grievous in your sightDo not be distressed because of the lad and your maid; whatever Sarah tells you, listen to her, for through Isaacg Lit your seed will be calledyour descendants shall be named. 13 And of the son of the maid I will make a nation also, because he is yourh Lit seeddescendant.” 14 So Abraham rose early in the morning and took bread and ai I.e. a skin used as a bottleskin of water and gave them to Hagar, putting them on her shoulder, and gave her the boy, and sent her away. And she departed and wandered about in the wilderness of Beersheba.
15 When the water in the skin was used up, shej Lit castleft the boy under one of the bushes. 16 Then she went and sat down opposite him, about a bowshot away, for she said, “Do not let mek Lit look upon the death of the childsee the boy die.” And she sat opposite him, and lifted up her voice and wept. 17 God heard the lad crying; and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her, “What is the matter with you, Hagar? Do not fear, for God has heard the voice of the lad where he is. 18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him byl Lit yourthe hand, for I will make a great nation of him.” 19 Then God opened her eyes and she saw a well of water; and she went and filled them V 14, note 1skin with water and gave the lad a drink.
20 God was with the lad, and he grew; and hen Lit dweltlived in the wilderness and became an archer. 21 Heo Lit dweltlived in the wilderness of Paran, and his mother took a wife for him from the land of Egypt.
22 Now it came about at that time that Abimelech and Phicol, the commander of his army, spoke to Abraham, saying, “God is with you in all that you do; 23 now therefore, swear to me here by God that you will not deal falsely with me or with my offspring or with my posterity, but according to the kindness that I have shown to you, you shall show to me and to the land in which you have sojourned.” 24 Abraham said, “I swear it.” 25 But Abrahamp Lit reprovedcomplained to Abimelech because of the well of water which the servants of Abimelech had seized. 26 And Abimelech said, “I do not know who has done this thing; you did not tell me, nor did I hear of itq Lit exceptuntil today.”
27 Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimelech, and the two of them made a covenant. 28 Then Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves. 29 Abimelech said to Abraham, “What do these seven ewe lambs mean, which you have set by themselves?” 30 He said, “You shall take these seven ewe lambs from my hand so that it may be a witness to me, that I dug this well.” 31 Therefore he called that place Beersheba, because there the two of them took an oath. 32 So they made a covenant at Beersheba; and Abimelech and Phicol, the commander of his army, arose and returned to the land of the Philistines. 33 Abraham planted a tamarisk tree at Beersheba, and there he called on the name of the LORD, the Everlasting God. 34 And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines for many days.

Genesis, Chapter 22

1 Now it came about after these things, that God tested Abraham, and said to him, “Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.” 2 He said, “Take now your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell you.” 3 So Abraham rose early in the morning and saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split wood for the burnt offering, and arose and went to the place of which God had told him. 4 On the third day Abraham raised his eyes and saw the place from a distance. 5 Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go over there; and we will worship and return to you.” 6 Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son, and he took in his hand the fire and the knife. So the two of them walked on together. 7 Isaac spoke to Abraham his father and said, “My father!” And he said, “Here I am, my son.” And he said, “Behold, the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?” 8 Abraham said, “God willa Lit seeprovide for Himself the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.” So the two of them walked on together.
9 Then they came to the place of which God had told him; and Abraham built the altar there and arranged the wood, and bound his son Isaac and laid him on the altar, on top of the wood. 10 Abraham stretched out his hand and took the knife to slay his son. 11 But the angel of the LORD called to him from heaven and said, “Abraham, Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.” 12 He said, “Do not stretch out your hand against the lad, and do nothing to him; for now I know that youb Or reverence; lit are a fearer of Godfear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me.” 13 Then Abraham raised his eyes and looked, and behold, behind him a ram caught in the thicket by his horns; and Abraham went and took the ram and offered him up for a burnt offering in the place of his son. 14 Abraham called the name of that placec Heb YHWH-jirehThe LORD Will Provide, as it is said to this day, “In the mount of the LORD it willd Lit be seenbe provided.”
15 Then the angel of the LORD called to Abraham a second time from heaven, 16 and said, “By Myself I have sworn, declares the LORD, because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son, 17 indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply youre Or descendantsseed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore; and yourf Or descendantsseed shall possess the gate ofg Lit histheir enemies. 18 In yourh Or descendantsseed all the nations of the earth shalli Or bless themselvesbe blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.” 19 So Abraham returned to his young men, and they arose and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham lived at Beersheba.
20 Now it came about after these things, that it was told Abraham, saying, “Behold, Milcahj Lit she alsoalso has borne children to your brother Nahor: 21 Uz his firstborn and Buz his brother and Kemuel the father of Aram 22 and Chesed and Hazo and Pildash and Jidlaph and Bethuel.” 23 Bethuelk Lit begotbecame the father of Rebekah; these eight Milcah bore to Nahor, Abraham’s brother. 24 His concubine, whose name was Reumah,l Lit she alsoalso bore Tebah and Gaham and Tahash and Maacah.

Genesis, Chapter 23

1 Nowa Lit the life of Sarah wasSarah lived one hundred and twenty-seven years; these were the years of the life of Sarah. 2 Sarah died in Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan; and Abrahamb Or proceededwent in to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her. 3 Then Abraham rose from before his dead, and spoke to the sons of Heth, saying, 4 “I am a stranger and a sojourner among you; give mec Lit possession of a gravea burial site among you that I may bury my dead out of my sight.” 5 The sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying to him, 6 “Hear us, my lord, you are ad Lit prince of Godmighty prince among us; bury your dead in the choicest of our graves; none of us will refuse you his grave for burying your dead.” 7 So Abraham rose and bowed to the people of the land, the sons of Heth. 8 And he spoke with them, saying, “If it is youre Lit soulwish for me to bury my dead out of my sight, hear me, and approach Ephron the son of Zohar for me, 9 that he may give me the cave of Machpelah which he owns, which is at the end of his field; for the full price let him give it to me inf Lit the midst of youyour presence forg Lit possession of a burial placea burial site.” 10 Now Ephron was sitting among the sons of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the sons of Heth; even of all who went in at the gate of his city, saying, 11 “No, my lord, hear me; I give you the field, and I give you the cave that is in it. In the presence of the sons of my people I give it to you; bury your dead.” 12 And Abraham bowed before the people of the land. 13 He spoke to Ephron in the hearing of the people of the land, saying, “If you will only please listen to me; I will give the price of the field, accept it from me that I may bury my dead there.” 14 Then Ephron answered Abraham, saying to him, 15 “My lord, listen to me; a piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and you? So bury your dead.” 16 Abraham listened to Ephron; and Abraham weighed out for Ephron the silver which he had named in theh Lit earshearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver,i Lit current according to the merchantcommercial standard.
17 So Ephron’s field, which was in Machpelah, which faced Mamre, the field and cave which was in it, and all the trees which were in the field, that werej Lit in all its border aroundwithin all the confines of its border,k Or were ratifiedwere deeded over 18 to Abraham for a possession in the presence of the sons of Heth, before all who went in at the gate of his city. 19 After this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field at Machpelah facing Mamre (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan. 20 So the field and the cave that is in it,l Or were ratifiedwere deeded over to Abraham form Lit possession of a burial placea burial site by the sons of Heth.

Genesis, Chapter 24

1 Now Abraham was old, advanced in age; and the LORD had blessed Abraham in every way. 2 Abraham said to his servant, the oldest of his household, who had charge of all that he owned, “Please place your hand under my thigh, 3 and I will make you swear by the LORD, the God of heaven and the God of earth, that you shall not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I live, 4 but you will go to my country and to my relatives, and take a wife for my son Isaac.” 5 The servant said to him, “Suppose the woman is not willing to follow me to this land; should I take your son back to the land from where you came?” 6 Then Abraham said to him, “Beware that you do not take my son back there! 7 The LORD, the God of heaven, who took me from my father’s house and from the land of my birth, and who spoke to me and who swore to me, saying, ‘To youra Lit seeddescendants I will give this land,’ He will send His angel before you, and you will take a wife for my son from there. 8 But if the woman is not willing to follow you, then you will be free from this my oath; only do not take my son back there.” 9 So the servant placed his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master, and swore to him concerning this matter.
10 Then the servant took ten camels from the camels of his master, and set out with a variety of good things of his master’s in his hand; and he arose and went tob Heb Aram-naharaim, Aram of the two riversMesopotamia, to the city of Nahor. 11 He made the camels kneel down outside the city by the well of water at evening time, the time when women go out to draw water. 12 He said, “O LORD, the God of my master Abraham, pleasec Lit cause to occur for megrant me success today, and show lovingkindness to my master Abraham. 13 Behold, I am standing by thed Lit fountain of waterspring, and the daughters of the men of the city are coming out to draw water; 14 now may it be that the girl to whom I say, ‘Please let down your jar so that I may drink,’ ande Lit she will saywho answers, ‘Drink, and I will water your camels also’—may she be the one whom You have appointed for Your servant Isaac; and by this I will know that You have shown lovingkindness to my master.”
15 Before he had finished speaking, behold, Rebekah who was born to Bethuel the son of Milcah, the wife of Abraham’s brother Nahor, came out with her jar on her shoulder. 16 The girl was very beautiful, a virgin, and no man hadf Lit knownhad relations with her; and she went down to the spring and filled her jar and came up. 17 Then the servant ran to meet her, and said, “Please let me drink a little water from your jar.” 18 She said, “Drink, my lord”; and she quickly lowered her jar to her hand, and gave him a drink. 19 Now when she had finished giving him a drink, she said, “I will draw also for your camels until they have finished drinking.” 20 So she quickly emptied her jar into the trough, and ran back to the well to draw, and she drew for all his camels. 21 Meanwhile, the man was gazing at herg Lit keeping silentin silence, to know whether the LORD had made his journey successful or not.
22 When the camels had finished drinking, the man took a gold ring weighing a half-shekel and two bracelets for herh Lit handswrists weighing ten shekels in gold, 23 and said, “Whose daughter are you? Please tell me, is there room for us to lodge in your father’s house?” 24 She said to him, “I am the daughter of Bethuel, the son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor.” 25 Again she said to him, “We have plenty of both straw and feed, and room to lodge in.” 26 Then the man bowed low and worshiped the LORD. 27 He said, “Blessed be the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who has not forsaken His lovingkindness and His truth toward my master; as for me, the LORD has guided me in the way to the house of my master’s brothers.”
28 Then the girl ran and told her mother’s household about these things. 29 Now Rebekah had a brother whose name was Laban; and Laban ran outside to the man at the spring. 30 When he saw the ring and the bracelets on his sister’si Lit handswrists, and when he heard the words of Rebekah his sister, saying, “j Lit Thus the manThis is what the man said to me,” he went to the man; and behold, he was standing by the camels at the spring. 31 And he said, “Come in, blessed of the LORD! Why do you stand outside since I have prepared the house, and a place for the camels?” 32 So the man entered the house. Thenk Lit heLaban unloaded the camels, and he gave straw and feed to the camels, and water to wash his feet and the feet of the men who were with him. 33 But when food was set before him to eat, he said, “I will not eat until I have told my business.” And he said, “Speak on.” 34 So he said, “I am Abraham’s servant. 35 The LORD has greatly blessed my master, so that he has becomel Lit greatrich; and He has given him flocks and herds, and silver and gold, and servants and maids, and camels and donkeys. 36 Now Sarah my master’s wife bore a son to my masterm Lit after she was oldin her old age, and he has given him all that he has. 37 My master made me swear, saying, ‘You shall not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land In Lit dwelllive; 38 but you shall go to my father’s house and to my relatives, and take a wife for my son.’ 39 I said to my master, ‘Suppose the woman does not follow me.’ 40 He said to me, ‘The LORD, before whom I have walked, will send His angel with you to make your journey successful, and you will take a wife for my son from my relatives and from my father’s house; 41 then you will be free from my oath, when you come to my relatives; and if they do not give her to you, you will be free from my oath.’
42 “So I came today to the spring, and said, ‘O LORD, the God of my master Abraham, if now You will make my journey on which I go successful; 43 behold, I am standing by theo Lit fountain of waterspring, and may it be that the maiden who comes out to draw, and to whom I say, “Please let me drink a little water from your jar”; 44 and she will say to me, “You drink, and I will draw for your camels also”; let her be the woman whom the LORD has appointed for my master’s son.’
45 “Before I had finished speaking in my heart, behold, Rebekah came out with her jar on her shoulder, and went down to the spring and drew, and I said to her, ‘Please let me drink.’ 46 She quickly lowered her jar from her shoulder, and said, ‘Drink, and I will water your camels also’; so I drank, and she watered the camels also. 47 Then I asked her, and said, ‘Whose daughter are you?’ And she said, ‘The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor’s son, whom Milcah bore to him’; and I put the ring on her nose, and the bracelets on herp Lit handswrists. 48 And I bowed low and worshiped the LORD, and blessed the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who had guided me in the right way to take the daughter of my master’sq Lit brotherkinsman for his son. 49 So now if you are going tor Lit show lovingkindness and truthdeal kindly and truly with my master, tell me; and if not, let me know, that I may turn to the right hand or the left.”
50 Then Laban and Bethuel replied, “The matter comes from the LORD; so we cannot speak to you bad or good. 51 Here is Rebekah before you, take her and go, and let her be the wife of your master’s son, as the LORD has spoken.”
52 When Abraham’s servant heard their words, he bowed himself to the grounds Lit tobefore the LORD. 53 The servant brought out articles of silver and articles of gold, and garments, and gave them to Rebekah; he also gave precious things to her brother and to her mother. 54 Then he and the men who were with him ate and drank and spent the night. When they arose in the morning, he said, “Send me away to my master.” 55 But her brother and her mother said, “Let the girl stay with us a few days, say ten; afterward she may go.” 56 He said to them, “Do not delay me, since the LORD has prospered my way. Send me away that I may go to my master.” 57 And they said, “We will call the girl andt Lit ask her mouthconsult her wishes.” 58 Then they called Rebekah and said to her, “Will you go with this man?” And she said, “I will go.” 59 Thus they sent away their sister Rebekah and her nurse with Abraham’s servant and his men. 60 They blessed Rebekah and said to her,
“May you, our sister,
Become thousands of ten thousands,
And may youru Lit seeddescendants possess
The gate of those who hate them.”
61 Then Rebekah arose with her maids, and they mounted the camels and followed the man. So the servant took Rebekah and departed.
62 Now Isaac had come from going to Beer-lahai-roi; for hev Lit was dwellingwas living in thew I.e. South countryNegev. 63 Isaac went out tox Or stroll; meaning uncertainmeditate in the field toward evening; and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, camels were coming. 64 Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac she dismounted from the camel. 65 She said to the servant, “Who is that man walking in the field to meet us?” And the servant said, “He is my master.” Then she took hery Or shawlveil and covered herself. 66 The servant told Isaac all the things that he had done. 67 Then Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent, and he took Rebekah, and she became his wife, and he loved her; thus Isaac was comforted after his mother’s death.

Genesis, Chapter 25

1 Now Abraham took another wife,a Lit and her namewhose name was Keturah. 2 She bore to him Zimran and Jokshan and Medan and Midian and Ishbak and Shuah. 3 Jokshanb Lit begotbecame the father of Sheba and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim and Letushim and Leummim. 4 The sons of Midian were Ephah and Epher and Hanoch and Abida and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah. 5 Now Abraham gave all that he had to Isaac; 6 but to the sons ofc Lit concubines which belonged to Abrahamhis concubines, Abraham gave gifts while he was still living, and sent them away from his son Isaac eastward, to the land of the east.
7 These ared Lit the days ofall the years of Abraham’s life that he lived, one hundred and seventy-five years. 8 Abraham breathed his last and died in ae Lit goodripe old age, an old man and satisfied with life; and he was gathered to his people. 9 Then his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, facing Mamre, 10 the field which Abraham purchased from the sons of Heth; there Abraham was buried with Sarah his wife. 11 It came about after the death of Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac; and Isaacf Lit dweltlived by Beer-lahai-roi.
12 Now these are the records of the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s maid, bore to Abraham; 13 and these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names,g Lit in regard to their generationsin the order of their birth: Nebaioth, the firstborn of Ishmael, and Kedar and Adbeel and Mibsam 14 and Mishma and Dumah and Massa, 15 Hadad and Tema, Jetur, Naphish and Kedemah. 16 These are the sons of Ishmael and these are their names, by their villages, and by their camps; twelve princes according to theirh Or peoplestribes. 17 These are the years of the life of Ishmael, one hundred and thirty-seven years; and he breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people. 18 Theyi Lit dweltsettled from Havilah to Shur which isj Lit beforeeast of Egyptk Lit as you goas one goes toward Assyria; hel Lit fell over againstsettled in defiance of all hism Lit brothersrelatives.
19 Now these are the records of the generations of Isaac, Abraham’s son: Abrahamn Lit begotbecame the father of Isaac; 20 and Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel theo I.e. SyrianAramean of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban thep I.e. SyrianAramean, to be his wife. 21 Isaac prayed to the LORD on behalf of his wife, because she was barren; and the LORDq Lit was entreated of himanswered him and Rebekah his wife conceived. 22 But the children struggled together within her; and she said, “If it is so, why then am I this way?” So she went to inquire of the LORD. 23 The LORD said to her,
“Two nations are in your womb;
And two peoples will be separated from your body;
And one people shall be stronger than the other;
And the older shall serve the younger.”
24 When her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. 25 Now the first came forth red, all over like a hairy garment; and they named him Esau. 26 Afterward his brother came forth with his hand holding on to Esau’s heel, so his name was calledr I.e. one who takes by the heel or supplantsJacob; and Isaac was sixty years old when she gave birth to them.
27 When the boys grew up, Esau became a skillful hunter, a man of the field, but Jacob was as Lit completepeaceful man,t Lit dwellingliving in tents. 28 Now Isaac loved Esau, becauseu Lit game was in his mouthhe had a taste for game, but Rebekah loved Jacob. 29 When Jacob had cooked stew, Esau came in from the field and he wasv Lit wearyfamished; 30 and Esau said to Jacob, “Please let me have a swallow ofw Lit the red, this redthat red stuff there, for I amx Lit wearyfamished.” Therefore his name was calledy I.e. redEdom. 31 But Jacob said, “z Lit TodayFirst sell me your birthright.” 32 Esau said, “Behold, I am about to die; so of what use then is the birthright to me?” 33 And Jacob said, “aa Lit TodayFirst swear to me”; so he swore to him, and sold his birthright to Jacob. 34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and lentil stew; and he ate and drank, and rose and went on his way. Thus Esau despised his birthright.

Genesis, Chapter 26

1 Now there was a famine in the land, besides the previous famine that had occurred in the days of Abraham. So Isaac went to Gerar, to Abimelech king of the Philistines. 2 The LORD appeared to him and said, “Do not go down to Egypt;a Lit dwellstay in the land of which I shall tell you. 3 Sojourn in this land and I will be with you and bless you, for to you and to yourb Lit seeddescendants I will give all these lands, and I will establish the oath which I swore to your father Abraham. 4 I will multiply yourc Lit seeddescendants as the stars of heaven, and will give yourd Lit seeddescendants all these lands; and by youre Lit seeddescendants all the nations of the earthf Or bless themselvesshall be blessed; 5 because Abrahamg Lit hearkened to My voiceobeyed Me and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes and My laws.”
6 So Isaach Lit dweltlived in Gerar. 7 When the men of the place asked about his wife, he said, “She is my sister,” for he was afraid to say, “my wife,” thinking, “i Lit lest...placethe men of the place might kill me on account of Rebekah, for she is beautiful.” 8 It came about, when he had been there a long time, that Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out through a window, and saw, and behold, Isaac was caressing his wife Rebekah. 9 Then Abimelech called Isaac and said, “Behold, certainly she is your wife! How then did you say, ‘She is my sister’?” And Isaac said to him, “Because I said, ‘I might die on account of her.’” 10 Abimelech said, “What is this you have done to us? One of the people might easily have lain with your wife, and you would have brought guilt upon us.” 11 So Abimelech charged all the people, saying, “He who touches this man or his wife shall surely be put to death.”
12 Now Isaac sowed in that land andj Lit foundreaped in the same year a hundredfold. And the LORD blessed him, 13 and the man became rich, and continued to growk Lit greatricher until he became veryl Lit greatwealthy; 14 for he had possessions of flocksm Lit and possessions of herdsand herds and a great household, so that the Philistines envied him. 15 Now all the wells which his father’s servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines stopped upn Lit and filled themby filling them with earth. 16 Then Abimelech said to Isaac, “Go away from us, for you areo Lit much mightier than wetoo powerful for us.” 17 And Isaac departed from there and camped in the valley of Gerar, andp Lit dweltsettled there.
18 Then Isaac dug again the wells of water whichq Lit they had dughad been dug in the days of his father Abraham, for the Philistines had stopped them up after the death of Abraham; and her Lit called their names as the namesgave them the same names which his father hads Lit calledgiven them. 19 But when Isaac’s servants dug in the valley and found there a well oft Lit livingflowing water, 20 the herdsmen of Gerar quarreled with the herdsmen of Isaac, saying, “The water is ours!” So he named the wellu I.e. contentionEsek, because they contended with him. 21 Then they dug another well, and they quarreled over it too, so he named itv I.e. enmitySitnah. 22 He moved away from there and dug another well, and they did not quarrel over it; so he named itw I.e. broad placesRehoboth, for he said, “x Lit Truly nowAt last the LORD has madey Or broadroom for us, and we will be fruitful in the land.”
23 Then he went up from there to Beersheba. 24 The LORD appeared to him the same night and said,
“I am the God of your father Abraham;
Do not fear, for I am with you.
I will bless you, and multiply yourz Lit seeddescendants,
For the sake of My servant Abraham.”
25 So he built an altar there and called upon the name of the LORD, and pitched his tent there; and there Isaac’s servants dug a well.
26 Then Abimelech came to him from Geraraa Lit and his confidential friendwith his adviser Ahuzzath and Phicol the commander of his army. 27 Isaac said to them, “Why have you come to me, since you hate me and have sent me away from you?” 28 They said, “We see plainly that the LORD has been with you; so we said, ‘Let there now be an oath between us, even betweenab Lit us and youyou and us, and let us make a covenant with you, 29 that you will do us no harm, just as we have not touched youac Lit and just as weand have done to you nothing but good and have sent you away in peace. You are now the blessed of the LORD.’” 30 Then he made them a feast, and they ate and drank. 31 In the morning they arose early andad Lit swore one to anotherexchanged oaths; then Isaac sent them away and they departed from him in peace. 32 Now it came about on the same day, that Isaac’s servants came in and told him about the well which they had dug, and said to him, “We have found water.” 33 So he called it Shibah; therefore the name of the city is Beersheba to this day.
34 When Esau was forty years old heae Lit took as wifemarried Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite; 35 and theyaf Lit were a bitterness of spirit tobrought grief to Isaac and Rebekah.

Genesis, Chapter 27

1 Now it came about, when Isaac was old and his eyes were too dim to see, that he called his older son Esau and said to him, “My son.” And he said to him, “Here I am.” 2 a Lit HeIsaac said, “Behold now, I am old and I do not know the day of my death. 3 Now then, please take your gear, your quiver and your bow, and go out to the field and hunt game for me; 4 and prepare a savory dish for me such as I love, and bring it to me that I may eat, so that my soul may bless you before I die.”
5 Rebekah was listening while Isaac spoke to his son Esau. So when Esau went to the field to hunt for game to bring home, 6 Rebekah said to her son Jacob, “Behold, I heard your father speak to your brother Esau, saying, 7 ‘Bring me some game and prepare a savory dish for me, that I may eat, and bless you in the presence of the LORD before my death.’ 8 Now therefore, my son, listen tob Lit my voicemec Lit according to whatas I command you. 9 Go now to the flock andd Lit takebring me two choicee Lit kids of goatsyoung goats from there, that I may prepare them as a savory dish for your father, such as he loves. 10 Then you shall bring it to your father, that he may eat, so that he may bless you before his death.” 11 Jacobf Lit said toanswered his mother Rebekah, “Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man and I am a smooth man. 12 Perhaps my father will feel me, then I will be as ag Lit mockerdeceiver in his sight, and I will bring upon myself a curse and not a blessing.” 13 But his mother said to him, “Your curse be on me, my son; only obey my voice, and go, get them for me.” 14 So he went and got them, and brought them to his mother; and his mother made savory food such as his father loved. 15 Then Rebekah took theh Lit desirable; or choicebest garments of Esau her elder son, which were with her in the house, and put them on Jacob her younger son. 16 And she put the skins of thei Lit kids of the goatsyoung goats on his hands and on the smooth part of his neck. 17 She also gave the savory food and the bread, which she had made,j Lit into the hand ofto her son Jacob.
18 Then he came to his father and said, “My father.” And he said, “Here I am. Who are you, my son?” 19 Jacob said to his father, “I am Esau your firstborn; I have done as you told me. Get up, please, sit and eat of my game, thatk Lit your soulyou may bless me.” 20 Isaac said to his son, “How is it that you have it so quickly, my son?” And he said, “Because the LORD your God caused it to happen to me.” 21 Then Isaac said to Jacob, “Please come close, that I may feel you, my son, whether you are really my son Esau or not.” 22 So Jacob came close to Isaac his father, and he felt him and said, “The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau.” 23 He did not recognize him, because his hands were hairy like his brother Esau’s hands; so he blessed him. 24 And he said, “Are you really my son Esau?” And he said, “I am.” 25 So he said, “Bring it to me, and I will eat of my son’s game, thatl Lit my soulI may bless you.” And he brought it to him, and he ate; he also brought him wine and he drank. 26 Then his father Isaac said to him, “Please come close and kiss me, my son.” 27 So he came close and kissed him; and when he smelled the smell of his garments, he blessed him and said,
“See, the smell of my son
Is like the smell of a field which the LORD has blessed;
 28 Now may God give you of the dew of heaven,
And of the fatness of the earth,
And an abundance of grain and new wine;
 29 May peoples serve you,
And nations bow down to you;
Be master of your brothers,
And may your mother’s sons bow down to you.
Cursed be those who curse you,
And blessed be those who bless you.”
30 Now it came about, as soon as Isaac had finished blessing Jacob, and Jacob had hardly gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting. 31 Then he also made savory food, and brought it to his father; and he said to his father, “Let my father arise and eat of his son’s game, thatm Lit your soulyou may bless me.” 32 Isaac his father said to him, “Who are you?” And he said, “I am your son, your firstborn, Esau.” 33 Then Isaacn Lit trembled with a very great tremblingtrembled violently, and said, “Who was he then that hunted game and brought it to me, so that I ate of all of it before you came, and blessed him? Yes, and he shall be blessed.” 34 When Esau heard the words of his father, he cried out with an exceedingly great and bitter cry, and said to his father, “Bless me, even me also, O my father!” 35 And he said, “Your brother came deceitfully and has taken away your blessing.” 36 Then he said, “o Or Was he then named Jacob that he hasIs he not rightly named Jacob, for he has supplanted me these two times? He took away my birthright, and behold, now he has taken away my blessing.” And he said, “Have you not reserved a blessing for me?” 37 But Isaac replied to Esau, “Behold, I have made him your master, and all hisp Lit brothersrelatives I have given to himq Lit foras servants; and with grain and new wine I have sustained him. Now as for you then, what can I do, my son?” 38 Esau said to his father, “Do you have only one blessing, my father? Bless me, even me also, O my father.” So Esau lifted his voice and wept.
39 Then Isaac his father answered and said to him,
“Behold,r Or ofaway from thes Lit fatnessfertility of the earth shall be your dwelling,
Andt Or ofaway from the dew of heaven from above.
 40 “By your sword you shall live,
And your brother you shall serve;
But it shall come about when you become restless,
That you willu Lit tear offbreak his yoke from your neck.”
41 So Esau bore a grudge against Jacob because of the blessing with which his father had blessed him; and Esau saidv Lit in his heartto himself, “The days of mourning for my father are near; then I will kill my brother Jacob.” 42 Now when the words of her elder son Esau were reported to Rebekah, she sent and called her younger son Jacob, and said to him, “Behold your brother Esau is consoling himself concerning you by planning to kill you. 43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice, and arise,w Lit flee for yourselfflee to Haran, to my brother Laban! 44 Stay with him a few days, until your brother’s furyx Lit turns awaysubsides, 45 until your brother’s angery Lit turns away from youagainst you subsides and he forgets what you did to him. Then I will send and get you from there. Why should I be bereaved of you both in one day?”
46 Rebekah said to Isaac, “I am tired ofz Lit my lifeliving because of the daughters of Heth; if Jacob takes a wife from the daughters of Heth, like these, from the daughters of the land, what good will my life be to me?”

Genesis, Chapter 28

1 So Isaac called Jacob and blessed him and charged him, and said to him, “You shall not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan. 2 Arise, go to Paddan-aram, to the house of Bethuel your mother’s father; and from there take to yourself a wife from the daughters of Laban your mother’s brother. 3 Maya Heb El ShaddaiGod Almighty bless you and make you fruitful and multiply you, that you may become a company of peoples. 4 May He also give you the blessing of Abraham, to you and to yourb Lit seeddescendants with you, that you may possess the land of your sojournings, which God gave to Abraham.” 5 Then Isaac sent Jacob away, and he went to Paddan-aram to Laban, son of Bethuel the Aramean, the brother of Rebekah, the mother of Jacob and Esau.
6 Now Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to Paddan-aram to take to himself a wife from there, and that when he blessed him he charged him, saying, “You shall not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan,” 7 and that Jacob had obeyed his father and his mother and had gone to Paddan-aram. 8 So Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan displeasedc Lit in the eyes of hishis father Isaac; 9 and Esau went to Ishmael, andd Lit took for his wifemarried, besides the wives that he had, Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth.
10 Then Jacob departed from Beersheba and went toward Haran. 11 Hee Lit lighted oncame tof Lit the placea certain place and spent the night there, because the sun had set; and he took one of the stones of the place and put itg Lit at his head-placeunder his head, and lay down in that place. 12 He had a dream, and behold, a ladder was set on the earth with its top reaching to heaven; and behold, the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. 13 And behold, the LORD stoodh Or beside himabove it and said, “I am the LORD, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie, I will give it to you and to youri Lit seeddescendants. 14 Yourj Lit seeddescendants will also be like the dust of the earth, and you willk Lit break throughspread out to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south; and in you and in yourl Lit seeddescendants shall all the families of the earth be blessed. 15 Behold, I am with you and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this land; for I will not leave you until I have done what I havem Lit spoken topromised you.” 16 Then Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, “Surely the LORD is in this place, and I did not know it.” 17 He was afraid and said, “How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.”
18 So Jacob rose early in the morning, and took the stone that he had putn Lit at his head-placeunder his head and set it up as a pillar and poured oil on its top. 19 He called the name of that placeo I.e. the house of GodBethel; however,p Lit at the firstpreviously the name of the city had been Luz. 20 Then Jacob made a vow, saying, “If God will be with me and will keep me on this journey that Iq Lit gotake, and will give mer Lit breadfood to eat and garments to wear, 21 and I return to my father’s house ins Lit peacesafety, then the LORD will be my God. 22 This stone, which I have set up as a pillar, will be God’s house, and of all that You give me I will surely give a tenth to You.”

Genesis, Chapter 29

1 Then Jacoba Lit lifted up his feetwent on his journey, and came to the land of the sons of the east. 2 He looked, andb Lit beholdsaw a well in the field, and behold, three flocks of sheep were lying there beside it, for from that well they watered the flocks. Now the stone on the mouth of the well was large. 3 When all the flocks were gathered there, they would then roll the stone from the mouth of the well and water the sheep, and put the stone back in its place on the mouth of the well.
4 Jacob said to them, “My brothers, where are you from?” And they said, “We are from Haran.” 5 He said to them, “Do you know Laban the son of Nahor?” And they said, “We know him.” 6 And he said to them, “Is it well with him?” And they said, “It is well, and here is Rachel his daughter coming with the sheep.” 7 He said, “Behold, it is still high day; it is not time for the livestock to be gathered. Water the sheep, and go, pasture them.” 8 But they said, “We cannot, until all the flocks are gathered, and they roll the stone from the mouth of the well; then we water the sheep.”
9 While he was still speaking with them, Rachel came with her father’s sheep, for she was a shepherdess. 10 When Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother’s brother, Jacob went up and rolled the stone from the mouth of the well and watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother. 11 Then Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted his voice and wept. 12 Jacob told Rachel that he was ac Lit brotherrelative of her father and that he was Rebekah’s son, and she ran and told her father.
13 So when Laban heard the news of Jacob his sister’s son, he ran to meet him, and embraced him and kissed him and brought him to his house. Then he related to Laban all these things. 14 Laban said to him, “Surely you are my bone and my flesh.” And he stayed with him a month.
15 Then Laban said to Jacob, “Because you are myd Lit brotherrelative, should you therefore serve me for nothing? Tell me, what shall your wages be?” 16 Now Laban had two daughters; the name of the older was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel. 17 And Leah’s eyes were weak, but Rachel was beautiful of form ande Lit beautiful of appearanceface. 18 Now Jacob loved Rachel, so he said, “I will serve you seven years for your younger daughter Rachel.” 19 Laban said, “It is better that I give her to you than to give her to another man; stay with me.” 20 So Jacob served seven years for Rachel and they seemed to him but a few days because of his love for her.
21 Then Jacob said to Laban, “Give me my wife, for myf Lit days aretime is completed, that I may go in to her.” 22 Laban gathered all the men of the place and made a feast. 23 Now in the evening he took his daughter Leah, and brought her to him; and Jacob went in to her. 24 Laban also gave his maid Zilpah to his daughter Leah as a maid. 25 So it came about in the morning that, behold, it was Leah! And he said to Laban, “What is this you have done to me? Was it not for Rachel that I served with you? Why then have you deceived me?” 26 But Laban said, “It is notg Lit done thus inthe practice in our place toh Lit givemarry off the younger before the firstborn. 27 Complete the week of this one, and we will give you the other also for the service which you shall serve with me for another seven years.” 28 Jacob did so and completed her week, and he gave him his daughter Rachel as his wife. 29 Laban also gave his maid Bilhah to his daughter Rachel as her maid. 30 So Jacob went in to Rachel also, and indeed he loved Rachel more than Leah, and he served withi Lit himLaban for another seven years.
31 Now the LORD saw that Leah wasj Lit hatedunloved, and He opened her womb, but Rachel was barren. 32 Leah conceived and bore a son and named himk I.e. see, a sonReuben, for she said, “Because the LORD hasl Lit looked uponseen my affliction; surely now my husband will love me.” 33 Then she conceived again and bore a son and said, “Because the LORD hasm Heb shama, related to Simeonheard that I amn Lit hatedunloved, He has therefore given me this son also.” So she named him Simeon. 34 She conceived again and bore a son and said, “Now this time my husband will becomeo Heb lavah, related to Leviattached to me, because I have borne him three sons.” Therefore he was named Levi. 35 And she conceived again and bore a son and said, “This time I willp Heb Jadah, related to Judahpraise the LORD.” Therefore she named himq Heb JehudahJudah. Then she stopped bearing.

Genesis, Chapter 30

1 Now when Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children,a Lit Rachelshe became jealous of her sister; and she said to Jacob, “Give me children, or else I die.” 2 Then Jacob’s anger burned against Rachel, and he said, “Am I in the place of God, who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?” 3 She said, “Here is my maid Bilhah, go in to her that she may bear on my knees, thatb Lit from her I too may be builtthrough her I too may have children.” 4 So she gave him her maid Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob went in to her. 5 Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son. 6 Then Rachel said, “God hasc Lit judgedvindicated me, and has indeed heard my voice and has given me a son.” Therefore she named himd I.e. He judgedDan. 7 Rachel’s maid Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a second son. 8 So Rachel said, “Withe Lit wrestlings of Godmighty wrestlings I havef Heb niphtal, related to Naphtaliwrestled with my sister, and I have indeed prevailed.” And she named him Naphtali.
9 When Leah saw that she had stopped bearing, she took her maid Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife. 10 Leah’s maid Zilpah bore Jacob a son. 11 Then Leah said, “g Lit With fortune! Some versions read Fortune has comeHow fortunate!” So she named himh I.e. FortuneGad. 12 Leah’s maid Zilpah bore Jacob a second son. 13 Then Leah said, “i Lit With my happiness!Happy am I! For women will call me happy.” So she named himj I.e. happyAsher.
14 Now in the days of wheat harvest Reuben went and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, “Please give me some of your son’s mandrakes.” 15 But she said to her, “Is it a small matter for you to take my husband? And would you take my son’s mandrakes also?” So Rachel said, “Therefore he may lie with you tonight in return for your son’s mandrakes.” 16 When Jacob came in from the field in the evening, then Leah went out to meet him and said, “You must come in to me, for I have surely hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” So he lay with her that night. 17 God gave heed to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 Then Leah said, “God has given me myk Heb sachar, related to Issacharwages because I gave my maid to my husband.” So she named him Issachar. 19 Leah conceived again and bore a sixth son to Jacob. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good gift; now my husbandl Heb zabal, related to Zebulun. Some translate will honorwill dwell with me, because I have borne him six sons.” So she named him Zebulun. 21 Afterward she bore a daughter and named her Dinah.
22 Then God remembered Rachel, and God gave heed to her and opened her womb. 23 So she conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.” 24 She named him Joseph, saying, “May the LORDm Lit add to me; Heb Josephgive me another son.”
25 Now it came about when Rachel had borne Joseph, that Jacob said to Laban, “Send me away, that I may go to my own place and to my own country. 26 Give me my wives and my children for whom I have served you, and let me depart; for you yourself know my service which I haven Lit servedrendered you.” 27 But Laban said to him, “If nowo Lit I have found favor in your eyesit pleases you, stay with me; I have divined that the LORD has blessed me on your account.” 28 Hep Lit saidcontinued, “Name me your wages, and I will give it.” 29 But he said to him, “You yourself know how I have served you and how your cattle haveq Lit beenfared with me. 30 For you had little beforer Lit meI came and it hass Lit broken forthincreased to a multitude, and the LORD has blessed yout Lit at my footwherever I turned. But now, when shall I provide for my own household also?” 31 So he said, “What shall I give you?” And Jacob said, “You shall not give me anything. If you will do this one thing for me, I will again pasture and keep your flock: 32 let me pass through your entire flock today, removing from there every speckled and spotted sheep and every blacku Lit sheepone among the lambs and the spotted and speckled among the goats; and such shall be my wages. 33 So myv Lit righteousnesshonesty will answer for me later, when you come concerning myw Lit wages which are before youwages. Every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats and black among the lambs, if found with me, will be considered stolen.” 34 Laban said, “x Lit Behold, would that it might beGood, let it be according to your word.” 35 So he removed on that day the striped and spotted male goats and all the speckled and spotted female goats, every one with white in it, and all the black ones among the sheep, and gave them into they Lit handcare of his sons. 36 And he put a distance of three days’ journey between himself and Jacob, and Jacob fed the rest of Laban’s flocks.
37 Then Jacobz Lit took to himselftook fresh rods of poplar and almond and plane trees, and peeled white stripes in them, exposing the white which wasaa Lit onin the rods. 38 He set the rods which he had peeled in front of the flocks in the gutters, even in the watering troughs, where the flocks came to drink; and theyab Or conceivedmated when they came to drink. 39 So the flocksac Or conceivedmated by the rods, and the flocks brought forth striped, speckled, and spotted. 40 Jacob separated the lambs, andad Lit set the facesmade the flocks face toward the striped and all the black in the flock of Laban; and he put his own herds apart, and did not put them with Laban’s flock. 41 Moreover, whenever theae Lit bound ones; i.e. firm and compactstronger of the flockaf Or conceivedwere mating, Jacob would place the rods in the sight of the flock in the gutters, so that they mightag Or conceivemate by the rods; 42 but when the flock was feeble, he did not put them in; so the feebler were Laban’s and theah Lit bound ones; i.e. firm and compactstronger Jacob’s. 43 So the manai Lit broke forthbecame exceedingly prosperous, and had large flocks and female and male servants and camels and donkeys.

Genesis, Chapter 31

1 Nowa Lit heJacob heard the words of Laban’s sons, saying, “Jacob has taken away all that was our father’s, and from what belonged to our father he has made all thisb Lit glorywealth.” 2 Jacob saw thec Lit faceattitude of Laban, and behold, it was not friendly toward him as formerly. 3 Then the LORD said to Jacob, “Return to the land of your fathers and to your relatives, and I will be with you.” 4 So Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to his flock in the field, 5 and said to them, “I see your father’sd Lit faceattitude, that it is not friendly toward me as formerly, but the God of my father has been with me. 6 You know that I have served your father with all my strength. 7 Yet your father has cheated me and changed my wages ten times; however, God did not allow him to hurt me. 8 If he spoke thus, ‘The speckled shall be your wages,’ then all the flock brought forth speckled; and if he spoke thus, ‘The striped shall be your wages,’ then all the flock brought forth striped. 9 Thus God has taken away your father’s livestock and given them to me. 10 And it came about at the time when the flock weree Or conceivingmating that I lifted up my eyes and saw in a dream, and behold, the male goats which weref Lit leaping upon the flockmating were striped, speckled, and mottled. 11 Then the angel of God said to me in the dream, ‘Jacob,’ and I said, ‘Here I am.’ 12 He said, ‘Lift up now your eyes and see that all the male goats which areg Lit leaping upon the flockmating are striped, speckled, and mottled; for I have seen all that Laban has been doing to you. 13 I am the God of Bethel, where you anointed a pillar, where you made a vow to Me; now arise,h Lit go out fromleave this land, and return to the land of your birth.’” 14 Rachel and Leah said to him, “Do we still have any portion or inheritance in our father’s house? 15 Are we not reckoned by him as foreigners? For he has sold us, and has alsoi I.e. enjoyed the benefit ofentirely consumedj Lit our moneyour purchase price. 16 Surely all the wealth which God has taken away from our father belongs to us and our children; now then, do whatever God has said to you.”
17 Then Jacob arose and put his children and his wives upon camels; 18 and he drove away all his livestock and all his property which he had gathered, his acquired livestock which he had gathered in Paddan-aram, to go to the land of Canaan to his father Isaac. 19 When Laban had gone to shear his flock, then Rachel stole thek Heb teraphimhousehold idols that were her father’s. 20 And Jacobl Lit stole the heart ofdeceived Laban the Aramean by not telling him that he was fleeing. 21 So he fled with all that he had; and he arose and crossed the Euphrates River, and set his face toward the hill country of Gilead.
22 When it was told Laban on the third day that Jacob had fled, 23 then he took hism Lit brotherskinsmen with him and pursued him a distance of seven days’ journey, and he overtook him in the hill country of Gilead. 24 God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream of the night and said to him, “n Lit Take heed to yourselfBe careful that you do not speak to Jacob either good or bad.”
25 Laban caught up with Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the hill country, and Laban with hiso Lit brotherskinsmen camped in the hill country of Gilead. 26 Then Laban said to Jacob, “What have you donep Lit and you have stolen my heartby deceiving me and carrying away my daughters like captives of the sword? 27 Why did you flee secretly andq Lit steal medeceive me, and did not tell me so that I might have sent you away with joy and with songs, with timbrel and with lyre; 28 and did not allow me to kiss my sons and my daughters? Now you have done foolishly. 29 It is inr Lit the power of my handmy power to do you harm, but the God of your father spoke to me last night, saying, ‘s Lit Take heed to yourselfBe careful not to speak either good or bad to Jacob.’ 30 Now you have indeed gone away because you longed greatly for your father’s house; but why did you steal my gods?” 31 Then Jacob replied to Laban, “Because I was afraid, for I thought that you would take your daughters from me by force. 32 The one with whom you find your gods shall not live; in the presence of ourt Lit brotherskinsmenu Lit recognizepoint out what is yoursv Lit with meamong my belongings and take it for yourself.” For Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.
33 So Laban went into Jacob’s tent and into Leah’s tent and into the tent of the two maids, but he did not find them. Then he went out of Leah’s tent and entered Rachel’s tent. 34 Now Rachel had taken thew Heb teraphimhousehold idols and put them in the camel’s saddle, and she sat on them. And Laban felt through all the tent but did not find them. 35 She said to her father, “Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you, for the manner of women is upon me.” So he searched but did not find thex Heb teraphimhousehold idols.
36 Then Jacob became angry and contended with Laban; and Jacob said to Laban, “What is my transgression? What is my sin that you have hotly pursued me? 37 Though you have felt through all my goods, what have you found of all your household goods? Set it here before myy Lit brotherskinsmen and yourz Lit brotherskinsmen, that they may decide between us two. 38 These twenty years I have been with you; your ewes and your female goats have not miscarried, nor have I eaten the rams of your flocks. 39 That which was torn of beasts I did not bring to you; I bore the loss of it myself. You required it of my hand whether stolen by day or stolen by night. 40 Thus I was: by day theaa Or droughtheat consumed me and the frost by night, and my sleep fled from my eyes. 41 These twenty years I have been in your house; I served you fourteen years for your two daughters and six years for your flock, and you changed my wages ten times. 42 If the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the fear of Isaac, had not been for me, surely now you would have sent me away empty-handed. God has seen my affliction and the toil of my hands, so He rendered judgment last night.”
43 Then Laban replied to Jacob, “The daughters are my daughters, and the children are my children, and the flocks are my flocks, and all that you see is mine. But what can I do this day to these my daughters or to their children whom they have borne? 44 So now come, let us make a covenant,ab Lit I and youyou and I, and let it be a witness betweenac Lit me and youyou and me.” 45 Then Jacob took a stone and set it up as a pillar. 46 Jacob said to hisad Lit brotherskinsmen, “Gather stones.” So they took stones and made a heap, and they ate there by the heap. 47 Now Laban called itae I.e. the heap of witness, in AramJegar-sahadutha, but Jacob called itaf I.e. the heap of witness, in HebGaleed. 48 Laban said, “This heap is a witness betweenag Lit me and youyou and me this day.” Therefore it was named Galeed, 49 andah Lit the Mizpah; i.e. the watchtowerMizpah, for he said, “May the LORD watch betweenai Lit me and youyou and me when we areaj Lit hiddenabsent one from the other. 50 If you mistreat my daughters, or if you take wives besides my daughters, although no man is with us, see, God is witness betweenak Lit me and youyou and me.” 51 Laban said to Jacob, “Behold this heap and behold the pillar which I have set betweenal Lit me and youyou and me. 52 This heap is a witness, and the pillar is a witness, that I will not pass by this heap to you for harm, and you will not pass by this heap and this pillar to me, for harm. 53 The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between us.” So Jacob swore by the fear of his father Isaac. 54 Then Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain, and called hisam Lit brotherskinsmen toan Lit eat breadthe meal; and they ateao Lit breadthe meal and spent the night on the mountain. 55 ap Ch 32:1 in HebEarly in the morning Laban arose, and kissed his sons and his daughters and blessed them. Then Laban departed and returned to his place.

Genesis, Chapter 32

1 Now as Jacob went on his way, the angels of God met him. 2 Jacob said when he saw them, “This is God’sa Or companycamp.” So he named that placeb I.e. Two Camps, or Two CompaniesMahanaim.
3 Then Jacob sent messengers before him to his brother Esau in the land of Seir, thec Lit fieldcountry of Edom. 4 He also commanded them saying, “Thus you shall say to my lord Esau: ‘Thus says your servant Jacob, “I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed until now; 5 I have oxen and donkeys and flocks and male and female servants; and I have sent to tell my lord, that I may find favor in your sight.”’”
6 The messengers returned to Jacob, saying, “We came to your brother Esau, and furthermore he is coming to meet you, and four hundred men are with him.” 7 Then Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed; and he divided the people who were with him, and the flocks and the herds and the camels, into two companies; 8 for he said, “If Esau comes to the one company andd Lit smitesattacks it, then the company which is left will escape.”
9 Jacob said, “O God of my father Abraham and God of my father Isaac, O LORD, who said to me, ‘Return to your country and to your relatives, and I wille Lit do good with youprosper you,’ 10 f Lit I am less than allI am unworthy of all the lovingkindness and of all theg Or truthfaithfulness which You have shown to Your servant; for with my staff only I crossed this Jordan, and now I have become two companies. 11 Deliver me, I pray, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau; for I fear him, that he will come andh Lit smiteattack me and the mothers with the children. 12 For You said, ‘I will surelyi Lit do good withprosper you and make yourj Lit seeddescendants as the sand of the sea, which is too great to be numbered.’”
13 So he spent the night there. Then hek Lit tookselected from whatl Lit had come to his handhe had with him a present for his brother Esau: 14 two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, 15 thirty milking camels and their colts, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys. 16 He delivered them into the hand of his servants, every drove by itself, and said to his servants, “Pass on before me, and put a space between droves.” 17 He commanded them Lit firstone in front, saying, “When my brother Esau meets you and asks you, saying, ‘To whom do you belong, and where are you going, and to whom do these animals in front of you belong?’ 18 then you shall say, ‘These belong to your servant Jacob; it is a present sent to my lord Esau. And behold, he also is behind us.’” 19 Then he commanded also the second and the third, and all those who followed the droves, saying, “After this manner you shall speak to Esau when you find him; 20 and you shall say, ‘Behold, your servant Jacob also is behind us.’” For he said, “I will appease him with the present that goes before me. Then afterward I will see his face; perhaps he will accept me.” 21 So the present passed on before him, while he himself spent that night in the camp.
22 Now he arose that same night and took his two wives and his two maids and his eleven children, and crossed the ford of the Jabbok. 23 He took them and sent them across the stream. And he sent across whatever he had.
24 Then Jacob was left alone, and a man wrestled with him until daybreak. 25 When he saw that he had not prevailed against him, he touched the socket of his thigh; so the socket of Jacob’s thigh was dislocated while he wrestled with him. 26 Then he said, “Let me go, for the dawn is breaking.” But he said, “I will not let you go unless you bless me.” 27 So he said to him, “What is your name?” And he said, “Jacob.” 28 He said, “Your name shall no longer be Jacob, butn I.e. he who strives with God; or God strivesIsrael; for you have striven with God and with men and have prevailed.” 29 Then Jacob asked him and said, “Please tell me your name.” But he said, “Why is it that you ask my name?” And he blessed him there. 30 So Jacob named the placeo I.e. the face of GodPeniel, for he said, “I have seen God face to face, yet myp Lit soullife has been preserved.” 31 Now the sun rose upon him just as he crossed over Penuel, and he was limping on his thigh. 32 Therefore, to this day the sons of Israel do not eat the sinew of the hip which is on the socket of the thigh, because he touched the socket of Jacob’s thigh in the sinew of the hip.

Genesis, Chapter 33

1 Then Jacob lifted his eyes and looked, and behold, Esau was coming, and four hundred men with him. So he divided the childrena Or toamong Leah and Rachel and the two maids. 2 He put the maids and their childrenb Lit firstin front, and Leah and her childrenc Lit behindnext, and Rachel and Josephd Lit behindlast. 3 But he himself passed on ahead of them and bowed down to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother.
4 Then Esau ran to meet him and embraced him, and fell on his neck and kissed him, and they wept. 5 He lifted his eyes and saw the women and the children, and said, “e Or What relation are these to you?Who are these with you?” So he said, “The children whom God has graciously given your servant.” 6 Then the maids came nearf Lit they andwith their children, and they bowed down. 7 Leah likewise came near with her children, and they bowed down; and afterward Joseph came near with Rachel, and they bowed down. 8 And he said, “What do you mean by all this company which I have met?” And he said, “To find favor in the sight of my lord.” 9 But Esau said, “I have plenty, my brother; let what you have be your own.” 10 Jacob said, “No, please, if now I have found favor in your sight, then take my present from my hand,g Lit for therefore I have seen your face like seeing God’s facefor I see your face as one sees the face of God, and you have received me favorably. 11 Please take myh Lit blessinggift which has been brought to you, because God has dealt graciously with me and because I havei Lit allplenty.” Thus he urged him and he took it.
12 Thenj Lit heEsau said, “Let us take our journey and go, and I will go before you.” 13 But he said to him, “My lord knows that the children are frail and that the flocks and herds which are nursing arek Lit upon mea care to me. And if they are driven hard one day, all the flocks will die. 14 Please let my lord pass on before his servant, and I will proceed at my leisure, according to the pace of the cattle that are before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come to my lord at Seir.”
15 Esau said, “Please let me leave with you some of the people who are with me.” But he said, “l Lit Why this?What need is there? Let me find favor in the sight of my lord.” 16 So Esau returned that day on his way to Seir. 17 Jacob journeyed tom I.e. boothsSuccoth, and built for himself a house and made booths for his livestock; therefore the place is named Succoth.
18 Now Jacob came safely to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram, and camped before the city. 19 He bought the piece of land where he had pitched his tent from the hand of the sons of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for one hundredn Heb qesitahpieces of money. 20 Then he erected there an altar and called ito I.e. God, the God of IsraelEl-Elohe-Israel.

Genesis, Chapter 34

1 Now Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out toa Lit seevisit the daughters of the land. 2 When Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, he took her and lay with herb Lit and humbled herby force. 3 c Lit His soul clungHe was deeply attracted to Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the girl andd Lit spoke to the heart of the girlspoke tenderly to her. 4 So Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, “Get me this young girl for a wife.” 5 Now Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; but his sons were with his livestock in the field, so Jacob kept silent until they came in. 6 Then Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him. 7 Now the sons of Jacob came in from the field when they heard it; and the men were grieved, and they were very angry because he had done ae Lit senselessdisgraceful thing in Israelf Lit to lieby lying with Jacob’s daughter, for such a thing ought not to be done.
8 But Hamor spoke with them, saying, “The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter; please give her to himg Lit for a wifein marriage. 9 Intermarry with us; give your daughters to us and take our daughters for yourselves. 10 Thus you shallh Lit dwelllive with us, and the land shall be open before you;i Lit dwelllive and trade in it and acquire property in it.” 11 Shechem also said to her father and to her brothers, “If I find favor in your sight, then I will give whatever you say to me. 12 Ask me ever so much bridal payment and gift, and I will give according as you say to me; but give me the girlj Lit for a wifein marriage.”
13 But Jacob’s sons answered Shechem and his father Hamor with deceit, because he had defiled Dinah their sister. 14 They said to them, “We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one who is uncircumcised, for that would be a disgrace to us. 15 Only on this condition will we consent to you: if you will become like us, in that every male of you be circumcised, 16 then we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters for ourselves, and we willk Lit dwelllive with you and become one people. 17 But if you will not listen to us to be circumcised, then we will take our daughter and go.”
18 Now their words seemedl Lit goodreasonable to Hamor and Shechem, Hamor’s son. 19 The young man did not delay to do the thing, because he was delighted with Jacob’s daughter. Now he was more respected than all the household of his father. 20 So Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city and spoke to the men of their city, saying, 21 “These men arem Lit peacefulfriendly with us; therefore let themn Lit dwelllive in the land and trade in it, for behold, the land iso Lit wide of hands before themlarge enough for them. Let us take their daughtersp Lit to us for wivesin marriage, and give our daughters to them. 22 Only on this condition will the men consent to us toq Lit dwelllive with us, to become one people: that every male among us be circumcised as they are circumcised. 23 Will not their livestock and their property and all their animals be ours? Only let us consent to them, and they willr Lit dwelllive with us.” 24 All who went out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and to his son Shechem, and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city.
25 Now it came about on the third day, when they were in pain, that two of Jacob’s sons, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, each took his sword and came upon the city unawares, and killed every male. 26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah from Shechem’s house, and went forth. 27 Jacob’s sons came upon the slain and looted the city, because they had defiled their sister. 28 They took their flocks and their herds and their donkeys, and that which was in the city and that which was in the field; 29 and they captured and looted all their wealth and all their little ones and their wives, even all that was in the houses. 30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought trouble on me by making me odious among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites; ands Lit I, few in numbermy men being few in number, they will gather together against me andt Lit smiteattack me and I will be destroyed, I and my household.” 31 But they said, “Should heu Or maketreat our sister as a harlot?”

Genesis, Chapter 35

1 Then God said to Jacob, “Arise, go up to Bethel anda Lit dwelllive there, and make an altar there to God, who appeared to you when you fledb Lit from the face offrom your brother Esau.” 2 So Jacob said to his household and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign gods which are among you, and purify yourselves and change your garments; 3 and let us arise and go up to Bethel, and I will make an altar there to God, who answered me in the day of my distress and has been with mec Lit in the way whichwherever I have gone.” 4 So they gave to Jacob all the foreign gods whichd Lit were in their handthey had and the rings which were in their ears, and Jacob hid them under thee Or terebinthoak which was near Shechem.
5 As they journeyed, there wasf Or a terror of Goda great terror upon the cities which were around them, and they did not pursue the sons of Jacob. 6 So Jacob came to Luz (that is, Bethel), which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people who were with him. 7 He built an altar there, and called the placeg I.e. the God of BethelEl-bethel, because there God had revealed Himself to him when he fledh Lit from the face offrom his brother. 8 Now Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died, and she was buried below Bethel under the oak; it was namedi I.e. oak of weepingAllon-bacuth.
9 Then God appeared to Jacob again when he came from Paddan-aram, and He blessed him. 10 God said to him,
“Your name is Jacob;
j Lit Your nameYou shall no longer be called Jacob,
But Israel shall be your name.”
Thus He calledk Lit his namehim Israel.
 11 God also said to him,
“I aml Heb El ShaddaiGod Almighty;
Be fruitful and multiply;
A nation and a company of nations shallm Or come into beingcome from you,
And kings shalln Or come into beingcome forth fromo Lit your loinsyou.
 12 “The land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac,
I will give it to you,
And I will give the land to yourp Lit seeddescendants after you.”
13 Then God went up from him in the place where He had spoken with him. 14 Jacob set up a pillar in the place where He had spoken with him, a pillar of stone, and he poured out a drink offering on it; he also poured oil on it. 15 So Jacob named the place where God had spoken with him,q I.e. the house of GodBethel.
16 Then they journeyed from Bethel; and when there was still some distance to go to Ephrath, Rachel began to give birth and sher Lit had difficulty in her giving birthsuffered severe labor. 17 When she was in severe labor the midwife said to her, “Do not fear, for now you have another son.” 18 It came about as her soul was departing (for she died), that she named hims I.e. the son of my sorrowBen-oni; but his father called himt I.e. the son of the right handBenjamin. 19 So Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem). 20 Jacob set up a pillar over her grave; that is the pillar of Rachel’s grave to this day. 21 Then Israel journeyed on and pitched his tent beyond theu Heb Migdal-edertower ofv Or flockEder.
22 It came about while Israel was dwelling in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine, and Israel heard of it.
Now there were twelve sons of Jacob—
 23 the sons of Leah: Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, then Simeon and Levi and Judah and Issachar and Zebulun; 24 the sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin; 25 and the sons of Bilhah, Rachel’s maid: Dan and Naphtali; 26 and the sons of Zilpah, Leah’s maid: Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan-aram.
27 Jacob came to his father Isaac at Mamre of Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron), where Abraham and Isaac had sojourned.
28 Now the days of Isaac were one hundred and eighty years. 29 Isaac breathed his last and died and was gathered to his people, an old manw Lit and satisfied with daysof ripe age; and his sons Esau and Jacob buried him.

Genesis, Chapter 36

1 Now these are the records of the generations of Esau (that is, Edom).
2 Esau took his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and the granddaughter of Zibeon the Hivite; 3 also Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, the sister of Nebaioth. 4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, and Basemath bore Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush and Jalam and Korah. These are the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 Then Esau took his wives and his sons and his daughters and alla Lit the souls of his househis household, and his livestock and all his cattle and all his goods which he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and went to another land away from his brother Jacob. 7 For their property had become too great for them tob Lit dwelllive together, and the land where they sojourned could not sustain them because of their livestock. 8 So Esau lived in the hill country of Seir; Esau is Edom.
9 These then are the records of the generations of Esau the father ofc Lit Edomthe Edomites in the hill country of Seir. 10 These are the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz the son of Esau’s wife Adah, Reuel the son of Esau’s wife Basemath. 11 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar,d In 1 Chr 1:36, ZephiZepho and Gatam and Kenaz. 12 Timna was a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz and she bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These are the sons of Esau’s wife Adah. 13 These are the sons of Reuel: Nahath and Zerah, Shammah and Mizzah. These were the sons of Esau’s wife Basemath. 14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah and thee Gr songranddaughter of Zibeon:f Lit and sheshe bore to Esau, Jeush and Jalam and Korah.
15 These are the chiefs of the sons of Esau. The sons of Eliphaz, the firstborn of Esau, are chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 chief Korah, chief Gatam, chief Amalek. These are the chiefsg Lit of Eliphazdescended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Adah. 17 These are the sons of Reuel, Esau’s son: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These are the chiefsh Lit of Reueldescended from Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Esau’s wife Basemath. 18 These are the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These are the chiefsi Lit of Oholibamah, Esau’s wifedescended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah. 19 These are the sons of Esau (that is, Edom), and these are their chiefs.
20 These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan and Shobal and Zibeon and Anah, 21 and Dishon and Ezer and Dishan. These are the chiefsj Lit of the Horitesdescended from the Horites, the sons of Seir in the land of Edom. 22 The sons of Lotan were Hori andk In 1 Chr 1:39, HomamHemam; and Lotan’s sister was Timna. 23 These are the sons of Shobal:l In 1 Chr 1:40, AlianAlvan and Manahath and Ebal,m In 1 Chr 1:40, ShephiShepho and Onam. 24 These are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah—he is the Anah who found the hot springs in the wilderness when he was pasturing the donkeys of his father Zibeon. 25 These are the children of Anah: Dishon, and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah. 26 These are the sons ofn Heb DishanDishon:o In 1 Chr 1:41, HamranHemdan and Eshban and Ithran and Cheran. 27 These are the sons of Ezer: Bilhan and Zaavan andp In 1 Chr 1:42, JaakanAkan. 28 These are the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran. 29 These are the chiefsq Lit of the Horitesdescended from the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 chief Dishon, chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These are the chiefsr Lit of the Horitesdescended from the Horites, according to their various chiefs in the land of Seir.
31 Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel. 32 s Lit And BelaBela the son of Beor reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah. 33 Then Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah became king in his place. 34 Then Jobab died, and Husham of the land of the Temanites became king in his place. 35 Then Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, whot Or smotedefeated Midian in the field of Moab, became king in his place; and the name of his city was Avith. 36 Then Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah became king in his place. 37 Then Samlah died, and Shaul of Rehoboth on the Euphrates River became king in his place. 38 Then Shaul died, and Baal-hanan the son of Achbor became king in his place. 39 Then Baal-hanan the son of Achbor died, andu In 1 Chr 1:50, HadadHadar became king in his place; and the name of his city wasv In 1 Chr 1:50, PaiPau; and his wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, daughter of Mezahab.
40 Now these are the names of the chiefsw Lit of Esaudescended from Esau, according to their families and their localities, by their names: chief Timna, chiefx In 1 Chr 1:51, AliahAlvah, chief Jetheth, 41 chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These are the chiefs of Edom (that is, Esau, the father ofy Heb Edomthe Edomites), according to their habitations in the land of their possession.

Genesis, Chapter 37

1 Now Jacob lived in the landa Lit of his father’s sojourningswhere his father had sojourned, in the land of Canaan. 2 These are the records of the generations of Jacob.
Joseph, when seventeen years of age, was pasturing the flock with his brothers while he was still a youth, along with the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah, his father’s wives. And Joseph brought back a bad report about them to their father.
 3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him ab Or full-length robevaricolored tunic. 4 His brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers; and so they hated him and could not speak to himc Lit in peaceon friendly terms.
5 Then Josephd Lit dreamedhad a dream, and when he told it to his brothers, they hated him even more. 6 He said to them, “Please listen to this dream which I havee Lit dreamedhad; 7 for behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and lo, my sheaf rose up and also stood erect; and behold, your sheaves gathered around and bowed down to my sheaf.” 8 Then his brothers said to him, “Are you actually going to reign over us? Or are you really going to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.
9 Now hef Lit dreamedhad still another dream, and related it to his brothers, and said, “Lo, I haveg Lit dreamedhad still another dream; and behold, the sun and the moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 10 He related it to his father and to his brothers; and his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you haveh Lit dreamedhad? Shall I and your mother and your brothers actually come to bow ourselves down before you to the ground?” 11 His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind.
12 Then his brothers went to pasture their father’s flock in Shechem. 13 Israel said to Joseph, “Are not your brothers pasturing the flock in Shechem? Come, and I will send you to them.” And he said to him, “i Lit Behold meI will go.” 14 Then he said to him, “Go now and see about the welfare of your brothers and the welfare of the flock, and bring word back to me.” So he sent him from the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.
15 A man found him, and behold, he was wandering in the field; and the man asked him, “j Lit saying, “What...?”What are you looking for?” 16 He said, “I am looking for my brothers; please tell me where they are pasturing the flock.” 17 Then the man said, “They have moved from here; for I heard them say, ‘Let us go to Dothan.’” So Joseph went after his brothers and found them at Dothan.
18 k Or AndWhen they saw him from a distance and before he came close to them, they plotted against him to put him to death. 19 They said to one another, “l Lit Behold, this master of dreams comesHere comes this dreamer! 20 Now then, come and let us kill him and throw him into one of the pits; and we will say, ‘A wild beast devoured him.’ Then let us see what will become of his dreams!” 21 But Reuben heard this and rescued him out of their hands and said, “Let us notm Lit smite his soultake his life.” 22 Reuben further said to them, “Shed no blood. Throw him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but do not lay hands on him”—that he might rescue him out of their hands, to restore him to his father. 23 So it came about, when Josephn Lit came toreached his brothers, that they stripped Joseph of hiso Or full-length robetunic, the varicolored tunic that was on him; 24 and they took him and threw him into the pit. Now the pit was empty, without any water in it.
25 Then they sat down to eatp Lit breada meal. And as they raised their eyes and looked, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites was coming from Gilead, with their camels bearingq Or ladanum spicearomatic gum andr Or masticbalm ands Or resinous barkmyrrh,t Lit goingon their way to bring them down to Egypt. 26 Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it for us to kill our brother and cover up his blood? 27 Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites and not lay our hands on him, for he is our brother, our own flesh.” And his brothers listened to him. 28 Then some Midianite traders passed by, so they pulled him up and lifted Joseph out of the pit, and soldu Lit Josephhim to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver. Thus they brought Joseph into Egypt.
29 Now Reuben returned to the pit, and behold, Joseph was not in the pit; so he tore his garments. 30 He returned to his brothers and said, “The boy is not there; as for me, where am I to go?” 31 So they took Joseph’s tunic, and slaughtered a male goat and dipped the tunic in the blood; 32 and they sent the varicolored tunic and brought it to their father and said, “We found this; pleasev Or recognizeexamine it to see whether it is your son’s tunic or not.” 33 Then hew Or recognizedexamined it and said, “It is my son’s tunic. A wild beast has devoured him; Joseph has surely been torn to pieces!” 34 So Jacob tore his clothes, and put sackcloth on his loins and mourned for his son many days. 35 Then all his sons and all his daughters arose to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted. And he said, “Surely I will go down to Sheol in mourning for my son.” So his father wept for him. 36 Meanwhile, thex Lit MedanitesMidianites sold him in Egypt to Potiphar, Pharaoh’s officer, the captain of the bodyguard.

Genesis, Chapter 38

1 And it came about at that time, that Judaha Lit went downdeparted from his brothers andb Lit turned aside tovisited a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah. 2 Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite whose name was Shua; and he took her and went in to her. 3 So she conceived and bore a son and he named him Er. 4 Then she conceived again and bore a son and named him Onan. 5 She bore still another son and named him Shelah; and it was at Chezibc Lit whenthat she bore him.
6 Now Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar. 7 But Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the sight of the LORD, so the LORD took his life. 8 Then Judah said to Onan, “Go in to your brother’s wife, and perform your duty as a brother-in-law to her, and raise upd Lit seedoffspring for your brother.” 9 Onan knew that thee Lit seedoffspring would not be his; so when he went in to his brother’s wife, hef Lit spilled on the groundwasted his seed on the ground in order not to giveg Lit seedoffspring to his brother. 10 But what he did was displeasing in the sight of the LORD; so He took his life also. 11 Then Judah said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, “Remain a widow in your father’s house until my son Shelah grows up”; for heh Lit saidthought, “I am afraid that he too may die like his brothers.” So Tamar went and lived in her father’s house.
12 Nowi Lit the days became many andafter a considerable time Shua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died; and whenj Lit Judah was comforted, hethe time of mourning was ended, Judah went up to his sheepshearers at Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite. 13 It was told to Tamar, “k Lit saying, BeholdBehold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep.” 14 So shel Lit removed from herselfremoved her widow’s garments and covered herself with am Or shawlveil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the gateway ofn In Josh 15:34, EnamEnaim, which is on the road to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife. 15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a harlot, for she had covered her face. 16 So he turned aside to her by the road, and said, “o Or Come, nowHere now, let me come in to you”; for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, “What will you give me, that you may come in to me?” 17 He said, therefore, “I will send you ap Lit kid of goatsyoung goat from the flock.” She said, moreover, “Will you give a pledge until you send it?” 18 He said, “What pledge shall I give you?” And she said, “Your seal and your cord, and your staff that is in your hand.” So he gave them to her and went in to her, and she conceived by him. 19 Then she arose and departed, andq Lit removed from herselfremoved herr Or shawlveil and put on her widow’s garments.
20 When Judah sent thes Lit kid of goats by the hand ofyoung goat by his friend the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand, he did not find her. 21 He asked the men of her place, saying, “Where is the temple prostitute who was by the road at Enaim?” But they said, “There has been no temple prostitute here.” 22 So he returned to Judah, and said, “I did not find her; and furthermore, the men of the place said, ‘There has been no temple prostitute here.’” 23 Then Judah said, “Let hert Lit take for herselfkeep them, otherwise we will become a laughingstock.u Lit BeholdAfter all, I sent this young goat, but you did not find her.”
24 Now it was about three months later that Judah was informed, “v Lit saying, YourYour daughter-in-law Tamar has played the harlot, and behold, she is also with child by harlotry.” Then Judah said, “Bring her out and let her be burned!” 25 It was while she was being brought out that she sent to her father-in-law, saying, “I am with child by the man to whom these things belong.” And she said, “Please examine and see, whose signet ring and cords and staff are these?” 26 Judah recognized them, and said, “She is more righteous than I, inasmuch as I did not give her to my son Shelah.” And he did notw Lit know her yet againhave relations with her again.
27 It came about at the time she was giving birth, that behold, there were twins in her womb. 28 Moreover, it took place while she was giving birth, one put out a hand, and the midwife took and tied a scarlet thread on his hand, saying, “This one came out first.” 29 But it came about as he drew back his hand, that behold, his brother came out. Then she said, “What a breach you have made for yourself!” So he was namedx I.e. a breachPerez. 30 Afterward his brother came out who had the scarlet thread on his hand; and he was namedy I.e. a dawning or brightnessZerah.

Genesis, Chapter 39

1 Now Joseph had been taken down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an Egyptian officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the bodyguard, bought hima Lit from the hand offrom the Ishmaelites, who had taken him down there. 2 The LORD was with Joseph, so he became ab Or prosperoussuccessful man. And he was in the house of his master, the Egyptian. 3 Now his master saw that the LORD was with him and how the LORD caused all that he did to prosper in his hand. 4 So Joseph found favor in his sight andc Or ministered to himbecame his personal servant; and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he owned he put in hisd Lit handcharge. 5 It came about that from the time he made him overseer in his house and over all that he owned, the LORD blessed the Egyptian’s house on account of Joseph; thus the LORD’S blessing was upon all that he owned, in the house and in the field. 6 So he left everything he owned in Joseph’se Lit handcharge; and with him there he did notf Lit knowconcern himself with anything except theg Lit breadfood which heh Or used to eatate.
Now Joseph was handsome in form and appearance.
 7 It came about after these events that his master’s wifei Lit lifted up her eyes atlooked with desire at Joseph, and she said, “Lie with me.” 8 But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, with me here, my masterj Lit does not know what is in the housedoes not concern himself with anything in the house, and he has put all that he owns in myk Lit handcharge. 9 l Or He is not greaterThere is no one greater in this house than I, and he has withheld nothing from me except you, because you are his wife. How then could I do this great evil and sin against God?” 10 As she spoke to Joseph day after day, he did not listen to her to lie beside her or be with her. 11 Now it happenedm Lit about this dayone day that he went into the house to do his work, and none of the men of the household was there inside. 12 She caught him by his garment, saying, “Lie with me!” And he left his garment in her hand and fled, and went outside. 13 n Lit And it came about whenWhen she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had fled outside, 14 she called to the men of her household and said to them, “See, he has brought in ao Lit Hebrew manHebrew to us to make sport of us; he came in to me to lie with me, and Ip Lit called with a great voicescreamed. 15 When he heard that I raised my voice andq Lit called outscreamed, he left his garment beside me and fled and went outside.” 16 So sher Lit let...lie besideleft his garment beside her until his master came home. 17 Then she spoke to hims Lit according towith these words, “t Lit saying, “TheThe Hebrew slave, whom you brought to us, came in to me to make sport of me; 18 and as I raised my voice andu Lit called outscreamed, he left his garment beside me and fled outside.”
19 Now when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spoke to him, saying, “v Lit According to these things your slaveThis is what your slave did to me,” his anger burned. 20 So Joseph’s master took him and put him into the jail, the place where the king’s prisoners were confined; and he was there in the jail. 21 But the LORD was with Joseph and extended kindness to him, and gave him favor in the sight of the chief jailer. 22 The chief jailer committed to Joseph’sw Lit handcharge all the prisoners who were in the jail; so that whatever was done there, he wasx Lit the doerresponsible for it. 23 The chief jailer did not supervise anything undery Lit his handJoseph’s charge because the LORD was with him; and whatever he did, the LORD made to prosper.

Genesis, Chapter 40

1 Then it came about after these things, the cupbearer and the baker for the king of Egypt offended their lord, the king of Egypt. 2 Pharaoh was furious with his two officials, the chief cupbearer and the chief baker. 3 So he put them in confinement in the house of the captain of the bodyguard, in the jail, the same place where Joseph was imprisoned. 4 The captain of the bodyguard put Joseph in charge of them, and hea Lit ministered totook care of them; and they were in confinement forb Lit dayssome time. 5 Then the cupbearer and the baker for the king of Egypt, who were confined in jail, both had a dream the same night, each man with his own dream and each dream with its own interpretation. 6 c Or AndWhen Joseph came to them in the morning and observed them,d Lit and beholdbehold, they were dejected. 7 He asked Pharaoh’s officials who were with him in confinement in his master’s house, “e Lit saying, WhyWhy are your faces so sad today?” 8 Then they said to him, “We havef Lit dreamedhad a dream and there is no one to interpret it.” Then Joseph said to them, “Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell it to me, please.”
9 So the chief cupbearer told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, “In my dream,g Lit and beholdbehold, there was a vine in front of me; 10 and on the vine were three branches. And as it was budding, its blossoms came out, and its clusters produced ripe grapes. 11 Now Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand; so I took the grapes and squeezed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and I put the cup into Pharaoh’sh Lit palmhand.” 12 Then Joseph said to him, “This is the interpretation of it: the three branches are three days; 13 within three more days Pharaoh willi Or possibly forgive youlift up your head and restore you to yourj Lit placeoffice; and you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand according to your former custom when you were his cupbearer. 14 Onlyk Lit remember me with yourselfkeep me in mind when it goes well with you, and please do me a kindnessl Lit and mentionby mentioning me to Pharaoh and get me out of this house. 15 For I was in fact kidnapped from the land of the Hebrews, and even here I have done nothing that they should have put me into them Or pitdungeon.”
16 When the chief baker saw that he had interpreted favorably, he said to Joseph, “I also saw in my dream, and behold, there were three baskets of white bread on my head; 17 and in the top basket there were some of alln Lit food for Pharaoh made by a bakersorts of baked food for Pharaoh, and the birds were eating them out of the basket on my head.” 18 Then Joseph answered and said, “This is its interpretation: the three baskets are three days; 19 within three more days Pharaoh will lift up your head from you and will hang you on a tree, and the birds will eat your flesh off you.”
20 Thus it came about on the third day, which was Pharaoh’s birthday, that he made a feast for all his servants; and he lifted up the head of the chief cupbearer and the head of the chief baker among his servants. 21 He restored the chief cupbearer to hiso Lit wine-pouringoffice, and he put the cup into Pharaoh’sp Lit palmhand; 22 but he hanged the chief baker, just as Joseph had interpreted to them. 23 Yet the chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph, but forgot him.

Genesis, Chapter 41

1 Now it happened at the end of two full years that Pharaoh had a dream, and behold, he was standing by the Nile. 2 And lo, from the Nile there came up seven cows, sleek anda Lit fat of fleshfat; and they grazed in the marsh grass. 3 Then behold, seven other cows came up after them from the Nile, ugly andb Lit lean of fleshgaunt, and they stood by the other cows on the bank of the Nile. 4 The ugly andc Lit lean of fleshgaunt cows ate up the seven sleek and fat cows. Then Pharaoh awoke. 5 He fell asleep and dreamed a second time; and behold, seven ears of grain came up on a single stalk, plump and good. 6 Then behold, seven ears, thin and scorched by the east wind, sprouted up after them. 7 The thin ears swallowed up the seven plump and full ears. Then Pharaoh awoke, and behold, it was a dream. 8 Now in the morning his spirit was troubled, so he sent and called for all thed Or soothsayer priestsmagicians of Egypt, and all its wise men. And Pharaoh told them hise Lit dreamdreams, but there was no one who could interpret them to Pharaoh.
9 Then the chief cupbearer spoke to Pharaoh, saying, “I would make mention today of my ownf Or sinsoffenses. 10 Pharaoh was furious with his servants, and he put me in confinement in the house of the captain of the bodyguard, both me and the chief baker. 11 We had a dreamg Lit one nighton the same night,h Lit I and hehe and I; each of us dreamed according to the interpretation of his own dream. 12 Now a Hebrew youth was with us there, a servant of the captain of the bodyguard, and we related them to him, and he interpreted our dreams for us. To each one he interpreted according to his own dream. 13 And just as he interpreted for us, so it happened; he restored me in myi Lit placeoffice, but he hanged him.”
14 Then Pharaoh sent and called for Joseph, and they hurriedly brought him out of the dungeon; and when he had shaved himself and changed his clothes, he came to Pharaoh. 15 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, but no one can interpret it; and I have heardj Lit about you, sayingit said about you, thatk Lit you hear a dream to interpret itwhen you hear a dream you can interpret it.” 16 Joseph then answered Pharaoh, saying, “l Lit Apart from meIt is not in me; God willm Lit answer the peace of Pharaohgive Pharaoh a favorable answer.” 17 So Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, “In my dream, behold, I was standing on the bank of the Nile; 18 and behold, seven cows,n Lit fat of fleshfat and sleek came up out of the Nile, and they grazed in the marsh grass. 19 Lo, seven other cows came up after them, poor and very ugly ando Lit lean of fleshgaunt, such as I had never seen forp Lit badnessugliness in all the land of Egypt; 20 and the lean andq Lit badugly cows ate up the first seven fat cows. 21 Yet when they hadr Lit entered their inward partsdevoured them, it could not bes Or knowndetected that they hadt Lit entered their inward partsdevoured them,u Lit andfor they were just as ugly asv Lit in the beginningbefore. Then I awoke. 22 I saw also in my dream, and behold, seven ears, full and good, came up on a single stalk; 23 and lo, seven ears, withered, thin, and scorched by the east wind, sprouted up after them; 24 and the thin ears swallowed the seven good ears. Then I told it to thew Or soothsayer priestsmagicians, but there was no one who could explain it to me.”
25 Now Joseph said to Pharaoh, “Pharaoh’sx Lit dream isdreams are one and the same; God has told to Pharaoh what He is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years; they Lit dream isdreams are one and the same. 27 The seven lean and ugly cows that came up after them are seven years, and the seven thin ears scorched by the east wind will be seven years of famine. 28 z Lit That is the thing which I spokeIt is as I have spoken to Pharaoh: God has shown to Pharaoh what He is about to do. 29 Behold, seven years of great abundance are coming in all the land of Egypt; 30 and after them seven years of famine willaa Lit arisecome, and all the abundance will be forgotten in the land of Egypt, and the famine willab Lit destroyravage the land. 31 So the abundance will be unknown in the land because of that subsequent famine; for it will be very severe. 32 Now as for the repeating of the dream to Pharaoh twice, it means that the matter is determined by God, and God will quickly bring it about. 33 Now let Pharaoh look for a man discerning and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt. 34 Let Pharaoh take action to appoint overseersac Lit overin charge of the land, and let him exact a fifth of the produce of the land of Egypt in the seven years of abundance. 35 Then let them gather all the food of these good years that are coming, and store up the grain for food in the cities under Pharaoh’s authority, and let them guard it. 36 Let the food become as a reserve for the land for the seven years of famine which will occur in the land of Egypt, so that the land will not perish during the famine.”
37 Now thead Lit wordproposal seemed goodae Lit in the sight ofto Pharaoh andaf Lit in the sight ofto all his servants.
38 Then Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find a man like this, in whom is a divine spirit?” 39 So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has informed you of all this, there is no one so discerning and wise as you are. 40 You shall be over my house, and according to yourag Lit mouthcommand all my people shallah Lit kissdo homage; only in the throne I will be greater than you.” 41 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.” 42 Then Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put the gold necklace around his neck. 43 He had him ride inai Lit the second...which was hishis second chariot; and they proclaimed before him, “aj Heb Abreck: Attention or Make wayBow the knee!” And he set him over all the land of Egypt. 44 Moreover, Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Though I am Pharaoh, yet withoutak Lit you no oneyour permission no one shall raise his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” 45 Then Pharaoh named Josephal Probably Egyptian for “God speaks; he lives”Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest ofam Or HeliopolisOn, as his wife. And Joseph went forth over the land of Egypt.
46 Now Joseph was thirty years old when hean Or entered the service ofstood before Pharaoh, king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh and went through all the land of Egypt. 47 During the seven years of plenty the land brought forthao Lit by handfulsabundantly. 48 So he gathered all the food of these seven years which occurred in the land of Egypt and placed the food in the cities; he placed in every city the food from its own surrounding fields. 49 Thus Joseph stored up grainap Lit very muchin great abundance like the sand of the sea, until he stoppedaq Lit numberingmeasuring it, for it wasar Or without numberbeyond measure.
50 Now before the year of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest ofas Or HeliopolisOn, bore to him. 51 Joseph named the firstbornat I.e. making to forgetManasseh, “For,” he said, “God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father’s household.” 52 He named the secondau I.e. fruitfulnessEphraim, “For,” he said, “God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.”
53 When the seven years of plenty which had been in the land of Egypt came to an end, 54 and the seven years of famine began to come, just as Joseph had said, then there was famine in all the lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 So when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried out to Pharaoh for bread; and Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph; whatever he says to you, you shall do.” 56 When the famine was spread over all the face of the earth, then Joseph opened allav Lit that which was in themthe storehouses, and sold to the Egyptians; and the famine was severe in the land of Egypt. 57 The people of all the earth came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph, because the famine was severe in all the earth.

Genesis, Chapter 42

1 Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, “Why are you staring at one another?” 2 He said, “Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down there and buy some for usa Lit from therefrom that place, so that we may live and not die.” 3 Then ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy grain from Egypt. 4 But Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with his brothers, for he said, “I am afraid that harm may befall him.” 5 So the sons of Israel came to buy grain among those who were coming, for the famine was in the land of Canaan also.
6 Now Joseph was the ruler over the land; he was the one who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down to him with their faces to the ground. 7 When Joseph saw his brothers he recognized them, but he disguised himself to them and spoke to them harshly. And he said to them, “Where have you come from?” And they said, “From the land of Canaan, to buy food.”
8 But Joseph had recognized his brothers, although they did not recognize him. 9 Joseph remembered the dreams which heb Lit had dreamedhad about them, and said to them, “You are spies; you have come to look at thec Lit nakedness of the landundefended parts of our land.” 10 Then they said to him, “No, my lord, but your servants have come to buy food. 11 We are all sons of one man; we are honest men, your servants are not spies.” 12 Yet he said to them, “No, but you have come to look at thed Lit nakedness of the landundefended parts of our land!” 13 But they said, “Your servants are twelve brothers in all, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan; and behold, the youngest is with our father today, and one is no longer alive.” 14 Joseph said to them, “It is as I saide Lit to you, sayingto you, you are spies; 15 by this you will be tested: by the life of Pharaoh, you shall not go from this place unless your youngest brother comes here! 16 Send one of you that he may get your brother, while you remain confined, that your words may be tested, whether there is truth in you. But if not, by the life of Pharaoh, surely you are spies.” 17 So he put them all together in prison for three days.
18 Now Joseph said to them on the third day, “Do this and live, for I fear God: 19 if you are honest men, let one of your brothers be confined inf Lit the house of your prisonyour prison; but as for the rest of you, go, carry grain for the famine of your households, 20 and bring your youngest brother to me, so your words may be verified, and you will not die.” And they did so. 21 Then they said to one another, “Truly we are guilty concerning our brother, because we saw the distress of his soul when he pleaded with us, yet we would not listen; therefore this distress has come upon us.” 22 Reuben answered them, saying, “Did I not tellg Lit you sayingyou, ‘Do not sin against the boy’; and you would not listen?h Lit And behold, his blood also is requiredNow comes the reckoning for his blood.” 23 They did not know, however, that Joseph understood, for there was an interpreter between them. 24 He turned away from them and wept. But when he returned to them and spoke to them, he took Simeon from them and bound him before their eyes. 25 Then Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain and to restore every man’s money in his sack, and to give them provisions for the journey. And thus it was done for them.
26 So they loaded their donkeys with their grain and departed from there. 27 As one of them opened his sack to give his donkey fodder at the lodging place, he saw his money; and behold, it was in the mouth of his sack. 28 Then he said to his brothers, “My money has been returned, and behold, it is even in my sack.” And their heartsi Lit went outsank, and they turnedj Lit trembledtrembling to one another, saying, “What is this that God has done to us?”
29 When they came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan, they told him all that had happened to them, saying, 30 “The man, the lord of the land, spoke harshly with us, and took us for spies of the country. 31 But we said to him, ‘We are honest men; we are not spies. 32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father; one is no longer alive, and the youngest is with our father today in the land of Canaan.’ 33 The man, the lord of the land, said to us, ‘By this I will know that you are honest men: leave one of your brothers with me and take grain for the famine of your households, and go. 34 But bring your youngest brother to me that I may know that you are not spies, butk Lit you are honesthonest men. I will give your brother to you, and you may trade in the land.’”
35 Now it came about as they were emptying their sacks, that behold, every man’s bundle of money was in his sack; and when they and their father saw their bundles of money, they were dismayed. 36 Their father Jacob said to them, “You have bereaved me of my children: Joseph is no more, and Simeon is no more, and you would take Benjamin; all these things are against me.” 37 Then Reuben spoke to his father, saying, “You may put my two sons to death if I do not bring him back to you; put him in myl Lit handcare, and I will return him to you.” 38 Butm Lit heJacob said, “My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he alone is left. If harm should befall him on the journeyn Lit on which you are goingyou are taking, then you will bring my gray hair down to Sheol in sorrow.”

Genesis, Chapter 43

1 Now the famine was severe in the land. 2 So it came about when they had finished eating the grain which they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, “Go back, buy us a little food.” 3 Judah spoke to him, however, saying, “The man solemnly warneda Lit us, sayingus, ‘You shall not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ 4 If you send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food. 5 But if you do not send him, we will not go down; for the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’” 6 Then Israel said, “Why did you treat me so badlyb Lit to tellby telling the man whether you still had another brother?” 7 But they said, “The man questioned particularly about us and our relatives, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ So wec Lit told him according to these wordsanswered his questions. Could we possibly know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?” 8 Judah said to his father Israel, “Send the lad with me and we will arise and go, that we may live and not die, we as well as you and our little ones. 9 I myself will be surety for him;d Lit from my hand you may require himyou may hold me responsible for him. If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, thene Lit I shall have sinned before you all the dayslet me bear the blame before you forever. 10 For if we had not delayed, surely by now we could have returned twice.”
11 Then their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: take some of the best products of the land in yourf Or vesselsbags, and carry down to the man as a present, a littleg Or masticbalm and a little honey,h Or ladanum spicearomatic gum andi Or resinous barkmyrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds. 12 Take double the money in your hand, and take back in your hand the money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks; perhaps it was a mistake. 13 Take your brother also, and arise, return to the man; 14 and mayj Heb El ShaddaiGod Almighty grant you compassion in the sight of the man, so that he will release to you your other brother and Benjamin. And as for me, if I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved.” 15 So the men took this present, and they took double the money in their hand, and Benjamin; then they arose and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.
16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to his house steward, “Bring the men into the house, and slay an animal and make ready; for the men are to dine with me at noon.” 17 So the man did as Joseph said, andk Lit the man broughtbrought the men to Joseph’s house. 18 Now the men were afraid, because they were brought to Joseph’s house; and they said, “It is because of the money that was returned in our sacks the first time that we are being brought in, that he mayl Lit roll himself upon usseek occasion against us and fall upon us, and take us for slaves with our donkeys.” 19 So they came near to Joseph’s house steward, and spoke to him at the entrance of the house, 20 and said, “Oh, my lord, we indeed came down the first time to buy food, 21 and it came about when we came to the lodging place, that we opened our sacks, and behold, each man’s money was in the mouth of his sack, our money inm Lit its weightfull. So we have brought it back in our hand. 22 We have also brought down other money in our hand to buy food; we do not know who put our money in our sacks.” 23 He said, “n Lit Peace be to youBe at ease, do not be afraid. Your God and the God of your father has given you treasure in your sacks;o Lit your money had come to meI had your money.” Then he brought Simeon out to them. 24 Then the man brought the men into Joseph’s house and gave them water, and they washed their feet; and he gave their donkeys fodder. 25 So they prepared the presentp Lit untilfor Joseph’s coming at noon; for they had heard that they were to eatq Lit breada meal there.
26 When Joseph came home, they brought into the house to him the present which was in their hand and bowed to the ground before him. 27 Then he asked them about their welfare, and said, “Is your old father well, of whom you spoke? Is he still alive?” 28 They said, “Your servant our father is well; he is still alive.” They bowed downr Lit and prostrated themselvesin homage. 29 As he lifted his eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother’s son, he said, “Is this your youngest brother, of whom you spoke to me?” And he said, “May God be gracious to you, my son.” 30 Joseph hurried out fors Lit his compassion grew warmhe was deeply stirred over his brother, and he sought a place to weep; and he entered his chamber and wept there. 31 Then he washed his face and came out; and he controlled himself and said, “t Lit Set on breadServe the meal.” 32 So they served him by himself, and them by themselves, and the Egyptians who ate with him by themselves, because the Egyptians could not eat bread with the Hebrews, for that isu Lit an abominationloathsome to the Egyptians. 33 Now theyv Lit satwere seated before him, the firstborn according to his birthright and the youngest according to his youth, and the men looked at one another in astonishment. 34 He took portions to them fromw Lit his facehis own table, but Benjamin’s portion was five times as much as any of theirs. So they feasted and drank freely with him.

Genesis, Chapter 44

1 Then he commanded his house steward, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money in the mouth of his sack. 2 Put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and his money for the grain.” And he dida Or according to the wordas Joseph had told him. 3 b Lit The morning was lightAs soon as it was light, the men were sent away, they with their donkeys. 4 They had just gone out of the city, and were not far off, when Joseph said to his house steward, “Up, follow the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid evil for good? 5 Is not this the one from which my lord drinks and which he indeed uses for divination? You have done wrong in doing this.’”
6 So he overtook them and spoke these words to them. 7 They said to him, “Why does my lord speak such words as these? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing. 8 Behold, the money which we found in the mouth of our sacks we have brought back to you from the land of Canaan. How then could we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house? 9 With whomever of your servants it is found, let him die, and we also will be my lord’s slaves.” 10 So he said, “Now let it also be according to your words; he with whom it is found shall be my slave, and the rest of you shall be innocent.” 11 Then they hurried, each man lowered his sack to the ground, and each man opened his sack. 12 He searched, beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest, and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. 13 Then they tore their clothes, and when each man loaded his donkey, they returned to the city.
14 When Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house, he was still there, and they fell to the ground before him. 15 Joseph said to them, “What is this deed that you have done? Do you not know that such a man as I can indeed practice divination?” 16 So Judah said, “What can we say to my lord? What can we speak? And how can we justify ourselves? God has found out the iniquity of your servants; behold, we are my lord’s slaves, both we and the one in whosec Lit handpossession the cup has been found.” 17 But he said, “Far be it from me to do this. The man in whosed Lit handpossession the cup has been found, he shall be my slave; but as for you, go up in peace to your father.”
18 Then Judah approached him, and said, “Oh my lord, may your servant please speak a word in my lord’s ears, ande Lit let not your anger burn againstdo not be angry with your servant; for you are equal to Pharaoh. 19 My lord asked his servants, saying, ‘Have you a father or a brother?’ 20 We said to my lord, ‘We have an old father and a little child of his old age. Now his brother is dead, so he alone is left of his mother, and his father loves him.’ 21 Then you said to your servants, ‘Bring him down to me that I may set my eyes on him.’ 22 But we said to my lord, ‘The lad cannot leave his father, for if he should leave his father,f Lit he wouldhis father would die.’ 23 You said to your servants, however, ‘Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you will not see my face again.’ 24 Thus it came about when we went up to your servant my father, we told him the words of my lord. 25 Our father said, ‘Go back, buy us a little food.’ 26 But we said, ‘We cannot go down. If our youngest brother is with us, then we will go down; for we cannot see the man’s face unless our youngest brother is with us.’ 27 Your servant my father said to us, ‘You know that my wife bore me two sons; 28 and the one went out from me, and I said, “Surely he is torn in pieces,” and I have not seen him since. 29 If you take this one also fromg Lit my faceme, and harm befalls him, you will bring my gray hair down to Sheol inh Lit evilsorrow.’ 30 Now, therefore, when I come to your servant my father, and the lad is not with us, sincei Lit his soul is bound with his soulhis life is bound up in the lad’s life, 31 when he sees that the lad is not with us, he will die. Thus your servants will bring the gray hair of your servant our father down to Sheol in sorrow. 32 For your servant became surety for the lad to my father, saying, ‘If I do not bring him back to you, thenj Lit and I shall have sinned for all the days before my fatherlet me bear the blame before my father forever.’ 33 Now, therefore, please let your servant remain instead of the lad a slave to my lord, and let the lad go up with his brothers. 34 For how shall I go up to my father if the lad is not with me—for fear that I see the evil that wouldk Lit findovertake my father?”

Genesis, Chapter 45

1 Then Joseph could not control himself before all those who stood by him, and he cried, “Have everyone go out from me.” So therea Lit stoodwas no man with him when Joseph made himself known to his brothers. 2 Heb Lit gave forth his voice in weepingwept so loudly that the Egyptians heard it, and the household of Pharaoh heard of it. 3 Then Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph! Is my father still alive?” But his brothers could not answer him, for they were dismayed at his presence.
4 Then Joseph said to his brothers, “Please comec Lit nearcloser to me.” And they camed Lit nearcloser. And he said, “I am your brother Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt. 5 Now do not be grieved or angrye Lit in your eyeswith yourselves, because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life. 6 For the famine has been in the land these two years, and there are still five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvesting. 7 God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant in the earth, and to keep you alive by a greatf Lit escaped companydeliverance. 8 Now, therefore, it was not you who sent me here, but God; and He has made me a father to Pharaoh and lord of all his household and ruler over all the land of Egypt. 9 Hurry and go up to my father, and say to him, ‘Thus says your son Joseph, “God has made me lord of all Egypt; come down to me, do not delay. 10 You shallg Lit dwelllive in the land of Goshen, and you shall be near me, you and your children and your children’s children and your flocks and your herds and all that you have. 11 There I will also provide for you, for there are still five years of famine to come, and you and your household and all that you have would be impoverished.”’ 12 Behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin see, that it is my mouth which is speaking to you. 13 Now you must tell my father of all my splendor in Egypt, and all that you have seen; and you must hurry and bring my father down here.” 14 Then he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck and wept, and Benjamin wept on his neck. 15 He kissed all his brothers and wept on them, and afterward his brothers talked with him.
16 Now when theh Lit voicenews was heard in Pharaoh’s housei Lit saying, “Joseph’s brothers have come”that Joseph’s brothers had come, itj Lit was good in the eyes ofpleased Pharaoh and his servants. 17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Say to your brothers, ‘Do this: load your beasts andk Lit come, gogo to the land of Canaan, 18 and take your father and your households and come to me, and I will give you thel Lit goodbest of the land of Egypt and you will eat the fat of the land.’ 19 Now you are ordered, ‘Do this:m Lit take for yourselvestake wagons from the land of Egypt for your little ones and for your wives, and bring your father and come. 20 Do notn Lit let your eye look with regret upon your vesselsconcern yourselves with your goods, for theo Lit goodbest of all the land of Egypt is yours.’”
21 Then the sons of Israel did so; and Joseph gave them wagons according to thep Lit mouthcommand of Pharaoh, and gave them provisions for the journey. 22 Toq Lit all of them he gave each maneach of them he gave changes of garments, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver and five changes of garments. 23 To his father he sentr Lit like thisas follows: ten donkeys loaded with thes Lit goodbest things of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain and bread and sustenance for his fathert Lit foron the journey.
24 So he sent his brothers away, andu Lit they departed; and he saidas they departed, he said to them, “Do notv Lit be agitatedquarrel on the journey.” 25 Then they went up from Egypt, and came to the land of Canaan to their father Jacob. 26 They told him, saying, “Joseph is still alive, and indeed he is ruler over all the land of Egypt.” Butw Lit his heart grew numbhe was stunned, for he did not believe them. 27 When they told him all the words of Joseph that he had spoken to them, and when he saw the wagons that Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of their father Jacob revived. 28 Then Israel said, “It is enough; my son Joseph is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.”

Genesis, Chapter 46

1 So Israel set out with all that he had, and came to Beersheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac. 2 God spoke to Israela Lit in the visionsin visions of the night and said, “Jacob, Jacob.” And he said, “Here I am.” 3 He said, “I am God, the God of your father; do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will make you a great nation there. 4 I will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also surely bring you up again; and Joseph willb Lit put his hand onclose your eyes.”
5 Then Jacob arose from Beersheba; and the sons of Israel carried their father Jacob and their little ones and their wives in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. 6 They took their livestock and their property, which they had acquired in the land of Canaan, and came to Egypt, Jacob and all hisc Lit seeddescendants with him: 7 his sons and his grandsons with him, his daughters and his granddaughters, and all hisd Lit seeddescendants he brought with him to Egypt.
8 Now these are the names of the sons of Israel, Jacob and his sons, who went to Egypt: Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn. 9 The sons of Reuben: Hanoch and Pallu and Hezron and Carmi. 10 The sons of Simeon:e In Num 26:12 and 1 Chr 4:24, NemuelJemuel and Jamin and Ohad andf In 1 Chr 4:24, JaribJachin andg In Num 26:13 and 1 Chr 4:24, ZerahZohar and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman. 11 The sons of Levi:h In 1 Chr 6:16, GershomGershon, Kohath, and Merari. 12 The sons of Judah: Er and Onan and Shelah and Perez and Zerah (but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan). And the sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul. 13 The sons of Issachar: Tola andi In Num 26:23, Puvah; in 1 Chr 7:1, PuahPuvvah andj In Num 26:24 and 1 Chr 7:1, JashubIob and Shimron. 14 The sons of Zebulun: Sered and Elon and Jahleel. 15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan-aram, with his daughter Dinah;k Lit all the souls ofall his sons and his daughters numbered thirty-three. 16 The sons of Gad:l In Num 26:15, ZephonZiphion and Haggi, Shuni andm In Num 26:16, OzniEzbon, Eri andn In Num 26:17, ArodArodi and Areli. 17 The sons of Asher: Imnah and Ishvah and Ishvi and Beriah and their sister Serah. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel. 18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Leah; and she bore to Jacob these sixteen persons. 19 The sons of Jacob’s wife Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin. 20 Now to Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, bore to him. 21 The sons of Benjamin: Bela and Becher and Ashbel, Gera and Naaman,o In Num 26:38, AhiramEhi and Rosh,p In Num 26:39, Shephupham; in 1 Chr 7:12, ShuppimMuppim andq In Num 26:39, HuphamHuppim and Ard. 22 These are the sons of Rachel, who were born to Jacob; there were fourteen persons in all. 23 The sons of Dan:r In Num 26:42, ShuhamHushim. 24 The sons of Naphtali:s In 1 Chr 7:13, JahzielJahzeel and Guni and Jezer andt In 1 Chr 7:13, ShallumShillem. 25 These are the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Rachel, and she bore these to Jacob; there were seven persons in all. 26 All the persons belonging to Jacob, who came to Egypt,u Lit who came out of his loinshis direct descendants, not including the wives of Jacob’s sons, were sixty-six persons in all, 27 and the sons of Joseph, who were born to him in Egypt werev Lit two soulstwo; all the persons of the house of Jacob, who came to Egypt, were seventy.
28 Now he sent Judah before him to Joseph, to point out the way before him to Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen. 29 Josephw Lit tied, harnessedprepared his chariot and went up to Goshen to meet his father Israel; as soon as he appearedx Lit tobefore him, he fell on his neck and wept on his neck a long time. 30 Then Israel said to Joseph, “Now let me die, since I have seen your face, that you are still alive.” 31 Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s household, “I will go up and tell Pharaoh, and will say to him, ‘My brothers and my father’s household, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me; 32 and the men are shepherds, for they have beeny Lit menkeepers of livestock; and they have brought their flocks and their herds and all that they have.’ 33 When Pharaoh calls you and says, ‘What is your occupation?’ 34 you shall say, ‘Your servants have beenz Lit menkeepers of livestock from our youth even until now, both we and our fathers,’ that you mayaa Lit dwelllive in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd isab Lit an abominationloathsome to the Egyptians.”

Genesis, Chapter 47

1 Then Joseph went in and told Pharaoh, and said, “My father and my brothers and their flocks and their herds and all that they have, have come out of the land of Canaan; and behold, they are in the land of Goshen.” 2 He took five men from among his brothers and presented them to Pharaoh. 3 Then Pharaoh said to his brothers, “What is your occupation?” So they said to Pharaoh, “Your servants are shepherds, both we and our fathers.” 4 They said to Pharaoh, “We have come to sojourn in the land, for there is no pasture for your servants’ flocks, for the famine is severe in the land of Canaan. Now, therefore, please let your servantsa Lit dwelllive in the land of Goshen.” 5 Then Pharaoh said tob Lit Joseph, sayingJoseph, “Your father and your brothers have come to you. 6 The land of Egypt isc Lit before youat your disposal;d Lit cause them to dwellsettle your father and your brothers in the best of the land, let theme Lit dwelllive in the land of Goshen; and if you know any capable men among them, thenf Lit appoint them rulersput them in charge of my livestock.”
7 Then Joseph brought his father Jacob andg Lit set him beforepresented him to Pharaoh; and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. 8 Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How manyh Lit are the days of the years of your lifeyears have you lived?” 9 So Jacob said to Pharaoh, “Thei Lit days of the yearsyears of my sojourning are one hundred andj Lit thirty yearsthirty; few andk Lit evilunpleasant have been thel Lit days of the yearsyears of my life, nor have theym Lit reachedattained then Lit days of the yearsyearso Lit of the life of my fathersthat my fathers lived during the days of their sojourning.” 10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out fromp Lit Pharaoh’shis presence. 11 So Josephq Lit caused to dwellsettled his father and his brothers and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had ordered. 12 Joseph provided his father and his brothers and all his father’s household withr Or breadfood, according to their little ones.
13 Now there was nos Or breadfood in all the land, because the famine was very severe, so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan languished because of the famine. 14 Joseph gathered all the money that was found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan for the grain which they bought, and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house. 15 When the money was all spent in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Josepht Lit sayingand said, “Give usu Or breadfood, for why should we die in your presence? For our moneyv Lit ceasesis gone.” 16 Then Joseph said, “Give up your livestock, and I will give you food for your livestock, since your moneyw Lit ceasesis gone.” 17 So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave themx Or breadfood in exchange for the horses and they Lit livestock of the flocks and livestock of the herdsflocks and the herds and the donkeys; and hez Lit led them as a shepherdfed them withaa Or breadfood in exchange for all their livestockab Lit in that yearthat year. 18 When that year was ended, they came to him theac Lit secondnext year and said to him, “We will not hide from my lord that our money is all spent, and thead Lit livestock of the cattlecattle are my lord’s. There is nothing leftae Lit in the presence offor my lord except our bodies and our lands. 19 Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land foraf Or breadfood, and we and our land will be slaves to Pharaoh. So give us seed, that we may live and not die, and that the land may not be desolate.”
20 So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, forag Lit Egypt, every manevery Egyptian sold his field, because the famine was severe upon them. Thus the land became Pharaoh’s. 21 As for the people, he removed them to the cities from one end of Egypt’s border to the other. 22 Only the land of the priests he did not buy, for the priests had an allotment from Pharaoh, and theyah Lit ate their allotmentlived off the allotment which Pharaoh gave them. Therefore, they did not sell their land. 23 Then Joseph said to the people, “Behold, I have today bought you and your land for Pharaoh; now, here is seed for you, and you may sow the land. 24 ai Lit It shall come about...that you shallAt the harvest you shall give a fifth to Pharaoh, andaj Lit four partsfour-fifths shall be your own for seed of the field and for your food and for those of your households and as food for your little ones.” 25 So they said, “You have saved our lives! Let us find favor in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh’s slaves.” 26 Joseph made it a statute concerning the land of Egypt valid to this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth; only the land of the priestsak Lit alone diddid not become Pharaoh’s.
27 Now Israelal Lit dweltlived in the land of Egypt, inam Lit in the land of GoshenGoshen, and they acquired property in it and were fruitful and became very numerous. 28 Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years; so thean Lit days of Jacob, the years of his lifelength of Jacob’s life was one hundred and forty-seven years.
29 Whenao Lit the days of Israel to die drew nearthe time for Israel to die drew near, he called his son Joseph and said to him, “Please, if I have found favor in your sight, place now your hand under my thigh and deal with me in kindness andap Lit truthfaithfulness. Please do not bury me in Egypt, 30 but when I lie down with my fathers, you shall carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their burial place.” And he said, “I will do as you have said.” 31 He said, “Swear to me.” So he swore to him. Then Israel bowed in worship at the head of the bed.

Genesis, Chapter 48

1 Now it came about after these things thata Lit one said to JosephJoseph was told, “Behold, your father is sick.” So he took his two sons Manasseh and Ephraim with him. 2 Whenb Lit one told Jacob and saidit was told to Jacob, “Behold, your son Joseph has come to you,” Israelc Lit strengthened himselfcollected his strength and satd Lit upon the bedup in the bed. 3 Then Jacob said to Joseph, “e Heb El ShaddaiGod Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me, 4 and He said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful and numerous, and I will make you a company of peoples, and will give this land to yourf Lit seeddescendants after you for an everlasting possession.’ 5 Now your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine, as Reuben and Simeon are. 6 But your offspring thatg Lit you have begottenhave been born after them shall be yours; they shall be called by theh Lit namenames of their brothers in their inheritance. 7 Now as for me, when I came from Paddan, Rachel died,i Lit upon meto my sorrow, in the land of Canaan on the journey, when there was still some distance to go to Ephrath; and I buried her there on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).”
8 When Israel saw Joseph’s sons, he said, “Who are these?” 9 Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom God has given me here.” So he said, “Bring them to me, please, that I may bless them.” 10 Now the eyes of Israel were so dim from age that he could not see. Thenj Lit heJoseph brought them close to him, and he kissed them and embraced them. 11 Israel said to Joseph, “I neverk Lit meditated, judgedexpected to see your face, and behold, God has let me see yourl Lit seedchildren as well.” 12 Then Josephm Lit made them come outtook them from his knees, and bowed with his face to the ground. 13 Joseph took them both, Ephraim with his right hand toward Israel’s left, and Manasseh with his left hand toward Israel’s right, and brought them close to him. 14 But Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on the head of Ephraim, who was the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh’s head,n Or consciously directingcrossing his hands,o Lit whenalthough Manasseh was the firstborn. 15 He blessed Joseph, and said,
“The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked,
The God who has been my shepherdp Lit from the continuance of meall my life to this day,
 16 The angel who has redeemed me from all evil,
Bless the lads;
And may my nameq Lit be calledlive on in them,
And ther Lit namenames of my fathers Abraham and Isaac;
And may they grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.”
17 When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on Ephraim’s head, it displeased him; and he grasped his father’s hand to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 18 Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father, for this one is the firstborn. Place your right hand on his head.” 19 But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know; he also will become a people and he also will be great. However, his younger brother shall be greater than he, and hiss Lit seeddescendants shall become at Lit fullnessmultitude of nations.” 20 He blessed them that day, saying,
“By you Israel will pronounce blessing, saying,
‘May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh!’”
Thus he put Ephraim before Manasseh.
 21 Then Israel said to Joseph, “Behold, I am about to die, but God will be with you, and bring you back to the land of your fathers. 22 I give you oneu Or ridge; lit shoulder; Heb Shechemportion more than your brothers, which I took from the hand of the Amorite with my sword and my bow.”

Genesis, Chapter 49

1 Then Jacob summoned his sons and said, “Assemble yourselves that I may tell you what will befall you in thea Lit end of the daysdays to come.
 2 “Gather together and hear, O sons of Jacob;
And listen to Israel your father.
 3 “Reuben, you are my firstborn;
My might and the beginning of my strength,
b Lit preeminencePreeminent in dignity andc Lit preeminencepreeminent in power.
 4 “d Or Boiling over; lit RecklessnessUncontrolled as water, you shall not have preeminence,
Because you went up to your father’s bed;
Then you defiled it—he went up to my couch.
 5 “Simeon and Levi are brothers;
Their swords are implements of violence.
 6 “Let my soul not enter into their council;
Let not my glory be united with their assembly;
Because in their anger they slewe Lit a manmen,
And in their self-will they lamedf Lit an oxoxen.
 7 “Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce;
And their wrath, for it is cruel.
I willg Lit dividedisperse them in Jacob,
And scatter them in Israel.
 8 “Judah, your brothers shall praise you;
Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies;
Your father’s sons shall bow down to you.
 9 “Judah is a lion’s whelp;
From the prey, my son, you have gone up.
Heh Lit bows downcouches, he lies down as a lion,
And as ai Or lionesslion, whoj Lit shalldares rouse him up?
 10 “The scepter shall not depart from Judah,
Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet,
k Or Until he comes to Shiloh; or Until he comes to whom it belongsUntil Shiloh comes,
And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples.
 11 “l Lit Binding ofHe ties his foal to the vine,
And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine;
He washes his garments in wine,
And his robes in the blood of grapes.
 12 “His eyes arem Or darker thandull from wine,
And his teethn Or whiter thanwhite from milk.
 13 “Zebulun will dwell at the seashore;
And he shall beo Lit for a shore of shipsa haven for ships,
And his flank shall be toward Sidon.
 14 “Issachar isp Lit a donkey of bonea strong donkey,
Lying down between theq Or saddlebagssheepfolds.
 15 “When he saw that a resting place was good
And that the land was pleasant,
He bowed his shoulder to bear burdens,
And became a slave at forced labor.
 16 “Dan shall judge his people,
As one of the tribes of Israel.
 17 “Dan shall be a serpent in the way,
A horned snake in the path,
That bites the horse’s heels,
So that his rider falls backward.
 18 “For Your salvation I wait, O LORD.
 19 “As for Gad,r Lit a raiding bandraiders shall raid him,
But he will raid at theirs Lit heelheels.
 20 “t Lit FromAs for Asher, hisu Or breadfood shall bev Lit fatrich,
And he will yield royal dainties.
 21 “Naphtali is a doe let loose,
He gives beautiful words.
 22 “Joseph is a fruitfulw Lit sonbough,
A fruitfulx Lit sonbough by a spring;
Itsy Lit daughtersbranches run over a wall.
 23 “The archers bitterly attacked him,
And shot at him and harassed him;
 24 But his bow remainedz I.e. in an unyielding positionfirm,
Andaa Lit the arms of his handshis arms were agile,
From the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob
(From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel),
 25 From the God of your father who helps you,
Andab Or withby theac Heb ShaddaiAlmighty who blesses you
With blessings of heaven above,
Blessings of the deep that lies beneath,
Blessings of the breasts and of the womb.
 26 “The blessings of your father
Have surpassed the blessings of my ancestors
Up to thead Lit limit; or desireutmost bound of the everlasting hills;
May they be on the head of Joseph,
And on the crown of the head of the one distinguished among his brothers.
 27 “Benjamin is aae Lit a wolf that tearsravenous wolf;
In the morning he devours the prey,
And in the evening he divides the spoil.”
28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father said to themaf Lit andwhen he blessed them. He blessed them, every oneag Lit according to his blessingwith the blessing appropriate to him. 29 Then he charged them and said to them, “I am about to be gathered to my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 30 in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought along with the field from Ephron the Hittite for aah Lit possession of a burial placeburial site. 31 There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah, and there I buried Leah— 32 the field and the cave that is in it, purchased from the sons of Heth.” 33 When Jacob finished charging his sons, he drew his feet into the bed and breathed his last, and was gathered to his people.

Genesis, Chapter 50

1 Then Joseph fell on his father’s face, and wept over him and kissed him. 2 Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel. 3 Now forty days werea Lit fulfilledrequired forb Or himit, forc Lit so are fulfilled the days of embalmingsuch is the period required for embalming. And the Egyptians wept for him seventy days.
4 When the days ofd Lit weepingmourning for him were past, Joseph spoke to the household of Pharaoh, saying, “If now I have found favor in your sight, please speake Lit In the ears ofto Pharaoh, saying, 5 ‘My father made me swear, saying, “Behold, I am about to die; in my grave which I dug for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me.” Now therefore, please let me go up and bury my father; then I will return.’” 6 Pharaoh said, “Go up and bury your father, as he made you swear.”
7 So Joseph went up to bury his father, and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household and all the elders of the land of Egypt, 8 and all the household of Joseph and his brothers and his father’s household; they left only their little ones and their flocks and their herds in the land of Goshen. 9 There also went up with him both chariots and horsemen; and it was a very great company. 10 When they came to thef Heb Goren ha-Atadthreshing floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, they lamented there with a very great andg Lit heavysorrowful lamentation; and heh Lit made a mourning for seven daysobserved seven days mourning for his father. 11 Now when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning ati Heb Goren ha-Atadthe threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is aj Lit heavygrievousk Heb ebelmourning for the Egyptians.” Therefore it was namedl I.e. the meadow (or mourning) of EgyptAbel-mizraim, which is beyond the Jordan.
12 Thus his sons did for him as he had charged them; 13 for his sons carried him to the land of Canaan and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre, which Abraham had bought along with the field for am Lit possession of a burial placeburial site from Ephron the Hittite. 14 After he had buried his father, Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers, and all who had gone up with him to bury his father.
15 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “What if Joseph bears a grudge against us and pays us back in full for all the wrong which we did to him!” 16 So theyn Lit commandedsent a message to Joseph, saying, “Your father charged before he died, saying, 17 ‘Thus you shall say to Joseph, “Please forgive, I beg you, the transgression of your brothers and their sin, for they did you wrong.”’ And now, please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father.” And Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18 Then his brothers also came and fell down before him and said, “Behold, we are your servants.” 19 But Joseph said to them, “Do not be afraid, for am I in God’s place? 20 As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good in order to bring abouto Lit as it is this daythis present result, to preserve many people alive. 21 So therefore, do not be afraid; I will provide for you and your little ones.” So he comforted them and spokep Lit to their heartkindly to them.
22 Now Joseph stayed in Egypt, he and his father’s household, and Joseph lived one hundred and ten years. 23 Joseph saw the third generation of Ephraim’s sons; also the sons of Machir, the son of Manasseh, were born on Joseph’s knees. 24 Joseph said to his brothers, “I am about to die, but God will surelyq Or visittake care of you and bring you up from this land to the land which Her Lit sworepromised on oath to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob.” 25 Then Joseph made the sons of Israel swear, saying, “God will surelys Or visittake care of you, and you shall carry my bones up from here.” 26 So Joseph died at the age of one hundred and ten years; andt Lit they embalmed himhe was embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt.
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12 Начиная с 12 гл., священнописатель показывает на примере жизни нескольких людей, что происходит в мире, когда Бог руководит событиями и люди исполняют Его волю: обнаруживается единство и смысл истории.


12:4 Порывая со всеми земными связями и отправляясь в незнакомую страну, Авраам отвечает верою и повиновением на призыв Божий. Это одно из величайших событий ВЗ. От решения Авраама зависело существование и будущее избранного народа и всего духовного потомства "отца верующих" (Рим 9:4; Гал 3:8): своим духовным родоначальником его считают и иудеи, и христиане, и мусульмане.


12:11-20 Этот рассказ носит отпечаток нравственного уровня той эпохи, когда обман и добродетель не считались несовместимыми. Человечество лишь постепенно, под руководством Божиим, познавало нравственный закон.


14:18-20 "Мелхиседек, царь Салимский" (Салим отождествлен с Иерусалимом в Пс 75:3и во всей иудейской традиции). Хотя Мелхиседек и не принадлежит к избранному народу, он служит Всевышнему, отождествляемому с Богом Авраама. Здесь уже намечается тенденция к универсализму: есть путь, ведущий к Богу через Израиль и путь, которым идут другие языч. народы. Оба пути сходятся в христианстве, где "нет уже ни иудея, ни язычника", но "все одно во Христе" (Гал 3:28). Таинственное священство Мелхиседека, соединенное с его царским достоинством, прообразует Христа, "священника вовек по чину Мелхиседекову" (Евр 7:21; ср. Пс 109:4). Св. Отцы развили это толкование, усмотрев в хлебе и вине, принесенных Мелхиседеком Аврааму, прообраз Евхаристической жертвы.


15:4-6 Авраам принял обетование Божие, когда оно казалось неосуществимым, что свидетельствует о глубине его веры; Бог "вменил ему это в праведность". Праведник в библ. понимании - прямой и повинующийся воле Божией человек (ср. Втор 24:13; Пс 105:31). Ап. Павел, основываясь на этом тексте, утверждает, что оправдание зависит не от дел, а от веры (Рим 3 28). Но так как все поведение Авраама проникнуто его живой верой, ап. Иаков обращается к тому же тексту, чтобы осудить "мертвую" веру, не подтверждаемую делами (Иак 2:26).


15:10-17 Древний обряд рассечения жертвенных животных обычно сопровождал заключение договора, чем подчеркивалась святость и нерушимость заключаемого союза. Лица, заключающие союз, проходили между частями жертвенных животных, что означало тесное "кровное" единение. Бог явил Свое присутствие в дыме и пламени огня (Быт 15:17).


16:2-4 По месопотамскому праву времен Авраама неплодная жена могла "дать мужу" свою служанку и считать детей, рожденных от такого союза, своими (ср. Быт 30:1-6; Быт 30:9-13).


16:6-15 За перенесенные страдания и послушание Агарь вознаграждается обетованием Бога о благословенном и многочисленном потомстве - "великом народе". Имя Измаила означает "Бог услышал" или "Да услышит Бог" (Быт 17:20).


17:1 Ходи предо Мною и будь непорочен - моральные требования стали неотъемлемой частью религии Авраама. Однако в семейном быту патриарха можно видеть отдельные черты, которые христианину могут показаться далекими от нравственного идеала. Здесь следует помнить, что преобразование Богом жизни избранного народа началось не с изменения внешних обычаев, а с воспитания чувства преданности Ему и веры. Вера впоследствии будет преобразовывать жизнь.


17:3-5 Согласно пониманию древних, имя не есть просто название данного лица - оно определяет его индивидуальность или назначение. Переименование свидетельствует о перемене его назначения (ср. Быт 17:15и Быт 35:10). Хотя Аврам и Авраам представляют как будто две формы одного имени, означающего "он велик по отцу", имя Авраам объясняется здесь как созвучное "абхамон" (отец множества).


17:10 Обрезание было вначале обрядом, подготавливающим к браку и к посвящению в члены данной общины. Пролитие крови свидетельствовало о прочности заключенного между людьми союза. У израильтян этот обряд стал знаменовать вступление в Союз-Завет Авраама и избранного народа с Богом, принадлежность к общине, исповедующей одну веру. В евр понимании кровь священна, ибо в ней жизнь: "душа тела в крови" (Лев 17:11; Лев 17:14), "кровь есть душа" (Втор 12:13). Кровь, текущая из органа, передающего жизнь, означает посвящение Богу жизни, принятой как дар. Обрезание стало "знаком", напоминающем Богу (как и радуга: Быт 9:16-17) о Его Завете, а человеку - о его принадлежности к избранному народу и вытекающих из этого обязательствах. В НЗ обрезание заменено крещением (Деян 15).


17:15 Согласно народному пониманию Сара и Сарра - две формы имени, означающего "княгиня". Сарра будет матерью царей (Быт 17:16).


17:17-19 Смех Авраама и Сарры (Быт 18:12; ср. Быт 12:6) происходит от удивления этим, казалось бы невероятным, обетованием. В ответ Бог исполняет предреченное Им и велит Аврааму дать сыну имя Исаак, сокращенную форму слов "Бог улыбнулся" или "Да улыбнется Бог" (несов. форма), т.е. - "Да будет благосклонен".


18:1-6 Явление трех мужей, которым Авраам воздал поклонение, рассматривается многими Отцами Церкви как предвозвещение тайны Пресвятой Троицы, полное откровение о которой было дано в НЗ.


18:16-23 Сказание в образной форме излагает библейскую философию истории, согласно которой судьбы народов связаны с их нравственным состоянием, вопрошая Бога, Авраам уверен в Его справедливости. Участь Содома и Гоморры определена особо тяжкими нравственными и религиозными извращениями их жителей.


18:24 Всегда актуальная проблема: должны ли праведники страдать из-за неправедных и вместе с ними? В древнем Израиле чувство коллективной ответственности было так сильно, что не ставился даже вопрос о спасении отдельных людей. Принцип индивидуальной ответственности получил четкое выражение только во Втор 24:16; Иер 31:29-30; Иез 14:12сл.; Иез 14:18. Авраам говорит лишь о возможности помилования многих виновных ради нескольких праведников. Ответы Ягве утверждают спасительную роль праведников как ходатаев за грешный мир. Согласно Иер 51; Иез 22:30, Бог простил бы Иерусалиму ради одного праведника: Исаия, в свою очередь, говорит о страданиях Отрока-Раба, которые спасают весь народ. Это пророчество было понято только после исполнения его во Христе.


19:24-25 Данные геологии и археологии подтвердили, что в указанном районе действительно произошла катастрофа, погубившая города. О страшной каре, постигшей Содом и Гоморру, нередко упоминается как в ВЗ, так и в НЗ.


19:26 Жена Лота символизирует пристрастие к греховному миру тех, кто, став на путь спасения, обращается вспять. "Вспоминайте жену Лотову" (Лк 17:32), говорит Христос, призывая к бдению и отречению от благ земных (ср. Лк 9:62).


19:30-35 Дочери Лота поступили так, полагая, что все люди на земле погибли (ст. 31) и им предстоит возродить род человеческий.


20:7 "Он пророк" - здесь впервые в евр подлиннике употребляется слово "нави", существовавшее уже до Моисея. Корень "нава" (говорить) указывает на человека, говорящего с Богом, т.е. находящегося с Ним в близких отношениях, неприкосновенного (Пс 104:15) и великого ходатая (Втор 34:10; Числ 11:2; Числ 21:7).


21:2 Имя Исаак означает и "смех", и "радость". Отцы Церкви усматривают в Исааке прообраз Иисуса Христа, а в Измаиле - символ языч. народов (ср. Гал 4:23сл.; Рим 9; Евр 11:18). Авраам избран Богом до того, как был обрезан, поэтому он считается отцом и иудеев и язычников.


21:8-20 Здесь не продолжение Быт 16, а параллельный рассказ.


22:9 Исаак, сын обетования, принадлежит Богу. Господь, повелевая Аврааму принести в жертву Исаака, тем самым испытывает его. Готовность Авраама принести своего единственного сына в жертву прообразует любовь Бога Отца, не пощадившего своего Единородного Сына (Ин 3:16; Рим 8:32). Исаак, явивший кроткое послушание воле отца, прообразует послушание Иисуса воле Отца небесного и становится достойным быть прообразом Его Голгофской жертвы.


Древний обычай хананеян - приносить в жертву первородных (считавшихся лучшими), чтобы обеспечить себе покровительство божества, - неоднократно осуждается пророками (Иер 7:30; Иез 16:20; Иез 22:26).


23:19-20 Пещера Махпела и прилегающее к ней поле являются залогом владения Землей Обетованной.


24:2-9 Присяга считается нерушимой в силу прикосновения к органам передачи жизни, которые рассматривались как священные (ср. Быт 47:29).


25:22 Длительное соперничество между близнецами Исавом и Иаковом началось уже в утробе их матери. Они изображены здесь как исторически действующие лица, в то же время символизирующие два народа, родоначальниками которых они стали: Исав - идумеян, Иаков - израильтян.


27 Не осуждая определенно поступка Иакова и Ревекки, священнописатель дает все же понять, что он предосудителен: Иаков боится, что отец проклянет его, если обман, к которому он прибег по внушению Ревекки, будет обнаружен (Быт 27:12). Однако этот обман, свидетельствующий о том, что мораль того времени была недостаточно высока, таинственно служит осуществлению замысла Божия: Исав относился с таким пренебрежением к правам первородства и связанной с ним ответственности, что клятвенно отрекся от них (Быт 25:33-34), чтобы Иаков дал ему поесть. Бог передает тогда эти права Иакову, ценившему их более, чем Исав. Господь так велик, что Свои предначертания Он может приводить в исполнение с помощью несовершенных людей, если они сознают ценность даров Божиих.


27:33 Раз произнесенные благословения (как и проклятия) считались непреложными.


27:36 Игра слов: первенство (евр "бекора") и благословение (евр "берака").


28:12 Следуя Филону, многие Отцы видели в лестнице Иакова образ Провидения Божия, проявляющего свою заботу о мире через посредство ангелов. Согласно другим, она - прообраз воплощения Сына Божия, соединившего небо с землей (ср. Ин 1:51), и Божией Матери, "послужившей исполнению этой страшной тайны". Поэтому в Богородичные праздники читается паремия о сне Иакова.


29:25 Ошибка Иакова объясняется обычаем, существующим и поныне - закрывать лицо невесты покрывалом до наступления брачной ночи.


31:42-51 Страх (евр "пахад") Исаака- метонимия : "Страхом Исаака" назван объект его страха, т.е. Бог (ср. Ис 8:13). Страх Исаака есть "страх Божий", ибо его "носил Исаак в душе" (Бл. Феодорит, Вопросы, 92). Многие современные исследователи на основании изучения языков - арабского и пальмирского, родственных еврейскому, пришли к заключению, что более точным был бы перевод "Родитель Исаака".


32:23-27 Иаков остается один, вероятно ожидая особого знамения Божия, подтверждающего его права на Ханаан. Таинственная борьба, происшедшая на рубеже Св. Земли, означает, по мнению Отцов Церкви (напр, св. Иеронима и Оригена), что дар Божий будет дан только тому, кто мужественно борется и обращается к Богу с настойчивой молитвой.


32:30 Ср. Исх 33:20.


35:2-4 Отвергая идолы, похищенные Рахилью (Быт 31:19, (Быт 31:39), а также и те, которые хранили его люди, Иаков окончательно отказывается от суеверий предков и торжественно исповедует веру во единого Бога Израилева.


37 Иосиф (букв растущий) символизирует израильский народ. Его история (Быт 37-50) показывает, как Бог, вопреки искушениям, опасностям и злой воле людей, хранил Израиль в самые трудные периоды его истории. Жизнь Иосифа - любимого сына, преданного своими братьями, много и безропотно претерпевшего в рабстве, явившего пример нравственной чистоты и ставшего спасителем своего народа, прообразует земную жизнь возлюбленного Сына Бога Отца, посланного в земное изгнание, уничижившего Себя принятием "образа раба", преданного Иудой, пострадавшего "до смерти крестной" (Флп 2 7-8) и ставшего спасителем человечества. В то же время сказание, избегая идеализации Иосифа, говорит и об его отрицательных поступках.


37:26 Согласно древнему поверью, убийца, покрыв землей кровь убитого, чтобы она не возопила о мщении (Быт 4:10; Иез 24:4; Иов 16:18), мог избежать суда Божия.


38 Повествование правдиво освещает греховные явления в потомстве Авраама - в колене Иудине, ставшем коленом Обетования. Св. Иоанн Златоуст пишет, что Христос "пришел не для того, чтобы избежать позора нашего, но чтобы уничтожить его... Он показал, что не гнушается ничем нашим... Иудеи превозносились Авраамом и думали оправдаться добродетелью предков... Господь показывает, что надлежит хвалиться не родом... все и самые праотцы согрешили", поэтому "пришествие Христа было необходимым" (Толк, на св. Мф. еванг. Беседа III).


38:8 Этот древний обычай (т. н. левират) был позже узаконен Моисеем (Втор 25:5-10).


40:7 В Египте придавали большое значение снам, считая их откровением богов.


44:5 Указание на древневосточный обычай гадать по шуму воды, ее движению и форме, которую принимали капли масла, падающие в нее.


46:34 Земля Гесем расположена на востоке от Дельты. С 13 в. до Р.Х. эту область стали называть землей Рамзеса.


На протяжении кн. Быт мессианское Обетование (Быт 3:15) мало-помалу уточняется: Мессия произойдет из рода Сифа (Быт 4:26), из ветви Сима (Быт 9:26), из потомства Авраама (Быт 12:3), Исаака и Иакова (Быт 35:9и Быт 27:29), из колена Иуды (Быт 49:10).


48 Слова, произнесенные при благословении Иаковом Ефрема и Манассии, стали впоследствии формулой благословения.


49 В благословениях Иакова сыновьям содержатся данные в образной форме указания на историческое значение и участь каждого из двенадцати колен Израилевых (ср. Втор 33:5-24).


49:10 "Доколе не приидет Примиритель" (букв. - "доколе не приидут в Шило" - в библ. терминологии Шило (Силом) означает мессианское царство. Отсюда греч. и рус. перевод фразы. Ее смысл: колено Иуды будет главенствовать в народе Божием до тех пор, пока не осуществится обетование Господне.



В кн. Бытия говорится о творении вселенной и рода человеческого Богом Создателем и Промыслителем и о начале осуществления его спасительного замысла о человечестве. Сказание о творении мира (шестоднев) восходит к Моисею. В основу этого образного описания легла схема евр недели. Образ этот не следует понимать в буквальном смысле: «Не должно быть сокрыто от вас, возлюбленные — говорит ап. Петр (2 Петр 3:8) — что у Господа один день, как тысяча лет и тысяча лет как один день» (Пс 89:5). В шестодневе каждое поколение находит откровение о сотворении мира, соответствующее ступени его культурного и нравственного развития. Современный человек может найти в этом образе символическое изображение длительных периодов становления нашей земли. Священнописатель созерцает реалии этого мира от самой простой до самой сложной и совершенной, исходящими из рук Творца согласно ритму евр недели: шесть дней работы, т.е. сотрудничества с творческой деятельностью Бога, и один день отдыха — умиротворения перед лицом Божиим. Во вступительной фразе шестоднева отвергаются все языческие учения о миротворении, которые говорят либо о двух творцах (дуализм), либо о рождении мира из недр Божества (пантеизм). Мир творится единым Богом из ничего (2 Макк 7:28). Его создание есть тайна божественной любви. “Земля и небо” означают вселенную в целом. Многие толкователи усматривают в слове «небо» указание на духовный (ангельский) мир, созданный одновременно с первоматерией .

Названия, разделения и содержание

Пять первых книг Библии составляют одно целое, которое по-еврейски называется Тора, т.е. Закон. Первое достоверное свидетельство об употреблении слова Закон (греч. «νομος») в этом смысле мы встречаем в предисловии кн. Премудрости Иисуса, сына Сирахова. В начале христианской эры название «Закон» уже было общепринятым, как мы это видим в НЗ (Лк 10:26; ср. Лк 24:44). Иудеи, говорившие по-еврейски, называли первую часть Библии также «Пять пятых Закона», чему соответствовало в эллинизированных еврейских кругах η πεντατευχος (подраз. «βιβλος» ., т.е. Пятитомник). Это разделение на пять книг засвидетельствовано еще до нашей эры греческим переводом Библии семьюдесятью толковниками (LXX). В этом, принятом Церковью, переводе каждой из пяти книг было дано название, согласно ее содержанию или содержанию ее первых глав:

Кн. Бытия (собств. — книга о происхождении мира, рода человеческого и избранного народа); Исход (начинается с рассказа об уходе евреев из Египта); Левит (закон для священников из колена Левиина); Числа (книга начинается с описания переписи народа: гл. Числ 1-4); Второзаконие («второй закон», воспроизводящий в более пространном изложении Закон, данный на Синае). Иудеи же до сих пор называют каждую книгу евр. Библии по ее первому значимому слову.

Кн. Бытия разделяется на две неравные части: описание происхождения мира и человека (Быт 1-11) и история праотцев народа Божия (Быт 12-50). Первая часть — как бы пропилеи, вводящие в историю, о которой повествует вся Библия. В ней описывается сотворение мира и человека, грехопадение и его последствия, постепенное развращение людей и постигшее их наказание. Происшедший затем от Ноя род расселяется по земле. Генеалогические же таблицы все суживаются и, наконец, ограничиваются родом Авраама, отца избранного народа. История праотцев (Быт 12-50) описывает события из жизни великих предков: Авраама, человека веры, послушание которого вознаграждается: Бог обещает ему многочисленных потомков и Святую Землю, которая станет их наследием (Быт 12 1—25:8); Иакова, отличающегося хитростью: выдав себя за старшего брата, Исава, он получает благословение своего отца Исаака и затем превосходит изворотливостью своего дядю Лавана; однако его ловкость оказалась бы напрасной, если бы Бог не предпочел его Исаву и не возобновил в его пользу обетования, данные Аврааму, и заключенный с ним союз (Быт 25:19-36:43). Бог избирает людей не только высокого нравственного уровня, ибо он может исцелить всякого человека, открывающегося Ему, как бы он ни был греховен. По сравнению с Авраамом и Иаковом Исаак выглядит довольно бледно. О его жизни говорится главным образом в связи с его отцом или сыном. Двенадцать сыновей Иакова — родоначальники двенадцати колен Израилевых. Одному из них посвящена последняя часть кн. Бытия: гл. Быт 37-50 — биография Иосифа. В них описывается, как добродетель мудрого вознаграждается и Божественное Провидение обращает зло в добро (Быт 50:20).

Две главные темы Исхода: освобождение из Египта (Исх 1:1-15:21) и Синайский Союз-Завет (Исх 19:1-40:38) связаны с менее значимой темой — странствия по пустыне (Исх 15:22-18:27). Моисей, получивший откровение неизреченного имени Ягве на горе Божией Хориве, приводит туда израильтян, освобожденных от рабства. В величественной теофании Бог вступает в союз с народом и дает ему Свои Заповеди. Как только союз был заключен, народ его нарушил, поклонившись золотому тельцу, но Бог прощает виновных и возобновляет союз. Ряд предписаний регулирует богослужение в пустыне.

Кн. Левит носит почти исключительно законодательный характер, так что повествование о событиях, можно сказать, прерывается. Она содержит ритуал жертвоприношений (Лев 1-7): церемониал поставления в священники Аарона и его сыновей (Лев 8-10); предписания о чистом и нечистом (Лев 11-15), завершающиеся описанием ритуала Дня Очищения (Лев 16); «Закон святости» (Лев 17-26), содержащий богослужебный календарь и заканчивающийся благословениями и проклятиями (Лев 26). В гл. Лев 27 уточняются условия выкупа людей, животных и имущества, посвященных Ягве.

В кн. Числа вновь говорится о странствии в пустыне. Уходу от Синая предшествуют перепись народа (Числ 1-4) и богатые приношения по случаю освящения скинии (Числ 7). Отпраздновав второй раз Пасху, евреи покидают святую гору (Числ 9-10) и доходят до Кадеса, где предпринимают неудачную попытку проникнуть в Ханаан с юга (Числ 11-14). После долгого пребывания в Кадесе они отправляются в Моавские равнины, прилегавшие к Иерихону (Числ 20-25). Мадианитяне разбиты, и колена Гада и Рувима поселяются в Заиорданьи (Числ 31-32). В гл. Числ 33 перечисляются остановки в пустыне. Повествования чередуются с предписаниями, дополняющими синайское законодательство или подготовляющими поселение в Ханаане.

Второзаконие отличается особой структурой: это кодекс гражданских и религиозных узаконений (Втор 12:26-15:1), включенный в большую речь Моисея (Втор 5-11; Втор 26:16-28:68), которую предваряет его первая речь (Втор 1-4); за ней следует третья речь (Втор 29-30); наконец говорится о возложении миссии на Иисуса Новина, приводятся песнь и благословения Моисея, даются краткие сведения о конце его жизни (Втор 31-34).

Второзаконнический кодекс отчасти воспроизводит заповеди, данные в пустыне. Моисей напоминает в своих речах о великих событиях Исхода, об откровении на Синае и начале завоевания Земли Обетованной. В них раскрывается религиозный смысл событий, подчеркивается значение Закона, содержится призыв к верности Богу.

Литературная композиция

Составление этого обширного сборника приписывалось Моисею, что засвидетельствовано в НЗ (Ин 1:45; Ин 5:45-47; Рим 10:5). Но в более древних источниках нет утверждения, что все Пятикнижие написано Моисеем. Когда в нем, хотя очень редко, говорится: «Моисей написал» — эти слова относятся лишь к определенному месту. Исследователи Библии обнаружили в этих книгах различие в стиле, повторения и некоторую непоследовательность повествований, что не дает возможности считать их произведением, целиком принадлежащим одному автору. После долгих исканий библеисты, главным образом под влиянием К.Г. Графа и Ю. Велльгаузена, склонились в основном к т.н. документарной теории, которую схематически можно формулировать так: Пятикнижие представляет компиляцию из четырех документов, возникших в различное время и в различной среде. Первоначально было два повествования: в первом автор, т. н. Ягвист, условно обозначаемый буквой «J», употребляет в рассказе о сотворении мира имя Ягве, которое Бог открыл Моисею; другой автор, т. н. Элогист (Е), называет Бога распространенным в то время именем Элогим. Согласно этой теории повествование Ягвиста было записано в 11 веке в Иудее, Элогист же писал немного позже в Израиле. После разрушения Северного царства оба документа были сведены воедино (JE). После царствования Иосии (640-609) к ним было прибавлено Второзаконие «D», а после Плена ко всему этому (JED) был присоединен священнический кодекс (Р), содержащий главным образом законы и несколько повествований. Этот кодекс составил своего рода костяк и образовал рамки этой компиляции (JEDP). Такой литературно-критический подход связан с эволюционной концепцией развития религиозных представлений в Израиле.

Уже в 1906 г Папская Библейская Комиссия предостерегла экзегетов от переоценки этой т. н. документарной теории и предложила им считать подлинным авторство Моисея, если иметь в виду Пятикнижие в целом, и в то же время признавать возможность существования, с одной стороны устных преданий и письменных документов, возникших до Моисея, а с другой — изменений и добавлений в более позднюю эпоху. В письме от 16 января 1948 г, обращенном к кардиналу Сюару, архиепископу Парижскому, Комиссия признала существование источников и постепенных приращений к законам Моисея и историческим рассказам, обусловленных социальными и религиозными установлениями позднейших времен.

Время подтвердило правильность этих взглядов библейской Комиссии, ибо в наше время классическая документарная теория все больше ставится под сомнение. С одной стороны, попытки систематизировать ее не дали желаемых результатов. С другой стороны, опыт показал, что сосредоточение интереса на чисто литературной проблеме датировки окончательной редакции текста имеет гораздо меньшее значение, чем подход исторический, при котором на первое место выдвигается вопрос об источниках устных и письменных, лежащих в основе изучаемых «документов». Представление о них стало теперь менее книжным, более близким к конкретной действительности. Выяснилось, что они возникли в далеком прошлом. Новые данные археологии и изучение истории древних цивилизаций Средиземноморья показали, что многие законы и установления, о которых говорится в Пятикнижии, сходны с законами и установлениями эпох более давних, чем те, к которым относили составление Пятикнижия, и что многие его повествования отражают быт более древней среды.

Не будучи 8 состоянии проследить, как формировалось Пятикнижие и как в нем слилось несколько традиций, мы, однако, вправе утверждать, что несмотря на разнохарактерность текстов явистского и элогистского, в них по существу идет речь об одном и том же. Обе традиции имеют общее происхождение. Кроме того, эти традиции соответствуют условиям не той эпохи, когда они были окончательно письменно зафиксированы, а эпохи, когда произошли описываемые события. Их происхождение восходит, следовательно, к эпохе образования народа Израильского. То же в известной мере можно сказать о законодательных частях Пятикнижия: пред нами гражданское и религиозное право Израиля; оно эволюционировало вместе с общиной, жизнь которой регулировало, но по своему происхождению оно восходит ко времени возникновения этого народа. Итак, первооснова Пятикнижия, главные элементы традиций, слившихся с ним, и ядро его узаконений относятся к периоду становления Израильского народа. Над этим периодом доминирует образ Моисея, как организатора, религиозного вождя и первого законодателя. Традиции, завершающиеся им, и воспоминания о событиях, происходивших под его руководством, стали национальной эпопеей. Учение Моисея наложило неизгладимый отпечаток на веру и жизнь народа. Закон Моисеев стал нормой его поведения. Толкования Закона, вызванные ходом исторического развития, были проникнуты его духом и опирались на его авторитет. Засвидетельствованный в Библии факт письменной деятельности самого Моисея и его окружения не вызывает сомнений, но вопрос содержания имеет большее значение, чем вопрос письменного фиксирования текста, и поэтому так важно признать, что традиции, лежащие в основе Пятикнижия, восходят к Моисею как первоисточнику.

Повествования и история

От этих преданий, являвшихся живым наследием народа, вдохнувших в него сознание единства и поддерживавших его веру, невозможно требовать той строго научной точности, к которой стремится современный ученый; однако нельзя утверждать, что эти письменные памятники не содержат истины.

Одиннадцать первых глав Бытия требуют особого рассмотрения. В них описано в стиле народного сказания происхождение рода человеческого. Они излагают просто и картинно, в соответствии с умственным уровнем древнего малокультурного народа, главные истины, лежащие в основе домостроительства спасения: создание Богом мира на заре времен, последовавшее за ним сотворение человека, единство рода человеческого, грех прародителей и последовавшие изгнание и испытания. Эти истины, будучи предметом веры, подтверждены авторитетом Св. Писания; в то же время они являются фактами, и как истины достоверные подразумевают реальность этих фактов. В этом смысле первые главы Бытия носят исторический характер. История праотцев есть история семейная. В ней собраны воспоминания о предках: Аврааме, Исааке, Иакове, Иосифе. Она является также популярной историей. Рассказчики останавливаются на подробностях личной жизни, на живописных эпизодах, не заботясь о том, чтобы связать их с общей историей. Наконец, это история религиозная. Все ее переломные моменты отмечены личным участием Бога, и все в ней представлено в провиденциальном плане. Более того, факты приводятся, объясняются и группируются с целью доказать религиозный тезис: существует один Бог, образовавший один народ и давший ему одну страну. Этот Бог — Ягве, этот народ — Израиль, эта страна — святая Земля. Но в то же время эти рассказы историчны и в том смысле, что они по-своему повествуют о реальных фактах и дают правильную картину происхождения и переселения предков Израильских, их географических и этнических корней, их поведения в плане нравственном и религиозном. Скептическое отношение к этим рассказам оказалось несостоятельным перед лицом недавних открытий в области истории и археологии древнего Востока.

Опустив довольно длинный период истории, Исход и Числа, а в определенной мере и Второзаконие, излагают события от рождения до смерти Моисея: исход из Египта, остановка у Синая, путь к Кадесу (о долгом пребывании там хранится молчание), переход через Заиорданье и временное поселение на равнинах Моава. Если отрицать историческую реальность этих фактов и личности Моисея, невозможно объяснить дальнейшую историю Израиля, его верность ягвизму, его привязанность к Закону. Надо, однако, признать, что значение этих воспоминаний для жизни народа и отзвук, который они находят в обрядах, сообщили этим рассказам характер победных